Dragon TF Association Miner: a system for exploring transcription factor associations through text-mining.
ABSTRACT: We present Dragon TF Association Miner (DTFAM), a system for text-mining of PubMed documents for potential functional association of transcription factors (TFs) with terms from Gene Ontology (GO) and with diseases. DTFAM has been trained and tested in the selection of relevant documents on a manually curated dataset containing >3000 PubMed abstracts relevant to transcription control. On our test data the system achieves sensitivity of 80% with specificity of 82%. DTFAM provides comprehensive tabular and graphical reports linking terms to relevant sets of documents. These documents are color-coded for easier inspection. DTFAM complements the existing biological resources by collecting, assessing, extracting and presenting associations that can reveal some of the not so easily observable connections among the entities found which could explain the functions of TFs and help decipher parts of gene transcriptional regulatory networks. DTFAM summarizes information from a large volume of documents saving time and making analysis simpler for individual users. DTFAM is freely available for academic and non-profit users at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/DRAGON/TFAM/.
Project description:The initiation and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes is complex and involves a large number of transcription factors (TFs), which are known to bind to the regulatory regions of eukaryotic DNA. Apart from TF-DNA binding, protein-protein interaction involving TFs is an essential component of the machinery facilitating transcriptional regulation. Proteins that interact with TFs in the context of transcription regulation but do not bind to the DNA themselves, we consider transcription co-factors (TcoFs). The influence of TcoFs on transcriptional regulation and initiation, although indirect, has been shown to be significant with the functionality of TFs strongly influenced by the presence of TcoFs. While the role of TFs and their interaction with regulatory DNA regions has been well-studied, the association between TFs and TcoFs has so far been given less attention. Here, we present a resource that is comprised of a collection of human TFs and the TcoFs with which they interact. Other proteins that have a proven interaction with a TF, but are not considered TcoFs are also included. Our database contains 157 high-confidence TcoFs and additionally 379 hypothetical TcoFs. These have been identified and classified according to the type of available evidence for their involvement in transcriptional regulation and their presence in the cell nucleus. We have divided TcoFs into four groups, one of which contains high-confidence TcoFs and three others contain TcoFs which are hypothetical to different extents. We have developed the Dragon Database for Human Transcription Co-Factors and Transcription Factor Interacting Proteins (TcoF-DB). A web-based interface for this resource can be freely accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/tcof/ and http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/tcof/.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer mortality. Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge for treating advanced CRC. Therefore, the identification of targets that induce drug resistance is a priority for the development of novel agents to overcome resistance. Dragon (also known as RGMb) is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family. We previously showed that Dragon expression increases with CRC progression in human patients. In the present study, we found that Dragon inhibited apoptosis and increased viability of CMT93 and HCT116 cells in the presence of oxaliplatin. Dragon induced resistance of xenograft tumor to oxaliplatinin treatment in mice. Mechanistically, Dragon inhibited oxaliplatin-induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation, and caspase-3 and PARP cleavages. Our results indicate that Dragon may be a novel target that induces drug resistance in CRC.
Project description:The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.
Project description:Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMa, RGMb/Dragon, and RGMc/hemojuvelin were found recently to act as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptors that enhance BMP signaling activity. Although our previous studies have shown that hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism through the BMP pathway, the role of the BMP signaling mediated by Dragon remains largely unknown. We have shown previously that Dragon is expressed in neural cells, germ cells, and renal epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Dragon is highly expressed in macrophages. Studies with RAW264.7 and J774 macrophage cell lines reveal that Dragon negatively regulates IL-6 expression in a BMP ligand-dependent manner via the p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways but not the Smad1/5/8 pathway. We also generated Dragon knockout mice and found that IL-6 is upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells derived from whole lung tissue of these mice compared with that in respective cells derived from wild-type littermates. These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Hibernation is a physiological state employed by many animals that are exposed to limited food and adverse winter conditions. Controlling tissue-specific and organism wide changes in metabolism and cellular function requires precise regulation of gene expression, including by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we profile miRNA expression in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) using small RNA sequencing of brain, heart, and skeletal muscle from individuals in late hibernation and four days post-arousal. A total of 1295 miRNAs were identified in the central bearded dragon genome; 664 of which were novel to central bearded dragon. We identified differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) in all tissues and correlated mRNA expression with known and predicted target mRNAs. Functional analysis of DEmiR targets revealed an enrichment of differentially expressed mRNA targets involved in metabolic processes. However, we failed to reveal biologically relevant tissue-specific processes subjected to miRNA-mediated regulation in heart and skeletal muscle. In brain, neuroprotective pathways were identified as potential targets regulated by miRNAs. Our data suggests that miRNAs are necessary for modulating the shift in cellular metabolism during hibernation and regulating neuroprotection in the brain. This study is the first of its kind in a hibernating reptile and provides key insight into this ephemeral phenotype.
