Optineurin regulates the interferon response in a cell cycle-dependent manner.
ABSTRACT: Viral invasion into a host is initially recognized by the innate immune system, mainly through activation of the intracellular cytosolic signaling pathway and coordinated activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factors that promote type I interferon gene induction. The TANK-binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylates and activates IRF3. Here, we show that Optineurin (Optn) dampens the antiviral innate immune response by targeting the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD to TBK1 in order to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Importantly, we found that this regulatory mechanism is abolished at the G2/M phase as a consequence of the nuclear translocation of CYLD and Optn. As a result, we observed, at this cell division stage, an increased activity and phosphorylation of TBK1 that lead to its relocalization to mitochondria and to enhanced interferon production, suggesting that this process, which relies on Optn function, might be of major importance to mount a preventive antiviral response during mitosis.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) is essential for transcription of the interferon (IFN) ? gene in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the activation of TBK1 are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO)-related polyubiquitin-binding protein, optineurin (OPTN), as a novel binding partner of TBK1. To determine whether the ubiquitin-binding function of OPTN is involved in regulating TBK1 and IFN? production, we generated a mouse in which wild-type optineurin was replaced by the polyubiquitin binding-defective mutant, OPTN(D477N/D477N). In this study, we found that LPS or poly(I:C)-induced TBK1 activity was significantly reduced in bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) from OPTN(D477N/D477N) mice. Consistent with this, the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the production of IFN? mRNA and secretion were reduced. Stimulation of BMDMs with LPS triggered the phosphorylation of OPTN, which was reversed by phosphatase treatment and prevented by pharmacological inhibition of both the canonical I?B kinases (IKK?/?) and the IKK-related kinases (TBK1/IKK?). In contrast, LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of OPTN(D477N) was markedly reduced in BMDMs from OPTN(D477N/D477N) mice, and inhibition of the canonical IKKs alone prevented phosphorylation, providing further evidence that ubiquitin binding to OPTN contributes to LPS-induced TBK1 activation. TBK1 and IKK? phosphorylated OPTN preferentially at Ser-177 and Ser-513, respectively, in vitro. In conclusion, our results suggest that OPTN binds to polyubiquitylated species formed in response to LPS and poly(I:C), enhancing the activation of TBK1 that is required for optimal phosphorylation of IRF3 and production of IFN?.
Project description:Optineurin (OPTN) is a multifunctional protein involved in autophagy and secretion, as well as nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and IRF3 signalling, and OPTN mutations are associated with several human diseases. Here, we show that, in response to viral RNA, OPTN translocates to foci in the perinuclear region, where it negatively regulates NF-?B and IRF3 signalling pathways and downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. These OPTN foci consist of a tight cluster of small membrane vesicles, which are positive for ATG9A. Disease mutations in OPTN linked to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cause aberrant foci formation in the absence of stimuli, which correlates with the ability of OPTN to inhibit signalling. By using proximity labelling proteomics, we identify the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), CYLD and TBK1 as part of the OPTN interactome and show that these proteins are recruited to this OPTN-positive perinuclear compartment. Our work uncovers a crucial role for OPTN in dampening NF-?B and IRF3 signalling through the sequestration of LUBAC and other positive regulators in this viral RNA-induced compartment, leading to altered pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.
Project description:Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition leads to TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) polyubiquitination and activation by transautophosphorylation, resulting in IFN-? production. Here, we describe a mouse model of optineurin insufficiency (Optn?(157) ) in which the TBK1-interacting N-terminus of optineurin was deleted. PAMP-stimulated cells from Optn?(157) mice had reduced TBK1 activity, no phosphorylation of optineurin Ser(187) , and mounted low IFN-? responses. In contrast to pull-down assays where the presence of N-terminus was sufficient for TBK1 binding, both the N-terminal and the ubiquitin-binding regions of optineurin were needed for PAMP-induced binding. This report establishes optineurin as a positive regulator TBK1 via a bipartite interaction between these molecules.
