Promoter hypermethylation profiling of distant breast cancer metastases.
ABSTRACT: Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes seems to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible. This makes methylation a possible therapeutic target, a marker for treatment response and/or a prognostic factor. Methylation status of 40 tumor suppressor genes was compared between 53 primary breast tumors and their corresponding metastases to brain, lung, liver, or skin. In paired analyses, a significant decrease in methylation values was seen in distant metastases compared to their primaries in 21/40 individual tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, primary tumors that metastasized to the liver clustered together, in line with the finding that primary breast carcinomas that metastasized to the brain, skin, or lung, showed higher methylation values in up to 27.5 % of tumor suppressor genes than primary carcinomas that metastasized to the liver. Conversion in methylation status of several genes from the primary tumor to the metastasis had prognostic value, and methylation status of some genes in the metastases predicted survival after onset of metastases. Methylation levels for most of the analyzed tumor suppressor genes were lower in distant metastases compared to their primaries, pointing to the dynamic aspect of methylation of these tumor suppressor genes during cancer progression. Also, specific distant metastatic sites seem to show differences in methylation patterns, implying that hypermethylation profiles of the primaries may steer site-specific metastatic spread. Lastly, methylation status of the metastases seems to have prognostic value. These promising findings warrant further validation in larger patient cohorts and more tumor suppressor genes.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Next-generation sequencing has emerged as a clinical tool for the identification of actionable mutations to triage advanced colorectal cancer patients for targeted therapies. The literature is conflicted as to whether primaries or their metastases should be selected for sequencing. Some authors suggest that either site may be sequenced, whereas others recommend sequencing the primary, the metastasis, or even both tumors. Here, we address this issue head on with a meta-analysis and provide for the first time a set of sensible recommendations to make this determination.<h4>Methods</h4>From our own series, we include 43 tumors from 13 patients including 14 primaries, 10 regional lymph node metastases, 17 distant metastases, and two anastomotic recurrences sequenced using the 50 gene Ion AmpliSeq cancer NGS panel v2.<h4>Results</h4>Based on our new cohort and a meta-analysis, we found that ~ 77% of patient-matched primary-metastatic pairs have identical alterations in these 50 cancer-associated genes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Low tumor cellularity, tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, treatment status, sample quality, and/or size of the sequencing panel accounted for a proportion of the differential detection of mutations at primary and metastatic sites. The therapeutic implications of the most frequently discordant alterations (TP53, APC, PIK3CA, and SMAD4) are discussed. Our meta-analysis indicates that a subset of patients who fail initial therapy may benefit from sequencing of additional sites to identify new actionable genomic abnormalities not present in the initial analysis. Evidence-based recommendations are proposed.
Project description:Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) negatively regulates the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In colorectal cancer (CRC), observed frequencies of loss of PTEN expression, concordant expression in primary tumors and metastases, and the association of PTEN status with outcome vary markedly by detection method. We determined the degree to which PTEN expression is consistent in 70 matched human CRC primaries and liver metastases using a validated immunohistochemistry assay. We found loss of PTEN expression in 12.3% of assessable CRC primaries and 10.3% of assessable liver metastases. PTEN expression (positive or negative) was concordant in 98% of matched colorectal primaries and liver metastases. Next we related PTEN status to mutations in RAS and PI3K pathway genes (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF , and PIK3CA) and to overall survival (OS). PTEN expression was not significantly associated with the presence or absence of mutations in RAS or PI3K pathway genes. The median OS of patients whose tumors did not express PTEN was 9 months, compared to 49 months for patients whose tumors did express PTEN (HR = 6.25, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (1.98, 15.42), P = 0.0017). The association of absent PTEN expression with increased risk of death remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 6.31, 95% CI (2.03, 17.93), P = 0.0023). In summary, PTEN expression was consistent in matched CRC primaries and in liver metastases. Therefore, future investigations of PTEN in metastatic CRC can use primary tumor tissue. In patients with liver-only metastases, loss of PTEN expression predicted poor OS.
