The Association of Health Literacy with Illness and Medication Beliefs among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
ABSTRACT: Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD.We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen's d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs.We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001), not be married (p = 0.006), and to have lower income (p<0.001) or education (p<0.001). In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.04).In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was prevalent, and associated with illness beliefs that predict decreased adherence. Our results suggest that targeted strategies to address low health literacy and related illness and medications beliefs might improve COPD medication adherence and other self-management behaviors.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To cluster the adherence behaviours of patients with type 2 diabetes based on their beliefs in medicines and illness perceptions and examine the psychosocial, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patient clusters.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>A face-to-face survey was administered to patients at two family medicine clinics in the Midwest, USA.<h4>Participants</h4>One hundred and seventy-four ?20-year-old, English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed at least one oral diabetes medicine daily were recruited using convenience sampling.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Beliefs in medicines and illness perceptions were assessed using the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, respectively. Self-reported medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Psychosocial correlates of adherence, health literacy and self-efficacy were measured using the Newest Vital Sign and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use, respectively. Two-step cluster analysis was used to classify patients.<h4>Results</h4>Participants' mean age was 58.74 (SD=12.84). The majority were women (57.5%). Four clusters were formed (non-adherent clusters: ambivalent and sceptical; adherent clusters: indifferent and accepting). The ambivalent cluster (n=30, 17.2%) included low-adherent patients with high necessity beliefs, high concern beliefs and high illness perceptions. The sceptical cluster (n=53, 30.5%) included low adherent patients with low necessity beliefs but high concern beliefs and high illness perceptions. Both the accepting (n=40, 23.0%) and indifferent (n=51, 29.3%) clusters were composed of patients with high adherence. Significant differences between the ambivalent, sceptical, accepting and indifferent adherent clusters were based on self-efficacy, illness perception domains (treatment control and coherence) and haemoglobin A1c (p<0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with diabetes in specific non-adherent and adherent clusters still have distinct beliefs as well as psychosocial characteristics that may help providers target tailored medication adherence interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To design and investigate a pharmacist-run intervention using low health literacy flashcards and a smartphone-activated quick response (QR) barcoded educational flashcard video to increase medication adherence and disease state understanding. DESIGN:Prospective, matched, quasi-experimental design. SETTING:County health system in Dallas, Texas. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty-eight primary care patients prescribed targeted heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes medications INTERVENTION: Low health literacy medication and disease specific flashcards, which were also available as QR-coded online videos, were designed for the intervention patients. The following validated health literacy tools were conducted: Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy Medicine-Short Form, and Short Assessment of Health Literacy-50. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the difference in medication adherence at 180 days after pharmacist intervention compared with the control group, who were matched on the basis of comorbid conditions, targeted medications, and medication class. Medication adherence was measured using a modified Pharmacy Quality Alliance proportion of days covered (PDC) calculation. Secondary outcomes included 90-day PDC, improvement of greater than 25% in baseline PDC, and final PDC greater than 80%. Linear regression was performed to evaluate the effect of potential confounders on the primary outcome. RESULTS:Of the 34 patients receiving the intervention, a majority of patients scored a high possibility of limited health literacy on the NVS tool (91.2%). The medication with the least adherence at baseline was metformin, followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers. At 180 days after intervention, patients in the intervention group had higher PDCs compared with their matched controls (71% vs. 44%; P = 0.0069). CONCLUSION:The use of flashcards and QR-coded prescription bottles for medication and disease state education is an innovative way of improving adherence to diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure medications in a low-health literacy patient population.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Medication adherence is critical in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and could be affected by patients' treatment-related beliefs. The objective of this study was to determine beliefs about systemic medications in patients with IMIDs and to explore the association of those beliefs and other factors with adherence.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a multi-country, cross-sectional, self-administered survey study. Included were adults diagnosed with one of six IMIDs receiving conventional systemic medications and/or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Patients' necessity beliefs/concerns towards and adherence to treatments were assessed by the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Correlation of patients' beliefs about treatment and other factors with adherence were evaluated by multivariable regression analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Among studied patients (N = 7197), 32.0% received TNFi monotherapy, 27.7% received TNFi-conventional combination therapy, and 40.3% received conventional medications. Across IMIDs, high adherence to systemic treatment was more prevalent in TNFi groups (61.3-80.7%) versus corresponding conventional treatment groups (28.4-64.7%). In at least four IMIDs, greater perception of the illness continuing forever (P < 0.001), of the treatment helping (P < 0.001), and more concerns about the illness (P < 0.01), but not clinical parameters, were associated with higher treatment necessity beliefs. Higher treatment necessity beliefs, older age, Caucasian race, and TNFi therapy were associated with high medication adherence in at least four IMIDs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Treatment necessity beliefs were higher than concerns about current medication in patients with IMID. Illness perceptions had a greater impact on treatment necessity beliefs than clinical parameters. Older age, greater treatment necessity beliefs, and TNFi therapy were associated with high self-reported medication adherence in at least four IMIDs.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ACTRN12612000977875.<h4>Funding</h4>AbbVie.