Project description:After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear.We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation. Interestingly, the Bluetongue virus NS3 protein binds OPTN at the Golgi apparatus, neutralizing its activity and thereby decreasing TBK1 activation and downstream signaling.Our results highlight an unexpected role of the Golgi apparatus in innate immunity as a key subcellular gateway for TBK1 activation after RNA virus infection.
Project description:On detecting viral RNAs, the RNA helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) activates the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signalling pathway to induce type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription. How this antiviral signalling pathway might be negatively regulated is poorly understood. Microarray and bioinformatic analysis indicated that the expression of RIG-I and that of the tumour suppressor CYLD (cylindromatosis), a deubiquitinating enzyme that removes Lys 63-linked polyubiquitin chains, are closely correlated, suggesting a functional association between the two molecules. Ectopic expression of CYLD inhibits the IRF3 signalling pathway and IFN production triggered by RIG-I; conversely, CYLD knockdown enhances the response. CYLD removes polyubiquitin chains from RIG-I as well as from TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), the kinase that phosphorylates IRF3, coincident with an inhibition of the IRF3 signalling pathway. Furthermore, CYLD protein level is reduced in the presence of tumour necrosis factor and viral infection, concomitant with enhanced IFN production. These findings show that CYLD is a negative regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral response.
Project description:Certain missense mutations in optineurin/OPTN and amplification of TBK1 are associated with normal tension glaucoma. A glaucoma-associated variant of OPTN, M98K, induces autophagic degradation of transferrin receptor (TFRC) and death in retinal cells. Here, we have explored the role of Tbk1 in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagy and cell death, and the effect of Tbk1 overexpression in retinal cells. Cell death induced by M98K-OPTN was dependent on Tbk1 as seen by the effect of Tbk1 knockdown and blocking of Tbk1 activity by a chemical inhibitor. Inhibition of Tbk1 also restores M98K-OPTN-induced transferrin receptor degradation. M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy and cell death were dependent on its phosphorylation at S177 by Tbk1. Knockdown of OPTN reduced starvation-induced autophagosome formation. M98K-OPTN expressing cells showed higher levels of Tbk1 activation and enhanced phosphorylation at Ser177 compared to WT-OPTN expressing cells. M98K-OPTN-induced activation of Tbk1 and its ability to be phosphorylated better by Tbk1 was dependent on ubiquitin binding. Phosphorylated M98K-OPTN localized specifically to autophagosomes and endogenous Tbk1 showed increased localization to autophagosomes in M98K-OPTN expressing cells. Overexpression of Tbk1 induced cell death and caspase-3 activation that were dependent on its catalytic activity. Tbk1-induced cell death possibly involves autophagy, as shown by the effect of Atg5 knockdown, and requirement of autophagic function of OPTN. Our results show that phosphorylation of Ser177 plays a crucial role in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy flux and retinal cell death. In addition, we provide evidence for cross talk between two glaucoma associated proteins and their inter-dependence to mediate autophagy-dependent cell death.
Project description:Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play diverse biological roles and are specifically involved in immune cell development and inflammation. However, their role in antiviral innate immunity has not been elucidated. Viral infection triggers the TBK1-IRF3 signaling pathway to stimulate the production of type-I interferon, which mediates antiviral immunity. We performed a functional screen of the nine mammalian PRMTs for regulators of IFN-? expression and found that PRMT6 inhibits the antiviral innate immune response. Viral infection also upregulated PRMT6 protein levels. We generated PRMT6-deficient mice and found that they exhibited enhanced antiviral innate immunity. PRMT6 deficiency promoted the TBK1-IRF3 interaction and subsequently enhanced IRF3 activation and type-I interferon production. Mechanistically, viral infection enhanced the binding of PRMT6 to IRF3 and inhibited the interaction between IRF3 and TBK1; this mechanism was independent of PRMT6 methyltransferase activity. Thus, PRMT6 inhibits antiviral innate immunity by sequestering IRF3, thereby blocking TBK1-IRF3 signaling. Our work demonstrates a methyltransferase-independent role for PRMTs. It also identifies a negative regulator of the antiviral immune response, which may protect the host from the damaging effects of an overactive immune system and/or be exploited by viruses to escape immune detection.
