Extracellular poly(ADP-ribose) is a pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), an essential post-translational modification whose function is important in many cellular processes including DNA damage signaling, cell death, and inflammation. All known PAR biology is intracellular, but we suspected it might also play a role in cell-to-cell communication during inflammation. We found that PAR activated cytokine release in human and mouse macrophages, a hallmark of innate immune activation, and determined structure-activity relationships. PAR was rapidly internalized by murine macrophages, while the monomer, ADP-ribose, was not. Inhibitors of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 signaling blocked macrophage responses to PAR, and PAR induced TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in reporter cell lines suggesting it was recognized by these TLRs, much like bacterial pathogens. We propose that PAR acts as an extracellular damage associated molecular pattern that drives inflammatory signaling.
Project description:The poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) post-translational modification is essential for diverse cellular functions, including regulation of transcription, response to DNA damage, and mitosis. Cellular PAR is predominantly synthesized by the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 is a critical node in the DNA damage response pathway, and multiple potent PARP-1 inhibitors have been described, some of which show considerable promise in the clinic for the treatment of certain cancers. Cellular PAR is efficiently degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), an enzyme for which no potent, readily accessible, and specific inhibitors exist. Herein we report the discovery of small molecules that effectively inhibit PARG in vitro and in cellular lysates. These potent PARG inhibitors can be produced in two chemical steps from commercial starting materials and have complete specificity for PARG over the other known PAR glycohydrolase (ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3, ARH3) and over PARP-1 and thus will be useful tools for studying the biochemistry of PAR signaling.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation refers to the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose to protein, generating branched, long chains of ADP-ribose moieties, known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is the main polymerase and acceptor of PAR in response to DNA damage. Excessive intracellular PAR accumulation due to PARP1 activation leads cell death in a pathway known as parthanatos. PAR degradation is mainly controlled by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribose-acceptor hydrolase 3 (ARH3). Our previous results demonstrated that ARH3 confers protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, by lowering cytosolic and nuclear PAR levels and preventing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. We identified a family with an ARH3 gene mutation that resulted in a truncated, inactive protein. The 8-year-old proband exhibited a progressive neurodegeneration phenotype. In addition, parthanatos was observed in neurons of the patient's deceased sibling, and an older sibling exhibited a mild behavioral phenotype. Consistent with the previous findings, the patient's fibroblasts and ARH3-deficient mice were more sensitive, respectively, to H2O2 stress and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced PAR accumulation and cell death. Further, PARP1 inhibition alleviated cell death and injury resulting from oxidative stress and ischemia/reperfusion. PARP1 inhibitors may attenuate the progression of neurodegeneration in affected patients with ARH3 deficiency.
Project description:Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification participating in many biological processes, such as DNA damage response. Here, we demonstrate that a set of Forkhead-associated (FHA) and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) both in vitro and in vivo. Among these FHA and BRCT domains, the FHA domains of APTX and PNKP interact with iso-ADP-ribose, the linkage of PAR, whereas the BRCT domains of Ligase4, XRCC1, and NBS1 recognize ADP-ribose, the basic unit of PAR. The interactions between PAR and the FHA or BRCT domains mediate the relocation of these domain-containing proteins to DNA damage sites and facilitate the DNA damage response. Moreover, the interaction between PAR and the NBS1 BRCT domain is important for the early activation of ATM during DNA damage response and ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate two novel PAR-binding modules that play important roles in DNA damage response.
Project description:Reversible post-translational modification by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) regulates chromatin structure, DNA repair and cell fate in response to genotoxic stress. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) removes PAR chains from poly ADP-ribosylated proteins to restore protein function and release oligo(ADP-ribose) chains to signal damage. Here we report crystal structures of mammalian PARG and its complex with a substrate mimic that reveal an open substrate-binding site and a unique 'tyrosine clasp' enabling endoglycosidic cleavage of branched PAR chains.
Project description:The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production.
Project description:Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury.
Project description:Cross-talk between ubiquitination and ADP-ribosylation regulates spatiotemporal recruitment of key players in many signaling pathways. The DELTEX family ubiquitin ligases (DTX1 to DTX4 and DTX3L) are characterized by a RING domain followed by a C-terminal domain (DTC) of hitherto unknown function. Here, we use two label-free mass spectrometry techniques to investigate the interactome and ubiquitinated substrates of human DTX2 and identify a large proportion of proteins associated with the DNA damage repair pathway. We show that DTX2-catalyzed ubiquitination of these interacting proteins requires PARP1/2-mediated ADP-ribosylation and depends on the DTC domain. Using a combination of structural, biochemical, and cell-based techniques, we show that the DTX2 DTC domain harbors an ADP-ribose-binding pocket and recruits poly-ADP-ribose (PAR)-modified proteins for ubiquitination. This PAR-binding property of DTC domain is conserved across the DELTEX family E3s. These findings uncover a new ADP-ribose-binding domain that facilitates PAR-dependent ubiquitination.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases regulates the interaction of many DNA damage and repair factors with sites of DNA strand lesions. The interaction of these factors with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is mediated by specific domains, including the recently identified PAR-binding zinc finger (PBZ) domain. However, the mechanism governing these interactions is unclear. To better understand the PBZ-PAR interaction, we performed a detailed examination of the representative PBZ-containing protein involved in the DNA damage response, aprataxin polynucleotide-kinase-like factor (APLF), which possesses two tandem PBZ domains. Here we present structural and biochemical studies that identify Y381/Y386 and Y423/Y428 residues in the conserved C(M/P)Y and CYR motifs within each APLF PBZ domain that are critical for the interaction with the adenine ring of ADP-ribose. Basic residues (R387 and R429 in the first and second PBZ domains, respectively) coordinate additional interactions with the phosphate backbone of ADP-ribose, suggesting that APLF binds to multiple ADP-ribose residues along PAR polymers. These C(M/P)Y and CYR motifs form a basic/hydrophobic pocket within a variant zinc finger structure and are required for APLF recruitment to sites of DNA damage in vivo.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational modification involved in multiple biological processes, including DNA damage repair. This modification is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes. PARylation is composed of both linear and branched polymers of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). However, the biochemical mechanism of polymerization and biological functions of branched PAR chains are elusive. Here we show that PARP2 is preferentially activated by PAR and subsequently catalyzes branched PAR chain synthesis. Notably, the direct binding to PAR by the N-terminus of PARP2 promotes the enzymatic activity of PARP2 toward the branched PAR chain synthesis. Moreover, the PBZ domain of APLF recognizes the branched PAR chain and regulates chromatin remodeling to DNA damage response. This unique feature of PAR-dependent PARP2 activation and subsequent PARylation mediates the participation of PARP2 in DNA damage repair. Thus, our results reveal an important molecular mechanism of branched PAR synthesis and a key biological function of branched PARylation.
Project description:Poly-ADP-ribosylation, a post-translational modification involved in various cellular processes, is well characterized in eukaryotes but thought to be devoid in bacteria. Here, we solve crystal structures of ADP-ribose-bound poly(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrPARG), revealing a solvent-accessible 2'-hydroxy group of ADP-ribose, which suggests that DrPARG may possess endo-glycohydrolase activity toward poly-ADP-ribose (PAR). We confirm the existence of PAR in D. radiodurans and show that disruption of DrPARG expression causes accumulation of endogenous PAR and compromises recovery from UV radiation damage. Moreover, endogenous PAR levels in D. radiodurans are elevated after UV irradiation, indicating that PARylation may be involved in resistance to genotoxic stresses. These findings provide structural insights into a bacterial-type PARG and suggest the existence of a prokaryotic PARylation machinery that may be involved in stress responses.