Systematic Review: Representativeness of Participants in RCTs of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether there are differences in age and sex distribution and presence of comorbidities between participants included in randomized controlled trials of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and nationwide cohort of persons with Alzheimer's disease.PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched for original articles from their inception to January 4, 2015. Double-blind randomized controlled trials with donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine compared to placebo in participants with Alzheimer's disease were included. Data from a nationwide cohort of persons with clinically verified diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease was defined as a reference population.128 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, 31 of them fulfilled criteria. Mean age of participants in randomized controlled trials (n = 15,032) was 5.8 years lower (95% CI 5.7 to 5.9, P < 0.001), compared to the mean age of 79.7 years in the reference population with Alzheimer's disease (n = 28,093). Most of the articles did not report age distribution of participants. The proportion of women was 63.2% (9,475/14,991) in randomized controlled trials and 67.8% (19,043/28,093) (P < 0.001) in the reference population. Information on comorbidities and use of concomitant drugs were lacking or poorly reported in most articles.There is a discrepancy between participants in randomized controlled trials of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and real-life population with Alzheimer's disease. Participants in randomized controlled trials were significantly younger. Further, more detailed reporting of age distribution, comorbidities and concomitant drugs would be important information for clinicians when evaluating conclusions from randomized controlled trials to real-life practice. The existing recommendations of inclusion of older people should be followed to ensure safe pharmacotherapy for older people.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with both oxidative stress and excessive glutamate activity. A clinical trial was designed to compare the effectiveness of (i) alpha-tocopherol, a vitamin E antioxidant; (ii) memantine (Namenda), an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist; (iii) their combination; and (iv) placebo in delaying clinical progression in AD.The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program initiated a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in August 2007, with enrollment through March 2012 and follow-up continuing through September 2012. Participants with mild-to-moderate AD who were taking an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor were assigned randomly to 2000 IU/day of alpha-tocopherol, 20 mg/day memantine, 2000 IU/day alpha-tocopherol plus 20 mg/day memantine, or placebo. The primary outcome for the study is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Secondary outcome measures include the Mini-Mental State Examination; the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive portion; the Dependence Scale; the Neuropsychiatric Inventory; and the Caregiver Activity Survey. Patient follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4 years.A total of 613 participants were randomized. The majority of the patients were male (97%) and white (86%), with a mean age of 79 years. The mean Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living Inventory score at entry was 57 and the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score at entry was 21.This large multicenter trial will address the unanswered question of the long-term safety and effectiveness of alpha-tocopherol, memantine, and their combination in patients with mild-to-moderate AD taking an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The results are expected in early 2013.
Project description:Hypertensive urgency (HU), defined as acute severe uncontrolled hypertension without end-organ damage, is a common condition. Despite its association with long-term morbidity and mortality, guidance regarding immediate management is sparse. Our objective was to summarize the evidence examining the effects of antihypertensive medications to treat.We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Embase through May 2016.We evaluated prospective controlled clinical trials, case-control studies, and cohort studies of HU in emergency room (ER) or clinic settings. We initially identified 11,223 published articles. We reviewed 10,748 titles and abstracts and identified 538 eligible articles. We assessed the full text for eligibility and included 31 articles written in English that were clinical trials or cohort studies and provided blood pressure data within 48 h of treatment. Studies were appraised for risk of bias using components recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. The main outcome measured was blood pressure change with antihypertensive medications. Since studies were too diverse both clinically and methodologically to combine in a meta-analysis, tabular data and a narrative synthesis of studies are presented.We identified only 20 double-blind randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies, with 262 participants in prospective controlled trials. However, we could not pool the results of studies. In addition, comorbidities and their potential contribution to long-term treatment of these subjects were not adequately addressed in any of the reviewed studies.Longitudinal studies are still needed to determine how best to lower blood pressure in patients with HU. Longer-term management of individuals who have experienced HU continues to be an area requiring further study, especially as applicable to care from the generalist.
Project description:To quantify the proportion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) specifically designed for elderly, and to assess their characteristics, as compared to RCTs not specifically designed for elderly.Review and synthesis of published literature.We searched PubMed for articles published in the year 2012. We included RCTs. Articles were excluded if not conducted with human subjects or if findings of secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn and of this selection the following trial characteristics were extracted: sample size, disease category, age of sample, and age-related inclusion criteria. Clinical trials were defined to be specifically designed for elderly if a lower age cut-off of ? 55 years was used, or when participants had an average age of ? 70 years.The search strategy yielded 26,740 articles, from which a random sample was drawn, resulting in 2375 articles. After exclusion, data was extracted from 1369 publications. Of these 1369 RCTs, 96 (7%) were specifically designed for elderly. In comparison with trials not designed for older adults, trials designed for elderly contained a significantly larger median number of participants (125 vs. 80, p = 0.008) significantly more trials designed for elderly fell into the disease categories eye (6% vs. 2%, p = 0.005), musculoskeletal (13% vs. 7%, p = 0.023) and circulatory system (16% vs. 9%, p = 0.039). No significant difference was observed with regard to the other disease categories.There is a low proportion of RCTs specifically designed for elderly. As older patients will increasingly form the majority in medical practice, there is an urgent need for stronger evidence for the formulation of treatment guidelines specifically for older adults.
