The Differential Proteome of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Grown on the Potential Prebiotic Cellobiose Shows Upregulation of Two ? -Glycoside Hydrolases.
ABSTRACT: Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-?-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-?-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of ?- and ?-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various ?- and ?-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-?-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of ?- and ?-linked hexoses, and ?-xylosides. RESULTS: The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and ?-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and ?-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:Probiotic microbes rely on their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, adhere to mucosal surfaces, and metabolize available energy sources from dietary compounds, including prebiotics. Genome sequencing projects have proposed models for understanding prebiotic catabolism, but mechanisms remain to be elucidated for many prebiotic substrates. Although ?-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are documented prebiotic compounds, little is known about their utilization by lactobacilli. This study aimed to identify genetic loci in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM responsible for the transport and catabolism of GOS. Whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays were used to survey the differential global transcriptome during logarithmic growth of L. acidophilus NCFM using GOS or glucose as a sole source of carbohydrate. Within the 16.6-kbp gal-lac gene cluster, lacS, a galactoside-pentose-hexuronide permease-encoding gene, was up-regulated 5.1-fold in the presence of GOS. In addition, two ?-galactosidases, LacA and LacLM, and enzymes in the Leloir pathway were also encoded by genes within this locus and up-regulated by GOS stimulation. Generation of a lacS-deficient mutant enabled phenotypic confirmation of the functional LacS permease not only for the utilization of lactose and GOS but also lactitol, suggesting a prominent role of LacS in the metabolism of a broad range of prebiotic ?-galactosides, known to selectively modulate the beneficial gut microbiota.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics can be used to modulate both the composition and activity of the gut microbiota and thereby potentially affecting host health beneficially. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight synbiotic combinations on the composition and activity of human fecal microbiota using a four-stage semicontinuous model system of the human colon.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>Carbohydrates were selected by their ability to enhance growth of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (Bl-04) under laboratory conditions. The most effective carbohydrates for each probiotic were further investigated, using the colonic model, for the ability to support growth of the probiotic bacteria, influence the composition of the microbiota and stimulate formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).The following combinations were studied: NCFM with isomaltulose, cellobiose, raffinose and an oat ?-glucan hydrolysate (OBGH) and Bl-04 with melibiose, xylobiose, raffinose and maltotriose. All carbohydrates showed capable of increasing levels of NCFM and Bl-04 during fermentations in the colonic model by 10(3)-10(4) fold and 10-10(2) fold, respectively. Also the synbiotic combinations decreased the modified ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes (calculated using qPCR results for Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Clostridium perfringens cluster I, Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale group and Clostridial cluster XIV) as well as significantly increasing SCFA levels, especially acetic and butyric acid, by three to eight fold, as compared to the controls. The decreases in the modified ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes were found to be correlated to increases in acetic and butyric acid (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results of this study show that all synbiotic combinations investigated are able to shift the predominant bacteria and the production of SCFA of fecal microbiota in a model system of the human colon, thereby potentially being able to manipulate the microbiota in a way connected to human health.
Project description:Prebiotics are selectively fermentable dietary compounds that result in changes in the composition and/or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefits upon host health. In veterinary medicine, commercially available products containing prebiotics have not been well studied with regard to the changes they trigger on the composition of the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of a commercially available nutraceutical containing fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin on the fecal microbiota of healthy cats and dogs when administered for 16 days. Fecal samples were collected at two time points before and at two time points during prebiotic administration. Total genomic DNA was obtained from fecal samples and 454-pyrosequencing was used for 16S rRNA gene bacterial profiling. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method was used for detecting bacterial taxa that may respond (i.e., increase or decrease in its relative abundance) to prebiotic administration. Prebiotic administration was associated with a good acceptance and no side effects (e.g., diarrhea) were reported by the owners. A low dose of prebiotics (50 mL total regardless of body weight with the end product containing 0.45% of prebiotics) revealed a lower abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and a higher abundance of Veillonellaceae during prebiotic administration in cats, while Staphylococcaceae showed a higher abundance during prebiotic administration in dogs. These differences were not sufficient to separate bacterial communities as shown by analysis of weighted UniFrac distance metrics. A predictive approach of the fecal bacterial metagenome using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) also did not reveal differences between the period before and during prebiotic administration. A second trial using a higher dose of prebiotics (3.2 mL/kg body weight with the end product containing 3.1% of prebiotics) was tested in dogs and revealed a lower abundance of Dorea (family Clostridiaceae) and a higher abundance of Megamonas and other (unknown) members of Veillonellaceae during prebiotic administration. Again, these changes were not sufficient to separate bacterial communities or predicted metabolic profiles according to treatment. A closer analysis of bacterial communities at all time-points revealed highly individualized patterns of variation. This study shows a high interindividual variation of fecal bacterial communities from pet cats and dogs, that these communities are relatively stable over time, and that some of this variation can be attributable to prebiotic administration, a phenomenon that may be affected by the amount of the prebiotic administered in the formulation. This study also provides insights into the response of gut bacterial communities in pet cats and dogs during administration of commercially available products containing prebiotics. More studies are needed to explore potentially beneficial effects on host health beyond changes in bacterial communities.
