Enterobacteria-secreted particles induce production of exosome-like S1P-containing particles by intestinal epithelium to drive Th17-mediated tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: Gut-associated inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of colon cancer. Here, we identify a novel pathogen-host interaction that promotes gut inflammation and the development of colon cancer. We find that enteropathogenic bacteria-secreted particles (ET-BSPs) stimulate intestinal epithelium to produce IDENs (intestinal mucosa-derived exosome-like nanoparticles) containing elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate, CCL20 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). CCL20 and PGE2 are required for the recruitment and proliferation, respectively, of Th17 cells, and these processes also involve the MyD88-mediated pathway. By influencing the recruitment and proliferation of Th17 cells in the intestine, IDENs promote colon cancer. We demonstrate the biological effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate contained in IDENs on tumour growth in spontaneous and transplanted colon cancer mouse models. These findings provide deeper insights into how host-microbe relationships are mediated by particles secreted from both bacterial and host cells.
Project description:T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in mucosal host defense through production of the signature cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to enhance IL-17 production by mature Th17 cells. However, when present during Th17 cell differentiation, we found that PGE2 inhibited the transcription factor IRF4 and suppressed production of IL-17 but not IL-22. We show that IRF4 was required for IL-17 expression but inhibited IL-22 expression, highlighting the potential for discordant regulation of these two cytokines in Th17 cells. The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans produces PGE2, and we found that it uses PGE2- and IRF4-dependent mechanisms to specifically inhibit induction of IL-17 during Th17 cell differentiation. Blockade of host PGE2 during infection led to increased IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells and increased survival of mice. These findings suggest that host- or pathogen-derived PGE2 can act directly on Th17 cells during differentiation to inhibit IL-17-dependent antimicrobial responses.
Project description:Our previous studies suggest that Th17 cells accumulate within tumor tissues and correlate with recurrence of cervical cancer patients. However, the source of the increased tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells remains poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, phenotype and trafficking property of Th17 cells in patients with cervical cancer. Our results showed that Th17 cells highly aggregated within tumor tissues in an activated phenotype with markedly increased expression of CCR6. Correspondingly, level of CCL20 in the tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in non-tumor and normal control tissues, and strongly positively associated with Th17 cells. Further, in vitro migration assay showed CCL20 had effective chemotaxis to circulating Th17 cells. In conclusion, Th17 cells are recruited into tumor tissues preferentially through CCR6-CCL20 pathway, which can serve as a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer.
Project description:Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been implicated in promoting colon cancer; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that deficiency of CCR6 is associated with decreased tumor macrophage accumulation in a model of sporadic intestinal tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of stromal CCR6 expression in a murine syngeneic transplantable colon cancer model. We show that deficiency of host CCR6 is associated with decreased growth of syngeneic CCR6-expressing colon cancers. Colon cancers adoptively transplanted into CCR6-deficient mice have decreased tumor-associated macrophages without alterations in the number of monocytes in blood or bone marrow. CCL20, the unique ligand for CCR6, promotes migration of monocytes in vitro and promotes accumulation of macrophages in vivo. Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages decreases the growth of tumors in the transplantable tumor model. Macrophages infiltrating the colon cancers in this model secrete the inflammatory mediators CCL2, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF?. Ccl2, Il1? and Il6 are consequently downregulated in tumors from CCR6-deficient mice. CCL2, IL-1? and IL-6 also promote proliferation of colon cancer cells, linking the decreased macrophage migration into tumors mediated by CCL20-CCR6 interactions to the delay in tumor growth in CCR6-deficient hosts. The relevance of these findings in human colon cancer is demonstrated through correlation of CCR6 expression with that of the macrophage marker CD163 as well as that of CCL2, IL1? and TNF?. Our findings support the exploration of targeting the CCL20-CCR6 pathway for the treatment of colon cancer.
Project description:Lung complications are a major cause of rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality. Involvement of gut microbiota in lung diseases by the gut-lung axis has been widely observed, but the underlying mechanism remains mostly unknown. Using an autoimmune arthritis model, we show that a constituent of the gut microbiota, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), distantly provoke lung pathology. SFB induce autoantibodies in lung during the pre-arthritic phase, and SFB-dependent lung pathology requires the T helper 17 (Th17) responses. SFB-induced gut Th17 cells are preferentially recruited to lung over spleen due to robust expression in the lung of the Th17 chemoattractant, CCL20. Additionally, we found that in peripheral tissues, SFB selectively expand dual T cell receptor (TCR)-expressing Th17 cells recognizing both an SFB epitope and self-antigen, thus augmenting autoimmunity. This study reveals mechanisms for commensal-mediated gut-lung crosstalk and dual TCR-based autoimmunity.