Project description:The age gap between participants in trials and patients who could benefit from the drugs studied has been widely documented across different clinical areas. Patients with dementia included in clinical research are systematically younger than those in the general population. We examined the age gap between participants in recent clinical trials testing interventions for Alzheimer's disease and epidemiological data.We systematically searched literature databases (MedLine, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library) and ClinicalTrials.gov from 2000 to July 2015 to retrieve clinical trials testing pharmacologic treatments for Alzheimer's disease, other than cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine. We included ongoing and completed phase II/III randomized clinical trials, irrespective of their publication status. From each study reporting the participants' ages, we extracted size of sample, mean age, and standard deviation, and estimated the proportions of participants in different age classes. The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease by age class in the USA population was used for comparison.We included 165 clinical trials testing almost 100 different compounds, which enrolled or planned to enroll about 74,300 participants. Seventy-nine of these trials, accounting for about 26,800 participants, reported the age of the participants. The weighted mean age was 73.6 years (standard deviation, 8.2). People younger than 80 years were highly represented in clinical trials (78 %), despite the fact that those aged 80 and older form the majority (72 %) of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Only 8 % of clinical trial participants were 85 years or older.Patients enrolled in clinical trials on Alzheimer's disease are far from being representative of actual distribution of the patients in the general population. Clinical research should not be designed and conducted overlooking the fact that the majority of individuals with Alzheimer's disease are likely to be 80 or older.
Project description:Introduction:Several studies have tested the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist memantine as an add-on to pre-existing treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined memantine and galantamine-CR de novo regimen compared with galantamine-CR only treatment in never treated patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods:Antidementia drug-naïve participants (n = 232) with probable, mild-to-moderate AD, and mini-mental state examination scores between 15 and 26 (inclusive) were randomized to receive either 20 mg/day memantine plus 24 mg/day galantamine-CR or 24 mg/day galantamine-CR plus placebo in a 52-week, prospective, double-blind, controlled trial. The primary outcome measurement was the change on the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognition score. Secondary measures comprised the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-activities of daily living inventory and the clinical dementia rating. Results:At the end of the trial, there were no statistically significant differences between the galantamine-CR/memantine combination and galantamine-CR only group in primary and secondary outcome measurements. The incidence and the severity of adverse events were similar between the groups. Discussion:In this trial, memantine in combination with galantamine-CR did not show an advantage with respect to cognition, function, and behavior in previously never treated patients with mild-to-moderate AD. There were no significant differences in tolerability and safety between the groups. Thus, a de novo combination treatment results in no significant improvement in disease progression (current controlled trials number: NCT01921972).
Project description:AIMS: Antibiotics are a key resource for the management of infectious diseases in neonatology and their evaluation is particularly challenging. We reviewed medical literature to assess the characteristics and quality of randomized controlled trials on antibiotics in neonatal infections. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from January 1995 to March 2010. Bibliographies of relevant articles were also hand-searched. We included all randomized controlled trials that involved neonates and evaluated the use of an antibiotic agent in the context of a neonatal infectious disease. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad scale and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and evaluated methodological quality. RESULTS: A total of 35 randomized controlled trials were evaluated. The majority were conducted in a single hospital institution, without funding. Median sample size was 63 (34-103) participants. The most frequently evaluated antibiotic was gentamicin. Respectively, 18 (51%) and 17 (49%) trials evaluated the therapeutic or prophylactic use of antibiotics in various neonatal infections. Overall, the methodological quality was poor and did not improve over the years. Risk of bias was high in 66% of the trials. CONCLUSIONS: Design and reporting of randomized controlled trials of antibacterial agents in neonates should be improved. Nevertheless, the necessity of implementing such trials when antibacterial efficacy has already been established in other age groups may be questioned and different methods of evaluation should be further developed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Down syndrome (DS) is associated with an almost universal development of Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with DS are therefore an important population for randomized controlled trials to prevent or delay cognitive decline, though it is essential to understand the time course of early cognitive changes. METHODS:We conducted the largest cognitive study to date with 312 adults with DS to assess age-related and Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive changes during progression from preclinical to prodromal dementia, and prodromal to clinical dementia. RESULTS:Changes in memory and attention measures were most sensitive to early decline. Resulting sample size calculations for randomized controlled trials to detect significant treatment effects to delay decline were modest. DISCUSSION:Our findings address uncertainties around the development of randomized controlled trials to delay cognitive decline in DS. Such trials are essential to reduce the high burden of dementia in people with DS and could serve as proof-of-principle trials for some drug targets.