Project description:Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents.
Project description:Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants.Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi² test. An I² test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I²> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity.Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide/Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD -0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD -0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.68, n=56).There is not enough evidence to state that supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics results in improved growth and clinical outcomes in exclusively formula fed preterm infants.
Project description:Probiotics (usually lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and prebiotics (non-digestible oligosaccharides) have been shown to be useful in preventing certain disease conditions as well as possibly promoting specific aspects of health. In the present review, the evidence from clinical trials for benefits from probiotics and prebiotics to elderly populations is presented and discussed, specifically in respect of three common conditions found in the elderly. Both probiotics and prebiotics may be helpful in malnutrition, particularly in lactose intolerance and calcium absorption, and in constipation. Probiotics have been shown clearly to boost immunity in the elderly, but the clinical significance of this remains to be clarified. These results are encouraging, and further large scale studies seem justified to establish the place of probiotic and prebiotic supplements in elderly subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Simple and safe strategies for the prevention of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are needed. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that early prebiotic or probiotic supplementation would reduce the risk of virus-associated RTIs during the first year of life in a cohort of preterm infants. METHODS:In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00167700), 94 preterm infants (gestational age, ?32 + 0 and ?36 + 6 weeks; birth weight, >1500 g) treated at Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, were allocated to receive oral prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose mixture, 1:1), a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53103), or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) between days 3 and 60 of life. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically defined virus-associated RTI episodes confirmed from nasal swabs by using nucleic acid testing. Secondary outcomes were the severity and duration of RTIs. RESULTS:A significantly lower incidence of RTIs was detected in infants receiving prebiotics (rate ratio [RR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P < .001) or probiotics (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.90; P = .022) compared with those receiving placebo. Also, the incidence of rhinovirus-induced episodes, which comprised 80% of all RTI episodes, was found to be significantly lower in the prebiotic (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.66; P = .003) and probiotic (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-1.00; P = .051) groups compared with the placebo group. No differences emerged among the study groups in rhinovirus RNA load during infections, duration of rhinovirus RNA shedding, duration or severity of rhinovirus infections, or occurrence of rhinovirus RNA in asymptomatic infants. CONCLUSIONS:Gut microbiota modification with specific prebiotics and probiotics might offer a novel and cost-effective means to reduce the risk of rhinovirus infections.
Project description:Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), a prebiotic supplement, is known for its Bifidogenic capabilities. However, aspects such as effect of variable quantities of FOS intake on gut microbiota, and temporal dynamics of gut microbiota (transitioning through basal, dosage, and follow-up phases) has not been studied in detail. This study investigated these aspects through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response relationship study. The study involved 80 participants being administered FOS at three dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 g/day) or placebo (Maltodextrin 10 g/day) during dosage phase. Microbial DNA extracted from fecal samples collected at 9 intervening time-points was sequenced and analysed. Results indicate that FOS consumption increased the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Interestingly, higher FOS dosage appears to promote, in contrast to Maltodextrin, the selective proliferation of OTUs belonging to Lactobacillus. While consumption of prebiotics increased bacterial diversity, withdrawal led to its reduction. Apart from probiotic bacteria, a significant change was also observed in certain butyrate-producing microbes like Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira. The positive impact of FOS on butyrate-producing bacteria and FOS-mediated increased bacterial diversity reinforces the role of prebiotics in conferring beneficial functions to the host.