Therapeutic silencing of KRAS using systemically delivered siRNAs.
ABSTRACT: Despite being among the most common oncogenes in human cancer, to date, there are no effective clinical options for inhibiting KRAS activity. We investigated whether systemically delivered KRAS siRNAs have therapeutic potential in KRAS-mutated cancer models. We identified KRAS siRNA sequences with notable potency in knocking down KRAS expression. Using lung and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, we assessed antiproliferative effects of KRAS silencing in vitro. For in vivo experiments, we used a nanoliposomal delivery platform, DOPC, for systemic delivery of siRNAs. Various lung and colon cancer models were used to determine efficacy of systemic KRAS siRNA based on tumor growth, development of metastasis, and downstream signaling. KRAS siRNA sequences induced >90% knockdown of KRAS expression, significantly reducing viability in mutant cell lines. In the lung cancer model, KRAS siRNA treatment demonstrated significant reductions in primary tumor growth and distant metastatic disease, while the addition of CDDP was not additive. Significant reductions in Ki-67 indices were seen in all treatment groups, whereas significant increases in caspase-3 activity were only seen in the CDDP treatment groups. In the colon cancer model, KRAS siRNA reduced tumor KRAS and pERK expression. KRAS siRNAs significantly reduced HCP1 subcutaneous tumor growth, as well as outgrowth of liver metastases. Our studies demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach to therapeutic KRAS targeting using nanoparticle delivery of siRNA. This study highlights the potential translational impact of therapeutic RNA interference, which may have broad applications in oncology, especially for traditional "undruggable" targets.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering miRNA mimics and siRNAs to lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer based on activation of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) and loss of p53 function. Therapeutic delivery of miR-34a, a p53-regulated tumor suppressor miRNA, restored miR-34a levels in lung tumors, specifically down-regulated miR-34a target genes, and slowed tumor growth. The delivery of siRNAs targeting Kras reduced Kras gene expression and MAPK signaling, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth. The combination of miR-34a and siRNA targeting Kras improved therapeutic responses over those observed with either small RNA alone, leading to tumor regression. Furthermore, nanoparticle-mediated small RNA delivery plus conventional, cisplatin-based chemotherapy prolonged survival in this model compared with chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RNA combination therapy is possible in an autochthonous model of lung cancer and provide preclinical support for the use of small RNA therapies in patients who have cancer.
Project description:UNLABELLED:RNAi is a powerful tool for target identification and can lead to novel therapies for pharmacologically intractable targets such as KRAS. RNAi therapy must combine potent siRNA payloads with reliable in vivo delivery for efficient target inhibition. We used a functional "Sensor" assay to establish a library of potent siRNAs against RAS pathway genes and to show that they efficiently suppress their targets at low dose. This reduces off-target effects and enables combination gene knockdown. We administered Sensor siRNAs in vitro and in vivo and validated the delivery of KRAS siRNA alone and siRNA targeting the complete RAF effector node (A/B/CRAF) as promising strategies to treat KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer. We further demonstrate that improved therapeutic efficacy is achieved by formulating siRNA payloads that combine both single-gene siRNA and node-targeted siRNAs (KRAS + PIK3CA/B). The customizable nature of Sensor siRNA payloads offers a universal platform for the combination target identification and development of RNAi therapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE:To advance RNAi therapy for KRAS-mutant cancer, we developed a validated siRNA library against RAS pathway genes that enables combination gene silencing. Using an in vivo model for real-time siRNA delivery tracking, we show that siRNA-mediated inhibition of KRAS as well as RAF or PI3K combinations can impair KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer in xenograft models.
Project description:Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo.