Project description:Mitochondria play an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The removal of damaged or depolarized mitochondria occurs via mitophagy, in which damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via ubiquitination induced by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). Here, we use live-cell imaging to demonstrate that OPTN, NDP52, and TAX1BP1 are recruited to mitochondria with similar kinetics following either mitochondrial depolarization or localized generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to sequestration by the autophagosome within ?45 min after insult. Despite this corecruitment, we find that depletion of OPTN, but not NDP52, significantly slows the efficiency of sequestration. OPTN is phosphorylated by the kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) at serine 177; we find that TBK1 is corecruited with OPTN to depolarized mitochondria. Inhibition or depletion of TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated OPTN or TBK1 mutant blocks efficient autophagosome formation. Together, these results indicate that although there is some functional redundancy among mitophagy receptors, efficient sequestration of damaged mitochondria in response to mitochondrial stress requires both TBK1 and OPTN. Notably, ALS-linked mutations in OPTN and TBK1 can interfere with mitophagy, suggesting that inefficient turnover of damaged mitochondria may represent a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:RNA has been proposed as an important scaffolding factor in the nucleus, aiding protein complex assembly in the dense intracellular milieu. Architectural contributions of RNA to cytosolic signaling pathways, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we devised a multidimensional gradient approach, which systematically locates RNA components within cellular protein networks. Among a subset of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) cosedimenting with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, our approach unveiled ncRNA MaIL1 as a critical structural component of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) immune signal transduction pathway. RNA affinity antisense purification-mass spectrometry (RAP-MS) revealed MaIL1 binding to optineurin (OPTN), a ubiquitin-adapter platforming TBK1 kinase. MaIL1 binding stabilized OPTN, and consequently, loss of MaIL1 blunted OPTN aggregation, TBK1-dependent IRF3 phosphorylation, and type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription downstream of TLR4. MaIL1 expression was elevated in patients with active pulmonary infection and was highly correlated with IFN levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Our study uncovers MaIL1 as an integral RNA component of the TLR4-TRIF pathway and predicts further RNAs to be required for assembly and progression of cytosolic signaling networks in mammalian cells.
Project description:Detection of cytosolic nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors leads to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and elicits the innate immune response. We report here the identification of RIOK3 as a novel adaptor protein that is essential for the cytosolic nucleic acid-induced type I IFN production and for the antiviral response to gammaherpesvirus through two independent kinome-wide RNA interference screens. RIOK3 knockdown blocks both cytosolic double-stranded B-form DNA and double-stranded RNA-induced IRF3 activation and IFN-? production. In contrast, the overexpression of RIOK3 activates IRF3 and induces IFN-?. RIOK3 functions downstream of TBK1 and upstream of IRF3 activation. Furthermore, RIOK3 physically interacts with both IRF3 and TBK1 and is necessary for the interaction between TBK1 and IRF3. In addition, global transcriptome analysis shows that the expression of many gene involved antiviral responses is dependent on RIOK3. Thus, knockdown of RIOK3 inhibits cellular antiviral responses against both DNA and RNA viruses (herpesvirus and influenza A virus). Our data suggest that RIOK3 plays a critical role in the antiviral type I IFN pathway by bridging TBK1 and IRF3. Importance: The innate immune response, such as the production of type I interferons, acts as the first line of defense, limiting infectious pathogens directly and shaping the adaptive immune response. In this study, we identified RIOK3 as a novel regulator of the antiviral type I interferon pathway. Specifically, we found that RIOK3 physically interacts with TBK1 and IRF3 and bridges the functions between TBK1 and IRF3 in the activation of type I interferon pathway. The identification of a cellular kinase that plays a role the type I interferon pathway adds another level of complexity in the regulation of innate immunity and will have implications for developing novel strategies to combat viral infection.