Sex, Adiposity, and Hypertension Status Modify the Inverse Effect of Marine Food Intake on Blood Pressure in Alaska Native (Yup'ik) People.
ABSTRACT: Alaska Native people currently have a higher prevalence of hypertension than do nonnative Alaskans, although in the 1950s hypertension was rare among Alaska Native people. A novel biomarker of marine foods, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?¹?N) in RBCs was shown to be negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Few studies have examined how individual characteristics modify the association of marine food intake with blood pressure.This exploratory analysis examined whether sex, adiposity, and hypertension modify the inverse association between marine food intake and blood pressure.We used covariate-adjusted linear models to describe the association between ?¹?N and blood pressure in 873 adult Alaska Native (Yup'ik) people who resided in 8 communities in southwest Alaska. We separately stratified by sex, body mass index (BMI) group, abdominal obesity, and hypertension status and assessed the interaction between ?¹?N and participant characteristics on blood pressure via likelihood ratio tests.The association between ?¹?N and systolic blood pressure was modified by sex, BMI status, and abdominal obesity, with the inverse association observed only in the male (? = -1.5; 95% CI: -2.4, -0.6 : , nonobese BMI (? = -1.7; 95% CI: -2.5, -1.0), and non-abdominally obese (? = -1.6; 95% CI: -2.4, -0.9) strata (all P-interaction < 0.0001). A reduction in diastolic blood pressure associated with ?¹?N was observed in the nonobese BMI (? = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.5) and non-abdominally obese (? = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.5) strata, although only the interaction between BMI group and ?¹?N with diastolic blood pressure was significant. The inverse association between ?¹?N and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in nonhypertensive individuals, although the comparison had limited power. The results were consistent with those identified by using combined RBC concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as the biomarker of marine food intake, although the associations identified by using ?¹?N were larger.Obesity status modified the inverse association between marine food intake and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adult Alaska Native (Yup'ik) people. The inverse association between ?¹?N and systolic blood pressure was also modified by sex.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The traditional lifestyle of Yup'ik Alaska Native people, including a diet abundant in marine-based foods and physical activity, may be cardio-protective. However, iq'mik, a traditional form of smokeless tobacco used by >50% of Yup'ik adults, could increase cardiometabolic (CM) risk. Our objective was to characterize the associations between iq'mik use and biomarkers of CM status (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting blood glucose [FBG], waist circumference [WC], and body mass index [BMI]). DESIGN:We assessed these associations using data from a cross-sectional sample of Yup'ik adults (n?=?874). Current iq'mik use, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected through interviews. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG. SBP, DBP, WC, and BMI were obtained by physical examination. We characterized the association between current iq'mik use and continuous biomarkers of CM status using multiple approaches, including adjustment for measures of Yup'ik lifestyle and a propensity score. RESULTS:Based on either adjustment method, current iq'mik use was significantly and positively associated with at least 5% higher HDL-C, and significantly associated but in an inverse direction with multiple biomarkers of CM status including 7% lower TG, 0.05% lower HbA1c, 2% lower FBG, 4% lower WC, and 4% lower BMI. Observed associations for LDL-C, SBP, and DBP varied by adjustment method. CONCLUSIONS:This inverse association between iq'mik use and cardiometabolic risk status has not been previously reported. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and explore physiological mechanisms and/or confounding factors.
Project description:Obesity is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Prevalence estimates for metabolic disorders are well documented in many populations, but Alaska Native groups are understudied. The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health Study combines data from three Alaska Native study cohorts to assess differences in obesity prevalence and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors by sex.Analyses were based upon a sample of 3985 adult Yup'ik and Inupiat participants with a mean age of 40 years. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic risk factors was assessed according to nationally recognized guidelines. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, including lipids, blood pressure and glucose. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ? 30) was significantly higher in women (40%) than men (20%). Only 18.6% of men had a waist circumference (WC) > 102 cm, while 58% of women had a WC > 88 cm (p < 0.001). Women had higher mean HDL-C and triglyceride levels compared to men, while systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, and glucose means were higher in men than in women. In multivariate analyses, BMI and WC were significantly associated with all of the cardiometabolic risk factors, although these associations were more pronounced in men than women.The high prevalence of obesity and central adiposity among AN women is an important public health concern. Differences in associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by sex warrants further investigation to develop effective intervention programs.