Project description:To better understand and characterize chromosomal structural variation during breast cancer progression, we enumerated chromosomal rearrangements for 11 patients by performing low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 11 primary breast tumors and their 13 matched distant metastases. The tumor genomes harbored a median of 85 (range 18-404) rearrangements per tumor, with a median of 82 (26-310) in primaries compared to 87 (18-404) in distant metastases. Concordance between paired tumors from the same patient was high with a median of 89% of rearrangements shared (range 61-100%), whereas little overlap was found when comparing all possible pairings of tumors from different patients (median 3%). The tumors exhibited diverse genomic patterns of rearrangements: some carried events distributed throughout the genome while others had events mostly within densely clustered chromothripsis-like foci at a few chromosomal locations. Irrespectively, the patterns were highly conserved between the primary tumor and metastases from the same patient. Rearrangements occurred more frequently in genic areas than expected by chance and among the genes affected there was significant enrichment for cancer-associated genes including disruption of TP53, RB1, PTEN, and ESR1, likely contributing to tumor development. Our findings are most consistent with chromosomal rearrangements being early events in breast cancer progression that remain stable during the development from primary tumor to distant metastasis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARbeta2 and E-cadherin) in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases.<h4>Results</h4>We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARbeta2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3% approximately 89.5%). E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4% approximately 23.7%). The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARbeta2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values < 0.01 to 0.001). Interestingly, we observed an association between HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024) and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.
Project description:We sought to compare the tumor profiles of brain metastases from common cancers with those of primary tumors and extracranial metastases in order to identify potential targets and prioritize rational treatment strategies. Tumor samples were collected from both the primary and metastatic sites of nonsmall cell lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma from patients in locations worldwide, and these were submitted to Caris Life Sciences for tumor multiplatform analysis, including gene sequencing (Sanger and next-generation sequencing with a targeted 47-gene panel), protein expression (assayed by immunohistochemistry) and gene amplification (assayed by in situ hybridization). The data analysis considered differential protein expression, gene amplification and mutations among brain metastases, extracranial metastases and primary tumors. The analyzed population included: 16,999 unmatched primary tumor and/or metastasis samples: 8,178 nonsmall cell lung cancers (5,098 primaries; 2,787 systemic metastases; 293 brain metastases), 7,064 breast cancers (3,496 primaries; 3,469 systemic metastases; 99 brain metastases) and 1,757 melanomas (660 primaries; 996 systemic metastases; 101 brain metastases). TOP2A expression was increased in brain metastases from all 3 cancers, and brain metastases overexpressed multiple proteins clustering around functions critical to DNA synthesis and repair and implicated in chemotherapy resistance, including RRM1, TS, ERCC1 and TOPO1. cMET was overexpressed in melanoma brain metastases relative to primary skin specimens. Brain metastasis patients may particularly benefit from therapeutic targeting of enzymes associated with DNA synthesis, replication and/or repair.
Project description:Cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties initiate both primary tumor formation and metastases at distant sites. Acquisition of CSC properties is highly associated with epigenetic alterations, including those mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We have previously established the breast cancer patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse model in which CSC marker CD44+ cancer cells formed spontaneous microscopic metastases in the liver. In this PDX mouse, we found that the expression levels of 3 miRNAs (miR-25, miR-93, and miR-106b) in the miR-106b-25 cluster were much lower in the CD44+ human cancer cells metastasized to the liver than those at the primary site. Constitutive overexpression of miR-93 suppressed invasive ability and 3D-organoid formation capacity of breast cancer cells in vitro and significantly suppressed their metastatic ability to the liver in vivo. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family member 3 (WASF3), a regulator of both cytoskeleton remodeling and CSC properties, was identified as a functional target of miR-93: overexpression of miR-93 reduced the protein level of WASF3 in breast cancer cells and WASF3 rescued the miR-93-mediated suppression of breast cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest that miR-93 functions as a metastasis suppressor by suppressing both invasion ability and CSC properties in breast cancers.
Project description:Carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx belong among the ten most common malignancies in the human population. The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is determined by the degree of invasiveness of the primary tumor and by the extent of metastatic spread into regional and distant lymph nodes. Moreover, the level of the perineural invasion itself associates with tumor localization, invasion's extent, and the presence of nodal metastases. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about different aspects of epigenetic changes, which can be associated with HNSCC while focusing on perineural invasion (PNI). We review epigenetic modifications of the genes involved in the PNI process in HNSCC from the omics perspective and specific epigenetic modifications in OSCC or other neurotropic cancers associated with perineural invasion. Moreover, we summarize DNA methylation status of tumor-suppressor genes, methylation and demethylation enzymes and histone post-translational modifications associated with PNI. The influence of other epigenetic factors on the HNSCC incidence and perineural invasion such as tobacco, alcohol and oral microbiome is overviewed and HPV infection is discussed as an epigenetic factor associated with OSCC and related perineural invasion. Understanding epigenetic regulations of axon growth that lead to tumorous spread or uncovering the molecular control of axon interaction with cancer tissue can help to discover new therapeutic targets for these tumors.