Project description:Importance:Systematic differences between patients included in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the general patient population may influence the generalizability of RCT findings. Comprehensive national registries of patients with end-stage kidney disease who are undergoing dialysis provide a unique opportunity to compare trial and real-world patient cohorts. Objective:To determine if participants in large, multicenter dialysis trials were similar to the general population undergoing dialysis in terms of age, comorbidities, and mortality rate. Data Sources:MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched on January 6, 2017, for studies published from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Data sources were published manuscripts, supplementary material, and trial registration information. Data on the general population undergoing dialysis were derived from the US Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were analyzed from March 17 to July 22, 2018. Study Selection:Randomized clinical trials enrolling only participants undergoing dialysis for end-stage kidney disease with 100 or more adult participants from 2 or more sites. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Abstract screening and data extraction were performed independently by 2 researchers. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was difference in mean age between the RCT and USRDS populations. Secondary outcomes included differences in mortality rate and comorbidities. Results:The search identified 189 RCTs, enrolling 80?104 participants. Compared with the 2011 USRDS population, RCT participants were younger (mean age, 58.9 years; 95% CI, 58.3-59.5 years vs 61.2 years; P?<?.001), more likely to be male (58.8%; 95% CI, 57.5%-60.0% vs 55.7%; P?<?.001), and have coronary artery disease (26.7%; 95% CI, 22.1%-31.4% vs 17.7%; P?<?.001) and less likely to have diabetes (40.4%; 95% CI, 36.9%-43.8% vs 44.2%; P?=?.04) or heart failure (19.9%; 95% CI, 15.6%-24.3% vs 29.8%; P?<?.001). The mortality rate per 100 patient-years during trial participation was less than half that of the USRDS population (8.9; 95% CI, 7.9-10.0 vs 18.6; P?<?.001). The differences in age, mortality, and coronary artery disease remained when studies recruiting only from the United States were considered. Diabetes was more common in RCT participants from the United States than in the registry population. Conclusions and Relevance:Participants in large, multicenter RCTs of patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing dialysis are younger, have a different pattern of comorbidities, and have a lower mortality rate than the general population of patients undergoing dialysis. This finding has implications for the generalization of trial results to the broader patient population and for future trial design.
Project description:There are concerns about the potential for unintentional harms when clinical practice guidelines are applied to patients with multimorbidity. The objective was to summarize the evidence regarding the effect(s) of comorbidity on the outcomes of medication for an index chronic condition.A systematic review was conducted of studies published in MEDLINE and Cochrane Trials before May 2012. The search strategy was constructed to identify articles indexed with "comorbidity" or a related term or by a given condition and one or more additional specified comorbid conditions. The search yielded 3252 articles, of which 37 passed the title/abstract screening process, and 22 were included after full-text review. An additional 23 articles were identified by screening the reference lists for included articles. Information was extracted on study design; population; therapy; comparison groups; outcome(s); main findings.Indexing of articles was inconsistent, with no term for "multimorbidity," and rare use of "comorbidity". Only one article examined the effects of comorbidity per se, finding no benefit of tight control of DM among persons with high comorbidity, defined using a comorbidity index. The remainder examined pairs of conditions, the majority of which were post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials and which found no difference in outcomes according to whether a comorbid condition was present. Several demonstrated no difference or an increased risk of adverse outcome among persons with DM and tight control of HTN as compared to usual control. Several demonstrated lack of benefit of statins among persons with end-stage renal disease.There is limited evidence regarding the effects of multiple comorbidities on treatment outcomes. The majority of studies demonstrated no effect of a single comorbid condition on outcomes. Additional studies examining a broad range of comorbidity are required, along with clear and consistent indexing to allow for improved synthesis of the evidence.
Project description:Introduction:We evaluated the selective M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator, MK-7622, as adjunctive cognitive enhancing therapy in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Methods:A randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept trial was performed. Participants with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, being treated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, were randomized 1:1 to 45 mg of MK-7622 or placebo for 24 weeks. Endpoints included the mean change from baseline in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog11) at 12 weeks and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory at 24 weeks. Results:Two hundred forty participants were randomized. The trial was stopped for futility after meeting prospectively defined stopping criteria. MK-7622 did not improve cognition at 12 weeks (group difference in ADAS-Cog11: 0.18 [95% confidence interval: -1.0 to 1.3]) or function at 24 weeks (group difference in Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory: 0.06 [95% confidence interval: -2.4 to 2.5]). More participants taking MK-7622 discontinued study medication because of adverse events than those taking placebo (16% vs 6%) and who experienced cholinergically related adverse events (21% vs 8%). Discussion:MK-7622 (45 mg) does not improve cognition or function when used as adjunctive therapy in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.