Mitigation of acute kidney injury by cell-cycle inhibitors that suppress both CDK4/6 and OCT2 functions.
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in kidney function caused by ischemic or toxic injury to renal tubular cells. The widely used chemotherapy drug cisplatin accumulates preferentially in the renal tubular cells and is a frequent cause of drug-induced AKI. During the development of AKI the quiescent tubular cells reenter the cell cycle. Strategies that block cell-cycle progression ameliorate kidney injury, possibly by averting cell division in the presence of extensive DNA damage. However, the early signaling events that lead to cell-cycle activation during AKI are not known. In the current study, using mouse models of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we show that the G1/S-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) pathway is activated in parallel with renal cell-cycle entry but before the development of AKI. Targeted inhibition of CDK4/6 pathway by small-molecule inhibitors palbociclib (PD-0332991) and ribociclib (LEE011) resulted in inhibition of cell-cycle progression, amelioration of kidney injury, and improved overall survival. Of additional significance, these compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which contributes to the cellular accumulation of cisplatin and subsequent kidney injury. The unique cell-cycle and OCT2-targeting activities of palbociclib and LEE011, combined with their potential for clinical translation, support their further exploration as therapeutic candidates for prevention of AKI.
Project description:Cisplatin and its derivatives are widely used chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment. However, they have debilitating side effects in normal tissues and induce ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. In kidneys, cisplatin preferentially accumulates in renal tubular cells causing tubular cell injury and death, resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI). Recent studies have suggested that DNA damage and the associated DNA damage response (DDR) are an important pathogenic mechanism of AKI following cisplatin treatment. Activation of DDR may lead to cell cycle arrest and DNA repair for cell survival or, in the presence of severe injury, kidney cell death. Modulation of DDR may provide novel renoprotective strategies for cancer patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:Using a randomized crossover design and continuous variables such as change in hearing threshold and biomarkers of acute renal injury as short-term endpoints, it was determined that pantoprazole, an organic cation transporter 2 inhibitor, did not ameliorate cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity.Cystatin C is a robust method to estimate glomerular filtration rate in patients with cancer. Using a patient-reported outcome survey, all patients identified tinnitus and subjective hearing loss occurring "at least rarely" after cycle 1, prior to objective high-frequency hearing loss measured by audiograms.New therapies that improve outcome with less acute and long-term toxicity are needed. BACKGROUND:Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which is a cisplatin uptake transporter expressed on renal tubules and cochlear hair cells but not on osteosarcoma cells, mediates cisplatin uptake. Pantoprazole inhibits OCT2 and could ameliorate cisplatin ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Using a randomized crossover design, we evaluated audiograms, urinary acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from cystatin C (GFRcysC) in patients receiving cisplatin with and without pantoprazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cisplatin (60 mg/m2 × 2 days per cycle) was administered concurrently with pantoprazole (intravenous [IV], 1.6 mg/kg over 4 hours) on cycles 1 and 2 or cycles 3 and 4 in 12 patients with osteosarcoma (OS) with a median (range) age of 12.8 (5.6-19) years. Audiograms, urinary AKI biomarkers, and serum cystatin C were monitored during each cycle. RESULTS:Pantoprazole had no impact on decrements in hearing threshold at 4-8 kHz, post-treatment elevation of urinary AKI biomarkers, or GFRcysC (Fig. 1, Table 1). Histological response (percent necrosis) after two cycles was similar with or without pantoprazole. All eight patients with localized OS at diagnosis are alive and in remission; three of four patients with metastases at diagnosis have died. CONCLUSION:Pantoprazole did not ameliorate cisplatin ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity. The decrease in GFRcysC and increase in N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine demonstrate that these biomarkers can quantify cisplatin glomerular and proximal tubular toxicity. OCT2 inhibition by pantoprazole did not appear to alter antitumor response or survival.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been linked to several clinical manifestations including chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether HHcy has a role in the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, we reported that HHcy mice developed more severe renal injury after cisplatin injection and ischemia-reperfusion injury shown as more severe renal tubular damage and higher serum creatinine. In response to cisplatin, HHcy mice showed more prevalent tubular cell apoptosis and decreased tubular cell proliferation. Mechanistically, a heightened ER stress and a reduced Akt activity were observed in kidney tissues of HHcy mice after cisplatin injection. Stimulating cultured NRK-52E cells with Hcy significantly increased the fraction of cells in G2/M phase and cell apoptosis together with decreased Akt kinase activity. Akt agonist IGF-1 rescued HHcy-induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that HHcy increases the sensitivity and severity of AKI.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction has important roles in the pathogenesis of AKI, yet therapeutic approaches to improve mitochondrial function remain limited. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic role of microRNA-709 (miR-709) in mediating mitochondrial impairment and tubular cell death in AKI. In a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model and in biopsy samples of human AKI kidney tissue, miR-709 was significantly upregulated in the proximal tubular cells (PTCs). The expression of miR-709 in the renal PTCs of patients with AKI correlated with the severity of kidney injury. In cultured mouse PTCs, overexpression of miR-709 markedly induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis, and inhibition of miR-709 ameliorated cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell injury. Further analyses showed that mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) is a target gene of miR-709, and genetic restoration of TFAM attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and cell injury induced by cisplatin or miR-709 overexpression in vitro Moreover, antagonizing miR-709 with an miR-709 antagomir dramatically attenuated cisplatin-induced kidney injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-709 has an important role in mediating cisplatin-induced AKI via negative regulation of TFAM and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings reveal a pathogenic role of miR-709 in acute tubular injury and suggest a novel target for the treatment of AKI.