Project description:RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES:Clinical studies show equivalent health outcomes from interventional procedures and treatment with medication only for stable angina patients. However, patients may be subject to overuse or access barriers for interventional procedures and may exhibit suboptimal adherence to medications. Our objective is to evaluate whether community-level health literacy is associated with treatment selection and medication adherence patterns. METHOD:The sample included Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (20% random sample) with stable angina in 2007-2013. We used an area-level health literacy variable because of the lack of an individual measure in claims. We measured the association between (a) area-based health literacy with treatment selection (medication only, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery) and (b) area-based health literacy with medication adherence. We controlled for other factors including demographics, co-morbidity burden, dual eligibility, and area deprivation index. RESULTS:We identified 8300 patients of whom 8.7% lived in a low health literacy area. Overall, 56% of patients received medication only, 28% received PCI, and 15% received CABG. Patients in low health literacy areas were less likely to receive CABG (-3.5 percentage points; 95% CI, -6.8 to -0.3) than were patients in high health literacy areas, but the significance was sensitive to specification. Overall, 81.5% and 71.5% of patients were adherent to antianginals and statins, respectively. Living in low health literacy areas was associated with lower adherence to antianginals (-3.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -6.1 to -0.6) but not statins. CONCLUSIONS:Low area-based health literacy was associated with being less likely to receive CABG and lower adherence, but the differences between low and high health literacy areas were small and sensitive to model specification. Individual factors such as dual eligibility status and race/ethnicity had stronger associations with outcomes than had area-based health literacy, suggesting that this area-based measure was inadequate to account for social determinants in this study.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Though adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) varies and is often below 80%, only few prospective studies on adherence examined predictors beyond demographic and clinical characteristics.<h4>Objectives</h4>Identify antecedents to adherence and persistence to DMT in a prospective design among PwMS.<h4>Methods</h4>PwMS (n = 186) were prospectively assessed at three time points: baseline, 6 (Time 1) and 12 months later (Time 2). Clinical, demographic information and patient-reported medication beliefs, illness perceptions, medication habits, perceived health and affect were surveyed in-person. Adherence and persistence were assessed by a combination of self-reports and retrospective review of medication claims.<h4>Findings</h4>PwMS were 69.9% (Time 1) and 71% (Time 2) adherent to their DMTs and 64.5.9% were persistent. Beliefs about Medications were consistently predictive at both time points (baseline to Time 1 and Time 1 to Time 2) of medication adherence and persistence whereas other perceptions were predictive in some analyses; clinical and demographic characteristics were mostly not predictive of adherence nor persistence. The prospective association of beliefs about medication with adherence held also in multivariate analyses (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99, p = 0.029).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adherence and persistence are predicted by medication beliefs of PwMS. As medication beliefs are modifiable, they should be assessed periodically and targeted as a focus of tailored interventions aimed to improve adherence and consequently health outcomes in PwMS.<h4>Registration</h4>Clinical trials registry # NCT02488343 , date: 06/08/2015.