Project description:The metastatic process is complex and remains a major obstacle in the management of colorectal cancer. To gain a better insight into the pathology of metastasis, we investigated genomic aberrations in a large cohort of matched colorectal cancer primaries and distant metastases from various sites by high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization. In total, 62 primary colorectal cancers, and 68 matched metastases (22 liver, 11 lung, 12 ovary, 12 omentum, and 11 distant lymph nodes) were analyzed. Public datasets were used for validation purposes. Metastases resemble their matched primary tumors in the majority of the patients. This validates the significant overlap in chromosomal aberrations between primary tumors and corresponding metastases observed previously. We observed 15 statistically significant different regions between the primary tumors and their matched metastases, of which only one recurrent event in metastases was observed. We conclude, based on detailed analysis and large independent datasets, that chromosomal copy number aberrations in colorectal metastases resemble their primary counterparts, and differences are typically non-recurrent.
Project description:Background:Personalized cancer vaccines based on tumor-derived neoantigens have shown strong and long-lasting antitumor effect in patients with some solid tumors. However, whether neoantigens identified from primary lesions could represent their metastatic lesions, and consequently the effect of vaccine therapy remained unknown. Methods:To investigate whether neoantigens identified from primary tumors are similar to their matched metastases in lung cancer, we identified 79 samples from 24 cases. All of samples were collected before any systemic therapy. Major criteria for neoantigen identification included: derived from tumor-specific mutations, fold change >10 comparing to germline expression level, high predicted human leukocyte antigen (HLA) binding affinity and peptide of 9-11 amino acids in length. Results:We found a wide range of tumor neoantigen burden in both primaries and metastases. The counts, overall distribution pattern and predicted HLA binding affinity of neoantigens were similar between primaries and metastases. However, only 20% of shared neoantigens (presented in both primaries and metastases) was observed, which were mainly derived from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and fusions. A variety of corresponding HLA alleles were observed and 50.0% of cases were HLA-C*06:02. Finally, we observed the neoantigen intrametastases homogeneity in patients with sole brain metastases. Conclusions:Neoantigen landscape in terms of the number, type and predicted HLA binding affinity was similar between primaries and metastases, but the percentage of shared neoantigens is only modest, suggesting vaccine development based solely on primary tumor neoantigen may not offer optimal therapeutic outcome, and shared neoantigen needs to be seriously considered.
Project description:Background & Aims: The metastatic process is complex and remains a major obstacle in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). To gain a better insight into the biologic events driving the metastatic process we investigated genomic aberrations in a large cohort of matched CRC primaries and distant metastases from various sites. Methods: In total, 62 primary colorectal cancers, 62 matched normal specimens, and 68 matched metastases (from liver, lung, ovary, omentum, and distant lymph nodes) were analyzed by high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) for DNA copy number changes. Findings were validated using a publicly available dataset consisting of 21 primary tumors and matched liver metastases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm some of the DNA copy number changes observed. Results: Overall patterns of DNA copy number aberrations were highly similar between primary tumors and their metastases, confirming clonality. Additional copy number aberrations in metastasis are rare and rather than recurrent they were sporadic for individual patients. The only recurrent differences between primary tumors and their metastases were two chromosomal regions, 6q21 and 8q24.21 encompassing the MYC oncogene, that coamplified in three metastases of two patients (3.2%). FISH analysis confirmed the high level co-amplification in the metastasis, which were not detected in their primary tumors. Conclusions: Primary CRC and their metastases show highly similar patterns of DNA copy number changes, additional copy number aberrations in metastasis are rare and recurrences exceptional. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the metastatic potential is predestined early in the development of the primary tumor. In total, 62 primary colorectal cancers, 62 matched normal specimens, and 68 matched metastases (liver, lung, ovarian, omentum and distant lymph nodes) were analyzed by high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).