The design, synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted 4-substituted-2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase and microtubule inhibitors as potential antitumor agents.
ABSTRACT: A series of eleven conformationally restricted, 4-substituted 2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines was designed to explore the bioactive conformation required for dual inhibition of microtubule assembly and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and their biological activities are reported. All three rotatable single bonds in the lead compound 1 were sequentially restricted to address the role of each in SAR for microtubule and RTK inhibitory effects. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 10 showed microtubule depolymerizing activity comparable to or better than the lead 1, some with nanomolar EC50 values. While compound 8 had no effect on microtubules, 8 and 10 both showed potent RTK inhibition with nanomolar IC50s. These compounds confirm that the bioactive conformation for RTK inhibition is different from that for tubulin inhibition. The tetrahydroquinoline analog 10 showed the most potent dual tubulin and RTK inhibitory activities (low nanomolar inhibition of EGFR, VEGFR2 and PDGFR-?). Compound 10 has highly potent activity against many NCI cancer cell lines, including several chemo-resistant cell lines, and could serve as a lead for further preclinical studies.
Project description:A series of 21 substituted cyclopenta[d]pyrimidines were synthesized as an extension of our discovery of the parent compound (±)-1·HCl as an anti-microtubule agent. The structure-activity relationship indicates that the N-methyl and a 4N-methoxy groups appear important for potent activity. In addition, the 6-substituent in the parent analogue is not necessary for activity. The most potent compound 30·HCl was a one to two digit nanomolar inhibitor of most tumor cell proliferations and was up to 7-fold more potent than the parent compound (±)-1·HCl. In addition, 30·HCl inhibited cancer cell proliferation regardless of Pgp or ?III-tubulin status, both of which are known to cause clinical resistance to several anti-tubulin agents. In vivo efficacy of 30·HCl was demonstrated against a triple negative breast cancer xenograft mouse model. Compound 30·HCl is water-soluble and easily synthesized and serves as a lead compound for further preclinical evaluation as an antitumor agent.
Project description:Microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing agents are commonly used as anticancer agents. Although highly effective, success with these agents has been limited due to their relative insolubility, cumbersome synthesis/purification, toxic side effects, and development of multidrug resistance. Hence, the identification of improved agents that circumvent one or more of these problems is warranted. We recently described the rational design of a series of triazole-based compounds as antimitotic agents. Members of this N-substituted 1,2,4-triazole family of compounds exhibit potent tubulin polymerization inhibition and broad spectrum cellular cytotoxicity. Here, we extensively characterize the in vitro and in vivo effects of our lead compound from the series 1-methyl-5-(3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-yl)-1H-indole, designated T115. We show that T115 competes with colchicine for its binding pocket in tubulin, produces robust inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and disrupts the microtubule network system inside the cells. In addition, T115 arrests human cancer cells in the G(2)-M phase of cell cycling, a hallmark of microtubule destabilizing drugs. T115 also inhibits cell viability of several cancer cell lines, including multidrug-resistant cell lines, in the low nanomolar range. No cytotoxicity was observed by T115 against normal human skin fibroblasts cell lines, and acute toxicity studies in normal nontumor-bearing mice indicated that T115 is well-tolerated in vivo (maximum total tolerated dose, 400 mg/kg). In a mouse xenograft model using human colorectal (HT-29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells, T115 significantly inhibited tumor growth when administered i.p. Taken together, our results suggest that T115 is a potential drug candidate for cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:We investigated the microtubule-destabilizing, vascular-targeting, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of a new series of chalcones, whose prototype compound is (E)-3-(3''-amino-4''-methoxyphenyl)-1-(5'-methoxy-3',4'-methylendioxyphenyl)-2-methylprop-2-en-1-one (TUB091). X-ray crystallography showed that these chalcones bind to the colchicine site of tubulin and therefore prevent the curved-to-straight structural transition of tubulin, which is required for microtubule formation. Accordingly, TUB091 inhibited cancer and endothelial cell growth, induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis at 1-10 nM. In addition, TUB091 displayed vascular disrupting effects in vitro and in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay at low nanomolar concentrations. A water-soluble L-Lys-L-Pro derivative of TUB091 (i.e. TUB099) showed potent antitumor activity in melanoma and breast cancer xenograft models by causing rapid intratumoral vascular shutdown and massive tumor necrosis. TUB099 also displayed anti-metastatic activity similar to that of combretastatin A4-phosphate. Our data indicate that this novel class of chalcones represents interesting lead molecules for the design of vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). Moreover, we provide evidence that our prodrug approach may be valuable for the development of anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:Microtubules are essential cytoskeletal components with a central role in mitosis and have been particularly useful as a cancer chemotherapy target. We synthesized a small molecule derivative of a symmetrical 1,3-phenyl bis-thiourea, (1,1'-[1,3-phenylene]bis[3-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)thiourea], named "41J"), and identified a potent effect of the compound on cancer cell survival. 41J is cytotoxic to multiple cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Cell death occurred by apoptosis and was preceded by mitotic arrest in prometaphase. Prometaphase arrest induced by 41J treatment was accompanied by dissociation of cyclin B1 levels from the apparent mitotic stage and by major spindle abnormalities. Polymerization of purified tubulin in vitro was directly inhibited by 41J, suggesting that the compound works by directly interfering with microtubule function. Compound 41J arrested the growth of glioblastoma multiforme xenografts in nude mice at doses that were well-tolerated, demonstrating a relatively specific antitumor effect. Importantly, 41J overcame drug resistance due to ?-tubulin mutation and P-glycoprotein overexpression. Compound 41J may serve as a useful new lead compound for anticancer therapy development.