Project description:Mortality in patients with HIV infection is increasingly due to comorbid medical conditions. Research on how adherence to medications for comorbidities relates to antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence and how interrelations between illness perceptions and medication beliefs about HIV and comorbidities affect medication adherence is needed to inform adherence interventions.HIV-infected adults with hypertension (HTN) (n = 151) or chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 41) were recruited from ambulatory practices at an academic medical center. Illness perceptions and medication beliefs about HIV and HTN or CKD were assessed and adherence to one ARV medication and one medication for either HTN or CKD was electronically monitored for 10 weeks.Rates of taking, dosing, and timing adherence to ARV medication did not differ from adherence to medication for HTN or CKD, with the exception that patients were more adherent to the timing of their ARV (78%) than to the timing of their antihypertensive (68%; P = 0.01). Patients viewed HIV as better understood, more chronic, having more negative consequences, and eliciting more emotions, compared with HTN. Patients viewed ARVs as more necessary than medication for HTN or CKD. Having a realistic view of the efficacy of ARVs (r = -0.20; P < 0.05) and a high level of perceived HIV understanding (r = 0.21; P < 0.05) correlated with better ARV adherence.Patients with HIV showed similar rates of adherence to ARVs as to medications for comorbidities, despite perceiving HIV as more threatening and ARVs as more important. This can be used in adapting existing interventions for ARV adherence to encompass adherence to medications for comorbid conditions.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The exact pathway linking health literacy, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and glycemic control for type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Understanding the relationship between patient factors, medication adherence, and lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may help patients better manage their disease. This study examined the association of health literacy and medication self-efficacy with self-reported diabetes medication adherence, and the association of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and self-reported diabetes medication adherence with HbA1c of patients with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study utilized a face-to-face questionnaire at two family medicine clinics in a Midwestern state among 174 patients; subjects enrolled were at least 20 years old with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, prescribed at least one oral diabetes medicine, and understood English. Questionnaires were administered to assess the participants': health literacy, using the Newest Vital Sign six-item questionnaire (NVS); self-efficacy for medication use, using the 13-item Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale; and self-report medication adherence, using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. HbA1c values were obtained from participants' electronic medical records. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the association of health literacy and medication self-efficacy with both medication adherence and HbA1c level after controlling for all other covariates.<h4>Results</h4>Self-reported health status (? = 0.17, <i>p</i> = 0.015) and medication self-efficacy (? = 0.53, <i>p</i> < 0.001) were positively associated with diabetes medication adherence. Health literacy was neither associated with diabetes medication adherence (? = -0.04, <i>p</i> = 0.586) nor HbA1c (? = -0.06, <i>p</i> = 0.542). Lower diabetes medication adherence (? = -0.26, <i>p</i> = 0.008) and higher number of prescribed medications (? = 0.28, <i>p</i> = 0.009) were correlated with higher HbA1c.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Health literacy, as measured by the NVS, does not correlate with medication adherence or glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy of medication use may improve diabetes medication adherence.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate determinants of medication adherence and glycemic control in black patients with diabetes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS:Cross-sectional study of 143 participants with mean age of 68.8 (SD: 6.7) years; 66.4% were women. RESULTS:Eighty-seven participants (60.8%) self-reported medication nonadherence; they had more negative beliefs about medicines, greater diabetes-related distress, and more difficulty with daily living activities and affording medications than adherent participants. There were no group differences in cognition, depressive symptoms, or glycemic control. Glycemic control negatively correlated with regimen distress, emotional burden, interpersonal distress, beliefs that physicians overprescribe medications, and beliefs that medications are harmful. CONCLUSIONS:Beliefs about medications, diabetes-related distress, functional disability, and medication affordability are associated with medication nonadherence in black individuals with diabetes and MCI. Interventions that respect personal health beliefs and compensate for impaired cognition may improve medication adherence and glycemic control in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high-risk patients such as those with low health literacy. METHODS AND RESULTS:The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers-Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. CONCLUSIONS:The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration- clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00632021.
Project description:The treatment of chronic illnesses commonly includes the long-term use of pharmacotherapy. Although these medications are effective in combating disease, their full benefits are often not realized because approximately 50% of patients do not take their medications as prescribed. Factors contributing to poor medication adherence are myriad and include those that are related to patients (eg, suboptimal health literacy and lack of involvement in the treatment decision-making process), those that are related to physicians (eg, prescription of complex drug regimens, communication barriers, ineffective communication of information about adverse effects, and provision of care by multiple physicians), and those that are related to health care systems (eg, office visit time limitations, limited access to care, and lack of health information technology). Because barriers to medication adherence are complex and varied, solutions to improve adherence must be multifactorial. To assess general aspects of medication adherence using cardiovascular disease as an example, a MEDLINE-based literature search (January 1, 1990, through March 31, 2010) was conducted using the following search terms: cardiovascular disease, health literacy, medication adherence, and pharmacotherapy. Manual sorting of the 405 retrieved articles to exclude those that did not address cardiovascular disease, medication adherence, or health literacy in the abstract yielded 127 articles for review. Additional references were obtained from citations within the retrieved articles. This review surveys the findings of the identified articles and presents various strategies and resources for improving medication adherence.