Reducing hospital-acquired infections and improving the rational use of antibiotics in a developing country: an effectiveness study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevention of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) is central to providing safe and high quality healthcare. Transmission of infection between patients by health workers, and the irrational use of antibiotics have been identified as preventable aetiological factors for HAIs. Few studies have addressed this in developing countries. AIMS: To implement a multifaceted infection control and antibiotic stewardship programme and evaluate its effectiveness on HAIs and antibiotic use. METHODS: A before-and-after study was conducted over 27?months in a teaching hospital in Indonesia. All children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit and paediatric wards were observed daily. Assessment of HAIs was made based on the criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The multifaceted intervention consisted of a hand hygiene campaign, antibiotic stewardship (using the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children guidelines as standards of antibiotic prescribing for community-acquired infections), and other elementary infection control practices. Data were collected using an identical method in the preintervention and postintervention periods. RESULTS: We observed a major reduction in HAIs, from 22.6% (277/1227 patients) in the preintervention period to 8.6% (123/1419 patients) in the postintervention period (relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 0.38 (0.31 to 0.46)). Inappropriate antibiotic use declined from 43% (336 of 780 patients who were prescribed antibiotics) to 20.6% (182 of 882 patients) (RR 0.46 (0.40 to 0.55)). Hand hygiene compliance increased from 18.9% (319/1690) to 62.9% (1125/1789) (RR 3.33 (2.99 to 3.70)). In-hospital mortality decreased from 10.4% (127/1227) to 8% (114/1419) (RR 0.78 (0.61 to 0.97)). CONCLUSIONS: Multifaceted infection control interventions are effective in reducing HAI rates, improving the rational use of antibiotics, increasing hand hygiene compliance, and may reduce mortality in hospitalised children in developing countries.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transmission of infection between patients by health workers, and the irrational use of antibiotics are preventable causes for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and multi-resistant organisms. A previous study implementing a hand hygiene campaign and antibiotic stewardship program significantly reduced these infections. Sustaining such interventions can be challenging. AIMS:To evaluate whether there was a sustained effect of a multifaceted infection control and antibiotic stewardship program on HAI and antibiotic use 5 years after it began. METHODS:A prospective evaluation study was conducted over 26 months (from February 2016 to April 2018) in a teaching hospital in Indonesia, 5 years after the implementation of an antibiotic stewardship and infection control program, which was successful when initially evaluated. All children admitted to the pediatric ICU and pediatric wards were observed daily. Assessment of HAI was made based on the criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Assessment of rational antibiotic use was based on the WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship between the HAI and the multifaceted intervention. RESULTS:We observed an increase in HAIs, from 8.6% (123/1419 patients) in the initial post-intervention period in 2011-2013 to 16.9% (314/1855) in the evaluation study (relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.95 (1.60 to 2.37)). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that an increase in HAI in the evaluation period with adjusted OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.45). Inappropriate antibiotic use also increased, from 20.6% (182 of 882 patients who were prescribed antibiotics) to 48.6% (545/1855) (RR 2.35 (2.04 to 2.71)). Hand hygiene compliance also declined from 62.9% (1125/1789) observed moments requiring hand hygiene to 51% (1526/2993) (RR 3.33 (2.99 to 3.70)). CONCLUSIONS:Healthcare-associated infections and irrational use of antibiotics remain significant even after the implementation of a multifaceted infection control intervention and antibiotic stewardship program. There is a need for continuous input, ongoing surveillance and long-term monitoring of these interventions to sustain compliance and effectiveness and address problems as they emerge.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Limited data describe the sustained impact of hand hygiene programs (HHPs) implemented in teaching hospitals, where the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is high. We use a quasi-experimental, before and after, study design with prospective hospital-wide surveillance of HAIs to assess the cost effectiveness of HHPs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A 4-year hospital-wide HHP, with particular emphasis on using an alcohol-based hand rub, was implemented in April 2004 at a 2,200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. Compliance was measured by direct observation and the use of hand rub products. Poisson regression analyses were employed to evaluate the densities and trends of HAIs during the preintervention (January 1999 to March 2004) and intervention (April 2004 to December 2007) periods. The economic impact was estimated based on a case-control study in Taiwan. We observed 8,420 opportunities for hand hygiene during the study period. Compliance improved from 43.3% in April 2004 to 95.6% in 2007 (p<.001), and was closely correlated with increased consumption of the alcohol-based hand rub (r?=?0.9399). The disease severity score (Charlson comorbidity index) increased (p?=?.002) during the intervention period. Nevertheless, we observed an 8.9% decrease in HAIs and a decline in the occurrence of bloodstream, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and intensive care unit infections. The intervention had no discernable impact on HAI rates in the hematology/oncology wards. The net benefit of the HHP was US$5,289,364, and the benefit-cost ratio was 23.7 with a 3% discount rate. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a HHP reduces preventable HAIs and is cost effective.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) constitute a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a greater burden on low- and middle-income countries. War-related injuries generally lead to large tissue defects, with a high risk of infection. The aim of this study was to explore how physicians in a middle-income country in an emergency setting perceive HAI and antibiotic resistance (ABR). Ten physicians at a Jordanian hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières were interviewed face-to-face. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive and deductive approach. The participants acknowledged risk factors of HAI and ABR development, such as patient behavior, high numbers of injured patients, limited space, and non-compliance with hygiene protocols, but did not express a sense of urgency or any course of action. Overuse and misuse of antibiotics were reported as main contributors to ABR development, but participants expressed no direct interrelationship between ABR and HAI. We conclude that due to high patient load and limited resources, physicians do not see HAI as a problem they can prioritize. The knowledge gained by this study could provide insights for the allocation of resources and development of hygiene and wound treatment protocols in resource-limited settings.