Project description:Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb1), a small GTPase, plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. However, the role and mechanisms for Rheb1 in tubular cell survival and acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unexplored. Here we found that Rheb1 signaling was activated in kidney tubule of AKI patients and cisplatin-treated mice. A mouse model of tubule-specific deletion of Rheb1 (Tubule-Rheb1-/-) was generated. Compared to control littermates, Tubule-Rheb1-/- mice were phenotypically normal within 2 months after birth but developed more severe kidney dysfunction, tubular cell death including apoptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis, mitochondrial defect and less PGC-1? expression after cisplatin injection. In primary cultured tubular cells, Rheb1 ablation exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell death and mitochondrial defect. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency for Tsc1 in tubular cells led to Rheb1 activation and mitigated cisplatin-induced cell death, mitochondrial defect and AKI. Together, this study uncovers that Rheb1 may protect against cisplatin-induced tubular cell death and AKI through maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis.
Project description:Klotho protects the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury, but its effect on nephrotoxins is unknown. Here we determined whether Klotho protects the kidney from cisplatin toxicity. Cisplatin increased plasma creatinine and induced tubular injury, which were exaggerated in Klotho haplosufficient (Kl/+) and ameliorated in transgenic Klotho overexpressing (Tg-Kl) mice. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and active caspase-3 protein and the number of apoptotic cells in the kidney were higher in Kl/+ and lower in Tg-Kl compared with wild-type mice. Klotho suppressed basolateral uptake of cisplatin by the normal rat kidney cell line (NRK), an effect similar to cimetidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transport (OCT). A decrease in cell surface and total OCT2 protein and OCT activity by Klotho was mimicked by ?-glucuronidase. The Klotho effect was attenuated by ?-glucuronidase inhibition. On the other hand, OCT2 mRNA was reduced by Klotho but not by ?-glucuronidase. Moreover, cimetidine inhibited OCT activity but not OCT2 expression. Unlike cimetidine, Klotho reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis from either the basolateral or apical side and even when added after NRK cells were already loaded with cisplatin. Thus, Klotho protects the kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity by reduction of basolateral uptake of cisplatin by OCT2 and a direct anti-apoptotic effect independent of cisplatin uptake. Klotho may be a useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Project description:Metformin, one of the most common prescriptions for patients with type 2 diabetes, is reported to protect the kidney from gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the role and mechanisms for metformin in preventing cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin was employed to induce acute kidney injury (AKI) in CD1 mice. The mice exhibited severe kidney dysfunction and histological damage at day 2 after cisplatin injection. Pretreatment of metformin could markedly attenuate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, tubular cell apoptosis and inflammatory cell accumulation in the kidneys. Additionally, pretreatment of metformin could enhance both AMPKα phosphorylation and autophagy induction in the kidneys after cisplatin injection. In cultured NRK-52E cells, a rat kidney tubular cell line, metformin could stimulate AMPKα phosphorylation, induce autophagy and inhibit cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis. Blockade of either AMPKα activation or autophagy induction could largely abolish the protective effect of metformin in cisplatin-induced cell death. Together, this study demonstrated that metformin may protect against cisplatin-induced tubular cell apoptosis and AKI through stimulating AMPKα activation and autophagy induction in the tubular cells.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in regulating a wide range of biologic processes, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tissue remodeling. However, the role of MMP-10 in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. In this study, we show that MMP-10 was upregulated in the kidneys and predominantly localized in the tubular epithelium in various models of AKI induced by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or cisplatin. Overexpression of exogenous MMP-10 ameliorated AKI, manifested by decreased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tubular injury and apoptosis, and increased tubular regeneration. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous MMP-10 expression aggravated kidney injury. Interestingly, alleviation of AKI by MMP-10 in vivo was associated with the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Blockade of EGFR signaling by erlotinib abolished the MMP-10-mediated renal protection after AKI. In vitro, MMP-10 potentiated EGFR activation and protected kidney tubular cells against apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or cisplatin. MMP-10 was colocalized with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in vivo and activated it by a process of proteolytical cleavage in vitro. These studies identify HB-EGF as a previously unrecognized substrate of MMP-10. Our findings also underscore that MMP-10 can protect against AKI by augmenting EGFR signaling, leading to promotion of tubular cell survival and proliferation after injury.
Project description:Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1). The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2), and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1) were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding cisplatin altogether, in order to prevent AKI.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cancer patients. Kidney function is closely related to patients' quality of life and tumor prognosis. Cisplatin is a highly effective anti-tumor drug. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its nephrotoxicity. It has been reported that FGF21 has a renal-protective function, but the mechanisms by which it does so remain unclear. In this study, we show that the expression of FGF21 is significantly upregulated in both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> cisplatin-induced AKI models. Administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-induced AKI mice resulted in significantly decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels, as well as significantly reduced protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (TIM-1), C-caspase 3, and Bax. H&E-stained kidney sections from cisplatin-induced AKI mice treated with recombinant FGF21 showed a relatively normal renal tissue structure, a reduced number of necrotic sites and vacuolar changes, and decreased casts, suggesting alleviated renal tubular injury. Experiments with an AKI cell model (cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells) yielded similar results as the mouse model; recombinant FGF21 significantly downregulated protein expression levels of TIM-1, C-caspase 3, and Bax. Furthermore, administration of recombinant FGF21 to cisplatin-treated AKI models significantly increased SIRT1 expression, and the beneficial effects of FGF21 on kidney injury were reversed by <i>SIRT1</i> knockdown. Collectively, our results suggest that SIRT1 mediates the protective effect of FGF21 on cisplatin-induced kidney injury.