Project description:Background and Purpose: The CT-DRAGON score was developed to predict long-term functional outcome after acute stroke in the anterior circulation treated by thrombolysis. Its implementation in clinical practice may be hampered by its plethora of variables. The current study was designed to develop and evaluate an alternative score, as a reduced set of features, derived from the original CT-DRAGON score. Methods: This single-center retrospective study included 564 patients treated for stroke, in the anterior and the posterior circulation. At 90 days, favorable [modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) of 0-2] and miserable outcome (mRS of 5-6) were predicted by the CT-DRAGON in 427 patients. Bootstrap forests selected the most relevant parameters of the CT-DRAGON, in order to develop a reduced set of features. Discrimination, calibration and misclassification of both models were tested. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the CT-DRAGON was 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.81) for favorable and 0.78 (95% CI 0.72-0.83) for miserable outcome. Misclassification was 29% for favorable and 13.5% for miserable outcome, with a 100% specificity for the latter. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), pre-stroke mRS and age were identified as the strongest contributors to favorable and miserable outcome and named the reduced features set. While CT-DRAGON was only available in 323 patients (57%), the reduced features set could be calculated in 515 patients (91%) (p < 0.001). Misclassification was 25.8% for favorable and 14.4% for miserable outcome, with a 97% specificity for miserable outcome. The reduced features set had better discriminative power than CT-DRAGON for both outcomes (both p < 0.005), with an AUROC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.79-0.86) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.77-0.87) for favorable and miserable outcome, respectively. Conclusions: The CT-DRAGON score revealed acceptable discrimination in our cohort of both anterior and posterior circulation strokes, receiving all treatment modalities. The reduced features set could be measured in a larger cohort and with better discrimination. However, the reduced features set needs further validation in a prospective, multicentre study. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifiers: NCT03355690, NCT04092543.
Project description:We present a unique program for identification of estrogen response elements (EREs) in genomic DNA and related analyses. The detection algorithm was tested on several large datasets and makes one prediction in 13 300 nt while achieving a sensitivity of 83%. Users can further investigate selected regions around the identified ERE patterns for transcription factor binding sites based on the TRANSFAC database. It is also possible to search for candidate human genes with a match for the identified EREs and their flanking regions within EPD annotated promoters. Additionally, users can search among the extended promoter regions of approximately 11 000 human genes for those that have a high degree of similarity to the identified ERE patterns. Dragon ERE Finder version 2 is freely available for academic and non-profit users (http://sdmc.lit.org.sg/ERE-V2/index).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. RESULTS: We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC), which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. CONCLUSION: DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.
Project description:Recognition of gene starts is a difficult and yet unsolved problem. We present a program, Dragon Gene Start Finder (DGSF), which assesses the gene start in mammalian genomes and predicts a region which should overlap with the first exon of the gene or be in its proximity. The program has been rigorously tested on human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22, and in a strand specific search achieves an overall sensitivity of approximately 65% and a positive predictive value of approximately 78%. The sensitivity for the CpG-island related promoters is >88%. DGSF is free for academic and non-profit users at http://sdmc.lit.org.sg/promoter/dragonGSF1_0/genestart.htm; the download version of the program integrated within the TRANSPLORER package can be obtained from Biobase GmbH, at http://www.biobase.de/.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.