Project description:Co-administration of functionally distinct anti-cancer agents has emerged as an efficient strategy in lung cancer treatment. However, a specially designed drug delivery system is required to co-encapsulate functionally different agents, such as a combination of siRNA and chemotherapy, for targeted delivery. We developed a folic acid (FA)-conjugated polyamidoamine dendrimer (Den)-based nanoparticle (NP) system for co-delivery of siRNA against HuR mRNA (HuR siRNA) and cis-diamine platinum (CDDP) to folate receptor-? (FRA) -overexpressing H1299 lung cancer cells. The co-delivery of HuR siRNA and CDDP using the FRA-targeted NP had a significantly greater therapeutic effect than did individual therapeutics. Further, the FRA-targeted NP exhibited improved cytotoxicity compared to non-targeted NP against lung cancer cells. Finally, the NP showed negligible toxicity towards normal MRC9 lung fibroblast cells. Thus, the present study demonstrates FRA-targeted Den nanoparticle system as a suitable carrier for targeted co-delivery of siRNA and chemotherapy agents in lung cancer cells.
Project description:Targeted delivery of RNA-based therapeutics for cancer therapy remains a challenge. We have developed a LPH (liposome-polycation-hyaluronic acid) nanoparticle formulation modified with tumor-targeting single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) into experimental lung metastasis of murine B16F10 melanoma. The siRNAs delivered by the scFv targeted nanoparticles efficiently downregulated the target genes (c-Myc/MDM2/VEGF) in the lung metastasis. Two daily intravenous injections of the combined siRNAs in the GC4-targeted nanoparticles significantly reduced the tumor load in the lung. miRNA-34a (miR-34a) induced apoptosis, inhibited survivin expression, and downregulated MAPK pathway in B16F10 cells. miR-34a delivered by the GC4-targeted nanoparticles significantly downregulated the survivin expression in the metastatic tumor and reduced tumor load in the lung. When miR-34a and siRNAs were co-formulated in GC4-targeted nanoparticles, an enhanced anticancer effect was observed.
Project description:Cisplatin, is recognized as a first line therapeutic for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin resistance is identified as the most detrimental complication during treatment and has been associated with upregulation of several genes, such as the anti-apoptotic gene survivin. In this study, we have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of lipid (C6 and C8)-modified platinum compounds in combination with a survivin-silencing siRNA against cisplatin resistant tumors.We synthesized and characterized several lipid-modified platinum compounds and evaluated their cytotoxic activity alone or in combination with survivin-silencing siRNA in vitro and in vivo against A549DDP cells and in vivo in tumor xenograft model.The lipid-modified compounds exhibited significantly stronger cytotoxic activity in vitro compared to cisplatin, with CDDP-C6 and CDDP-C8 producing the most pronounced effect, in both A549 and A549DDP cells. Pre-treatment of the A549DDP cells with survivin-silencing siRNA enhanced the cytotoxic activity of these compounds. In vivo, the co-treatment of the survivin-silencing siRNA and CDDP-C8 produced the strongest tumor growth inhibition effect (64.5%, p?<?0.05) on a cancer mouse model of chemoresistant lung cancer. In contrast, cisplatin treatment exhibited no significant tumor growth inhibition (4.5%, no p).Co-treatment of lipid-modified compounds and survivin-silencing siRNA can constitute a reliable alternative to cisplatin treatment for cisplatin-resistant lung tumors that merit further evaluation.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) uses small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to mediate gene-silencing in cells and represents an emerging strategy for cancer therapy. Successful RNAi-mediated gene silencing requires overcoming multiple physiological barriers to achieve efficient delivery of siRNAs into cells in vivo, including into tumor and/or host cells in the tumor micro-environment (TME). Consequently, lipid and polymer-based nanoparticle siRNA delivery systems have been developed to surmount these physiological barriers. In this article, we review the strategies that have been developed to facilitate siRNA survival in the circulatory system, siRNA movement from the blood into tissues and the TME, targeted siRNA delivery to the tumor or specific cell types, cellular uptake, and escape from endosomal degradation. We also discuss the use of various types of lipid and polymer-based carriers for cancer therapy, including a section on anti-tumor nanovaccines enhanced by siRNAs. Finally, we review current and recent clinical trials using NPs loaded with siRNAs for cancer therapy. The siRNA cancer therapeutics field is rapidly evolving, and it is conceivable that precision cancer therapy could, in the relatively near future, benefit from the combined use of cancer therapies, for example immune checkpoint blockade together with gene-targeting siRNAs, personalized for enhancing and fine-tuning a patient's therapeutic response.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. To identify molecular targets for colorectal cancer therapy, we tested small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against 97 genes whose expression was elevated in human colorectal cancer tissues for the ability to promote apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29 cells). The results indicate that the downregulation of PSMA7 (proteasome subunit, alpha-type, 7) and RAN (ras-related nuclear protein) most efficiently induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells. PSMA7 and RAN were highly expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines compared with normal colon tissues. Furthermore, PSMA7 and RAN were overexpressed in not only colon tumor tissues but also the other tumor tissues. Moreover, in vivo delivery of PSMA7 siRNA and RAN siRNA markedly induced apoptosis in HT-29 xenograft tumors in mice. Thus, silencing of PSMA7 and RAN induces cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, and PSMA7 and RAN might be promising new molecular targets for drug and RNA interference-based therapeutics against colorectal cancer.