Project description:Th17 cells are most abundant in the gut, where their presence depends on the intestinal microbiota. Here, we examined whether intestinal Th17 cells contribute to extra-intestinal Th17 responses in autoimmune kidney disease. We found high frequencies of Th17 cells in the kidneys of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis. We utilized photoconversion of intestinal cells in Kaede mice to track intestinal T cell mobilization upon glomerulonephritis induction, and we found that Th17 cells egress from the gut in a S1P-receptor-1-dependent fashion and subsequently migrate to the kidney via the CCL20/CCR6 axis. Depletion of intestinal Th17 cells in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice ameliorated renal disease, whereas expansion of these cells upon Citrobacter rodentium infection exacerbated pathology. Thus, in some autoimmune settings, intestinal Th17 cells migrate into target organs, where they contribute to pathology. Targeting the intestinal Th17 cell "reservoir" may present a therapeutic strategy for these autoimmune disorders.
Project description:Bone loss is a frequent but not universal complication of hyperparathyroidism. Using antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice, we show that parathyroid hormone (PTH) only caused bone loss in mice whose microbiota was enriched by the Th17 cell-inducing taxa segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). SFB+ microbiota enabled PTH to expand intestinal TNF+ T and Th17 cells and increase their S1P-receptor-1 mediated egress from the intestine and recruitment to the bone marrow (BM) that causes bone loss. CXCR3-mediated TNF+ T cell homing to the BM upregulated the Th17 chemoattractant CCL20, which recruited Th17 cells to the BM. This study reveals mechanisms for microbiota-mediated gut-bone crosstalk in mice models of hyperparathyroidism that may help predict its clinical course. Targeting the gut microbiota or T cell migration may represent therapeutic strategies for hyperparathyroidism.
Project description:During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA-) derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ?3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted ?5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, ROR??, and IL-23), decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P ? 0.05). Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a global health problem in which gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important pathogenic role. However, the current drugs for IBD treatment are far from optimal. Previous researches indicated that parthenolide (PTL) had not only anti-cancer properties but also strong anti-inflammatory activities. Rationale: To investigate the protective effect of PTL on colon inflammation and demonstrate the underlying gut microbiota-dependent mechanism. Methods: Colon inflammation severity in mouse model was measured by body weight change, mortality, colon length, disease activity index (DAI) score, H&E staining and colonoscopy evaluation. Gut microbiota alteration and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production were analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomics. Luminex cytokine microarray and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to measure the colon cytokines profile. The frequency of immune cells in lamina propria (LP) and spleen were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Results: The PTL-treated mice showed significantly relieved colon inflammation, as evidenced by a reduction in body weight loss, survival rate, shortening of colon length, DAI score, histology score and colonoscopy score. Notably, when the gut microbiota was depleted using antibiotic cocktails, the protective effect of PTL on colon inflammation disappeared. PTL treatment downregulated the level of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-17A and upregulated the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in colon tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that PTL-treated mice exhibited much more abundant gut microbial diversity and flora composition. Targeted metabolomics analysis manifested the increased SCFAs production in PTL-treated mice. Additionally, PTL administration selectively upregulated the frequency of colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as downregulated the ratio of colonic T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, improving the Treg/Th17 balance to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm this gut microbiota-dependent mechanism. Conclusions: PTL ameliorated colon inflammation in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. The underlying protective mechanism was associated with the improved Treg/Th17 balance in intestinal mucosa mediated through the increased microbiota-derived SCFAs production. Collectively, our results demonstrated the role of PTL as a potential gut microbiota modulator to prevent and treat IBD.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that the sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway plays a pivotal role in colon carcinogenesis. Our previous studies indicate that the SphK1/S1P pathway mediates colon carcinogenesis at least by regulating cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. However, the mechanisms by which this pathway regulates colon carcinogenesis are still unclear. First, we show that SphK1 deficient mice significantly attenuated azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis as measured by colon tumor incidence, multiplicity, and volume. We found that AOM activates peritoneal macrophages to induce SphK1, COX-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? expression in WT mice. Interestingly, SphK1 knockout (KO) mice revealed significant reduction of COX-2 and TNF-? expression from AOM-activated peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that SphK1 regulates COX-2 and TNF-? expression in peritoneal macrophages. We found that inoculation of WT peritoneal macrophages restored the carcinogenic effect of AOM in Sphk1 KO mice as measured by aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, preneoplastic lesions of colon cancer. In addition, downregulation of SphK1 only in peritoneal macrophage by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced the number of ACF per colon induced by AOM. Intraperitoneal injection of sphingolipids demonstrates that S1P enhanced AOM-induced ACF formation, while ceramide inhibited. Finally, we show that SphK inhibitor SKI-II significantly reduced the number of ACF per colon. These results suggest that SphK1 expression plays a pivotal role in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis through regulating COX-2 and TNF-? expression from activated peritoneal macrophages.