Project description:The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU.A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures. This prospective observational cohort study lasted from 2011 to 2016, included high-risk ICU patients, and evaluated the dynamics of incidence, etiological spectrum, and resistance profile of four types of HAIs, including subgroup analysis of device-associated infections. Survival analysis compared patients with and without HAIs.We included 2038 high-risk patients. By 2016, HAI cumulative incidence decreased significantly for respiratory HAIs (36.1% vs. 24.5%, p-value?=?0.0003), urinary-tract HAIs (29.1% vs. 21.3%, p-value?=?0.0006), and healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HAVM) (16% vs. 7.8%, p-value?=?0.004). The incidence rate of EVD-related HAVM dropped from 22.2 to 13.5 cases per 1000 EVD-days. The proportion of invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems decreased 1.7 and 2 fold, respectively. HAVM significantly impaired survival and independently increasing the probability of death by 1.43.The implementation of an evidence-based IPC program in a middle-income country (Russia) was highly effective in HAI prevention with meaningful reductions in antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Background:To quantify the five year incidence trend of all healthcare-associated infections (HAI) using a real-time HAI electronic surveillance system in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Methods:The real-time surveillance system scans the hospital's electronic databases related to HAI (e.g. microbiological reports and antibiotics administration) to identify HAI cases. We conducted retrospective secondary analyses of the data exported from the surveillance system for inpatients with all types of HAIs from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2017. Incidence of HAI is defined as the number of HAIs per 1000 patient-days. We modeled the incidence data using negative binomial regression. Results:In total, 23361 HAI cases were identified from 633990 patients, spanning 6242375 patient-days during the 5-year period. Overall, the adjusted five-year HAI incidence rate had a marginal reduction from 2013 (4.10 per 1000 patient days) to 2017 (3.62 per 1000 patient days). The incidence of respiratory tract infection decreased significantly. However, the incidence rate of bloodstream infections and surgical site infection increased significantly. Respiratory tract infection (43.80%) accounted for the most substantial proportion of HAIs, followed by bloodstream infections (15.74%), and urinary tract infection (12.69%). A summer peak in HAIs was detected among adult and elderly patients. Conclusions:This study shows how continuous electronic incidence surveillance based on existing hospital electronic databases can provide a practical means of measuring hospital-wide HAI incidence. The estimated incidence trends demonstrate the necessity for improved infection control measures related to bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, non-intensive care patients, and non-device-associated HAIs, especially during summer months.
Project description:There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance.The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use.
Project description:Background:The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Methods:Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8?a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Results:Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported indications were pneumonia (23.2%), urinary tract infections (15.2%) and skin and soft tissue infections (11.9%). The reason for antimicrobial use was recorded for 81.9% of the prescriptions, a stop/review date for 40.8% and compliance with local antibiotic guidelines for 76.6%. In the ECDC-PPS, the crude prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 7.3% (95%CI 6.8-7.7%). Most frequently reported HAIs were pneumonia (21.6%) and urinary tract infections (21.3%). Conclusions:HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence remained stable in comparison with the previous PPS (7.1% and 27.4% in 2011 and 2015, respectively). Belgian hospitals should be further stimulated to set local targets to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce HAI.
Project description:Introduction:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are threats in healthcare settings contributing to increased morbidity, mortality and antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Hand hygiene (HH) is the simplest and most important single intervention to reduce HAIs. Aims/objectives:This study sought to determine rates of HAIs as well as compliance of HH among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC). Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 HCWs (59 doctors, 129 nurses and 39 ward attendants) selected by multistage sampling across 10 hospital wards. Electronic interviewer-administered questionnaire, HH compliance checklist and point prevalence of HAI were done using World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkits, respectively. Results:Only 20.33% (n = 12) of doctors, 3.88% (n = 5) of nurses and 2.56% (n = 1) of ward attendants had good knowledge of HH (?2 = 22.22, P value = 0.01). Among doctors, 11.86% (n = 7), 6.98% (n = 9) of nurses and 2.56% (n = 1) of ward attendants had positive perception towards HH (?2 = 7.87, P value = 0.25). Of the 174 opportunities for HH observed, compliance rates were 42.37%, 55.81% and 68.97% among doctors, nurses and ward attendants, respectively. Point prevalence of HAI was 16.38%. Discussion:Good knowledge and positive perception about HH were uncommon among doctors, nurses and ward attendants. However, ward attendants had the highest compliance to HH. There was a high prevalence of HAIs in this institution.
Project description:Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), including emerging multi-drug resistant organisms, threaten healthcare systems worldwide. Efficient containment measures of HAIs must mobilize the entire healthcare network. Thus, to best understand how to reduce the potential scale of HAI epidemic spread, we explore patient transfer patterns in the French healthcare system. Using an exhaustive database of all hospital discharge summaries in France in 2014, we construct and analyze three patient networks based on the following: transfers of patients with HAI (HAI-specific network); patients with suspected HAI (suspected-HAI network); and all patients (general network). All three networks have heterogeneous patient flow and demonstrate small-world and scale-free characteristics. Patient populations that comprise these networks are also heterogeneous in their movement patterns. Ranking of hospitals by centrality measures and comparing community clustering using community detection algorithms shows that despite the differences in patient population, the HAI-specific and suspected-HAI networks rely on the same underlying structure as that of the general network. As a result, the general network may be more reliable in studying potential spread of HAIs. Finally, we identify transfer patterns at both the French regional and departmental (county) levels that are important in the identification of key hospital centers, patient flow trajectories, and regional clusters that may serve as a basis for novel wide-scale infection control strategies.