Project description:Alaska Native people experience disparities in mortality from heart disease and stroke. This work attempts to better understand the relationships between socioeconomic, behavioral, and cardiometabolic risk factors among Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska, with a focus on the role of the socioeconomic, and cultural components. Using a cross-sectional sample of 486 Yup'ik adults, we fitted a Partial Least Squares Path Model (PLS-PM) to assess the associations between components, including demographic factors [age and gender], socioeconomic factors [education, economic status, Yup'ik culture, and Western culture], behavioral factors [diet, cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use, and physical activity], and cardiometabolic risk factors [adiposity, triglyceride-HDL and LDL lipids, glycemia, and blood pressure]. We found relatively mild associations of education and economic status with cardiometabolic risk factors, in contrast with studies in other populations. The socioeconomic factor and participation in Yup'ik culture had potentially protective associations with adiposity, triglyceride-HDL lipids, and blood pressure, whereas participation in Western culture had a protective association with blood pressure. We also found a moderating effect of participation in Western culture on the relationships between Yup'ik culture participation and both blood pressure and LDL lipids, indicating a potentially beneficial additional effect of bi-culturalism. Our results suggest that reinforcing protective effects of both Yup'ik and Western cultures could be useful for interventions aimed at reducing cardiometabolic health disparities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The nitrogen isotope ratio (NIR) is a promising index of traditional food intake for an Alaska Native (Yup'ik) population, which can be measured in blood and hair. However, the NIR has not been calibrated to high-quality measures of Yup'ik traditional food intake. OBJECTIVES:Our primary objective was to examine associations between intakes of Yup'ik traditional food groups, including fish, marine mammals, birds, land mammals, berries, greens, and total traditional foods, and the NIR. In an exploratory analysis, we also examined whether NIR analyzed sequentially along hair could reflect dietary seasonality. METHODS:We recruited 68 participants from 2 Yup'ik communities in the Yukon Kuskokwim region of Southwest Alaska (49% female, aged 14-79 y). Participants completed 4 unscheduled 24-h food recalls over the period peak of RBC and hair synthesis preceding a specimen collection visit. The NIR was measured in RBCs ( n = 68), a proximal hair section (n = 58), and sequential segments of hair from individuals in the upper 2 quartiles of traditional food intake having hair >6 cm in length, plus 2 low subsistence participants for reference (n = 18). Diet-biomarker associations were assessed using Pearson's correlation and linear regression. RESULTS:Intakes of fish, marine mammals, berries, and greens were significantly associated with the NIR. The strongest dietary association was with total traditional food intake (R2 = 0.62), which indicated that each 1‰ increase in the RBC NIR corresponded to 8% of energy from traditional foods. Hair NIR appeared to fluctuate seasonally in some individuals, peaking in the summertime. CONCLUSIONS:Findings support the use of the RBC and hair NIR to assess total traditional food intake in a Yup'ik population. Analyses of sequential hair NIR provided evidence of seasonality in traditional food intake, although seasonal variations were modest relative to interindividual variation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to understand how an increase in abdominal adiposity relative to overall adiposity is associated with blood pressure (BP) change. METHODS:A sex-stratified mixed linear model was used to examine the association (95% CI) between annual changes in waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, estimated from two to eight repeated measures across the 1993-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey, among 5,742 men and 5,972 women (18-66 years) with no history of antihypertension medication use. RESULTS:The association between annual WC change and BP change remained statistically significant but was attenuated after controlling for annual BMI change, regardless of baseline abdominal obesity or overweight status. Each 10-cm annual WC gain in men and women was associated with a 0.98-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.61-1.35) and a 0.97-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.62-1.32) annual increase in systolic blood pressure and a 1.13-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.87-1.38) and a 0.74-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.51-0.97) annual increase in diastolic blood pressure, respectively, independent of annual BMI change. CONCLUSIONS:WC gain may elevate BP even in the absence of BMI gain. BP management that addresses only BMI gain could overlook individuals at risk of elevated BP who have increased WC but not BMI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms regulating blood pressure (BP) levels after standing-up are altered. It is unclear how prevalence and risk factors for OH are different between sexes. We aimed to investigate sex differences in prevalence and risk factors for OH elderly individuals. METHODS:We included 882 participants from Maracaibo Aging Study. OH was a sustained reduction of ?20 mm Hg in systolic BP, ?10 mm Hg in diastolic BP, or both, after 3 minutes of changing positions from supine to standing. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships among risk factors for OH in men and women considering interaction sex-term and stratified by sex. RESULTS:The mean age was 66.7 ± 8.5 years, being similar by sex. Women and men 55-74 years had similar prevalence of OH+ (18.5% vs. 20.9%, respectively). After 75 years, the proportion of women with OH+ was lower than men (11% vs. 30%, respectively). Hypertension, specifically systolic BP ?140 mm Hg, and high pulse pressure (PP) were related with OH+ accounted by interaction sex-term, while diastolic BP ?90 mm Hg, antihypertensive treatment, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and age were not. Systolic BP ?140 mm Hg increases the risk of OH only among women, while BMI showed an inverse association in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS:Although the prevalence of OH is similar in both sexes, there are different risk factors associated by sex. Systolic BP ?140 mm Hg was associated with increased risk of OH only with women while BMI was a protective factor for OH in men and women.
Project description:In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a "subsistence foods" dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns "processed foods" and "fruits and vegetables". In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity).We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n = 637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (? = 0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (? = -0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (? = 2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (? = -0.10 and ? = -3.99 respectively).We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods.
Project description:In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (? = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (? = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (? = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (? = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.
Project description:Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans.A total 17,128 participants (age ?20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity.Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70-0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ?140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70-0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68-0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ?90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63-0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively).Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association.
Project description:Background:We evaluated the association between parental factors (overweight, history of hypertension, and education level) and children's blood pressure status. Further, we evaluated to what extent the potential association could be interpreted by children's adiposity indices. Methods:The current study included 3316 Chinese school students (1579 girls and 1737 boys, aged 6-14 years) and their parents. Parents reported information on their height, body weight, history of hypertension, and the highest education level. Trained medical staff measured children's blood pressure, height, body weight, waist circumference (WC), and percentage of body fat (PBF, assessed by bio-impedance method). Z-score of all three indices were calculated and used in the analysis. We used generalized linear model to evaluate the association between parental information and z-score of children's blood pressure. Meditation analysis was used to evaluate the proportion contributed by z-score of children's adiposity indices (BMI, WC, and PBF). Results:We found that parental overweight and hypertension, but not parental education level, were significantly associated with children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 for all). Approximately 30.4-92.2% of the association between these two parental factors and children's systolic blood pressure were mediated by children's adiposity indices, and 22.3-55.6% for children's diastolic blood pressure. The strongest meditative factor, among the three obesity indices, was children's BMI z-score. Conclusions:The association between parental factors and children's blood pressure was mainly mediated by children's adiposity indices.