Project description:Anticancer therapeutics employing RNA interference mechanism holds promising potentials for sequence-specific silencing of target genes. However targeted delivery of siRNAs to tumor tissues and cells and more importantly, their intracellular release at sites of interest still remains a major challenge that needs to be addressed before this technique could become a clinically viable option. In the current study, we have engineered and screened a series of CD44 targeting hyaluronic acid (HA) based self-assembling nanosystems for targeted siRNA delivery. The HA polymer was functionalized with lipids of varying carbon chain lengths/nitrogen content, as well as polyamines for assessing siRNA encapsulation. From the screens, several HA-derivatives were identified that could stably encapsulate/complex siRNAs and form self-assembled nanosystems, as determined by gel retardation assays and dynamic light scattering. Many HA derivatives could transfect siRNAs into cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Interestingly, blocking the CD44 receptors on the cells using free excess soluble HA prior to incubation of cy3-labeled-siRNA loaded HA nano-assemblies resulted in >90% inhibition of the receptor mediated uptake, confirming target specificity. In addition, SSB/PLK1 siRNA encapsulated in HA-PEI/PEG nanosystems demonstrated dose dependent and target specific gene knockdown in both sensitive and resistant A549 lung cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. More importantly, these siRNA encapsulated nanosystems demonstrated tumor selective uptake and target specific gene knock down in vivo in solid tumors as well as in metastatic tumors. The HA based nanosystems thus portend to be promising siRNA delivery vectors for systemic targeting of CD44 overexpressing cancers including tumor initiating (stem-) cells and metastatic lesions.
Project description:Efficient target-specific siRNA delivery has always been a primary concern in the field of siRNA clinical application.In this study, four different types of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody-conjugated immunonanoparticles were prepared and tested for cancer cell-targeted therapeutic siRNA delivery.The prepared nanoparticles encapsulating siRNAs were character-ized by gel retardation and particle analysis using a Zetasizer. In vitro transfection and reduction of target genes, vimentin and JAK3, were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vivo tumor targeting and antitumoral efficacies of the nanoparticles were evaluated in mice carrying tumors.Among these immunonanoparticles, anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes and immunoviroplexes exhibited remarkable cell binding and siRNA delivery to EGFR-expressing tumor cells compared to immunoliposomes and immunovirosomes. Especially, the anti-EGFR immunoviroplexes exhibited the most efficient siRNA transfection to target tumor cells. Therefore, antitumoral vimentin and Janus kinase-3 siRNAs were loaded in the anti-EGFR immunolipoplexes and immunoviroplexes, which were tested in mice carrying SK-OV-3 tumor xenografts. In fact, the therapeutic siRNAs were efficiently delivered to the tumor tissues by both delivery vehicles, resulting in significant inhibition of tumor growth. Moreover, administration of doxorubicin in combination with anti-EGFR immunoviroplexes resulted in remarkable and synergistic tumor growth inhibition.This study provides experimental proof that cancer cell-targeted immunoviroplexes are an efficient siRNA delivery system for cancer therapy. Moreover, this study also suggests that a combination of conventional chemotherapy and tumor-directed anticancer siRNA therapy would be a better modality for cancer treatment.