Project description:Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays.
Project description:A series of fourteen N(4)-(substituted phenyl)-N(4)-alkyl/desalkyl-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-2,4-diamines was synthesized as potential microtubule targeting agents. The synthesis involved a Fisher indole cyclization of 2-amino-6-hydrazinylpyrimidin-4(3H)-one with cyclohexanone, followed by oxidation, chlorination and displacement with appropriate anilines. Compounds 6, 14 and 15 had low nanomolar potency against MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and depolymerized microtubules. Compound 6 additionally had nanomolar GI(50) values against 57 of the NCI 60-tumor panel cell lines. Mechanistic studies showed that 6 inhibited tubulin polymerization and [(3)H]colchicine binding to tubulin. The most potent compounds were all effective in cells expressing P-glycoprotein or the ?III isotype of tubulin, which have been associated with clinical drug resistance. Modeling studies provided the potential interactions of 6, 14 and 15 within the colchicine site.
Project description:Pyrano[3,2- c]pyridone and pyrano[3,2- c]quinolone structural motifs are commonly found in alkaloids manifesting diverse biological activities. As part of a program aimed at structural simplification of bioactive natural products utilizing multicomponent synthetic processes, we developed compound libraries based on these privileged heterocyclic scaffolds. The selected library members display low nanomolar antiproliferative activity and induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies reveal that these compounds induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and block in vitro tubulin polymerization. Because of the successful clinical use of microtubule-targeting agents, these heterocyclic libraries are expected to provide promising new leads in anticancer drug design.
Project description:trans-Cyanocombretastatin A-4 (trans-CA-4) analogues have been structurally modified to afford their more stable CA-4-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole analogues. Fifteen novel, stable 4-heteroaryl-5-aryl-(2H)-1,2,3-triazole CA-4 analogues (8a-i, 9 and 11a-e) were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. These analogues displayed potent cytotoxic activity against both hematological and solid tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the low nanomolar range. The most potent compound, 8a, was a benzothiophen-2-yl analogue that incorporated a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl moiety connected to the (2H)-1,2,3-triazole ring system. Compound 8a exhibited GI50 values of <10 nM against 80% of the cancer cell lines in the panel. Three triazole analogues, 8a, 8b and 8g, showed particularly potent growth inhibition against the triple negative Hs578T breast cancer cell line with GI50 values of 10.3 nM, 66.5 nM and 20.3 nM, respectively. Molecular docking studies suggest that these compounds bind to the same hydrophobic pocket at the interface of ?- and ?-tubulin that is occupied by colchicine and cis-CA-4, and are stabilized by Van der Waals' interactions with surrounding amino acid residues. Compound 8a was found to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro with an IC50 value of 1.7 µM. The potent cytotoxicity of these novel compounds and their inhibition of tubulin dynamics make these triazole analogues promising candidates for development as anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:We designed 3-aroyl-1,4-diarylpyrrole (ARDAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the 1- or 4-phenyl ring. ARDAP compounds exhibited potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARDAP derivative 10 inhibited the proliferation of BCR/ABL-expressing KU812 and LAMA84 cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in blast crisis and of hematopoietic cells ectopically expressing the imatinib mesylate (IM)-sensitive KBM5-WT or its IM-resistant KBM5-T315I mutation. Compound 10 minimally affected the proliferation of normal blood cells, indicating that it may be a promising agent to overcome broad tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in relapsed/refractory CML patients. Compound 10 significantly decreased CML proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. ARDAP 10 augmented the cytotoxic effects of IM in human CML cells. Compound 10 represents a robust lead compound to develop tubulin inhibitors with potential as novel treatments for CML.
Project description:(R,S)-1 is a potent antimitotic compound. (R)-1·HCl and (S)-1·HCl were synthesized from (R)- and (S)-3-methyladipic acid. Both enantiomers were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation and caused cellular microtubule loss and mitotic arrest. They inhibited purified tubulin assembly and the binding of [(3)H]colchicine to tubulin, with (S)-1 being about twice as potent. Cytotoxicity against 60 tumor cell lines, however, indicated that the (S)-isomer was 10- to 88-fold more potent than the (R)-isomer.