Dietary L-arginine supplementation protects weanling pigs from deoxynivalenol-induced toxicity.
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the positive effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) on piglets fed a deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diet. A total of eighteen, 28-day-old healthy weanling pigs were randomly assigned into one of three groups: uncontaminated basal diet (control group), 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet (DON group) and 6 mg/kg DON + 1% L-arginine (DON + ARG group). After 21 days of Arg supplementation, piglets in the DON and DON + ARG groups were challenged by feeding 6 mg/kg DON-contaminated diet for seven days. The results showed that DON resulted in damage to piglets. However, clinical parameters, including jejunal morphology, amino acid concentrations in the serum, jejunum and ileum, were improved by Arg (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels for sodium-glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1), glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2) and y(+)L-type amino acid transporter-1 (y(+)LAT-1) were downregulated in the DON group, but the values were increased in the DON + ARG group (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with Arg exerts a protective role in pigs fed DON-contaminated diets.
Project description:The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and intestinal protective effects of baicalin-copper on deoxynivalenol-challenged piglets. Forty weaned piglets were randomly divided into four groups and assigned to different diets: (1) basal diet (Con), (2) 4?mg/kg deoxynivalenol of basal diet (DON), (3) 5?g/kg baicalin-copper of basal diet (BCU); and (4) 4?mg/kg?deoxynivalenol + 5?g/kg?baicalin-copper of basal diet (DBCU). The results showed that the ADFI and ADG of piglets in the DON group were markedly lower than those in the Con group, but the ADFI and ADG of the DBCU group were not significantly different from those of the Con group. In piglets fed a DON-contaminated diet, dietary supplementation with BCU significantly decreased the mRNA levels of P70S6K, 4E-BP1, and HSP70 in the liver, the protein expression of HO-1 in the jejunum, and the expression of p-Nrf2 and p-NF-?B in the ileum but increased Mn-SOD activity in serum. Dietary supplementation with BCU increased jejunal maltase, ZIP4 and MT mRNA levels, and serum concentrations of Arg, Val, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Tyr in DON-contaminated piglets. In summary, BCU can alleviate the growth impairment induced by DON and enhance antioxidant capacity and nutrition absorption in piglets fed DON-contaminated diets.
Project description:The present experiment assessed the inflammatory responses, hormone secretion, and gut microbiota of weanling piglets administered baicalin-copper complex (BCU) or deoxynivalenol (DON) supplementation diets. Twenty-eight piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: control diet (Con group), a 4 mg DON/kg diet (DON group), a 5 g BCU/kg diet (BCU group), a 5 g BCU + 4 mg DON/kg diet (DBCU group). After 14 days, the results showed that dietary BCU supplementation remarkably increased the relative abundance of Clostrium bornimense and decreased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the DBCU group (p < 0.05). BCU decreased the serum concentration of IgG, IL-2, IFN-?, and IgA in DON treated piglets (p < 0.05), and promoted the serum concentration of IL-1?, IgG, IL-2, IFN-?, IgA, IL-6, IgM, and TNF? in normal piglets (p < 0.05). BCU increased the concentrations of serum IGF1, insulin, NPY, GLP-1, and GH, and decreased the concentrations of serum somatostatin in no DON treated piglets (p < 0.05). Dietary BCU supplementation significantly promoted the secretion of somatostatin, and inhibited the secretion of leptin in piglets challenged with DON (p < 0.05). BCU regulated the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary of piglets. Collectively, dietary BCU supplementation alleviated inflammatory responses and regulated the secretion of appetite-regulating hormones and growth-axis hormones in DON challenged piglets, which was closely linked to changes of intestinal microbes.
Project description:We investigated the effects of feeding sodium sulfite (SoS) treated uncontaminated and Fusarium contaminated maize in a porcine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge model. Eighty piglets (7.59 ± 0.92 kg body weight [BW]) were equally assigned to one of four experimental diets containing 10% maize, either uncontaminated and untreated (CON-, 0.09 mg deoxynivalenol [DON]/kg diet) or uncontaminated and SoS-treated (CON+, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; 0.05 mg DON/kg diet), or prepared with 10% of a Fusarium contaminated maize containing mainly deoxynivalenol (DON), either contaminated and untreated (FUS-, 5.36 mg DON/kg diet), or contaminated and SoS-treated (FUS+, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; 0.83 mg DON/kg diet). At day 42 of experiment, ten pigs of each group were injected intraperitoneally with either 7.5 µg LPS/kg BW or placebo (0.9% NaCl). At 120 min after injection, blood samples were collected to analyse TNF-?, hematological profile, clinical biochemistry as well as the redox status. A significant increase in body temperature and cytokine TNF-? concentration was observed in the LPS-injected piglets. Results for hematology, clinical chemistry and redox status indicate no effects of SoS treatment, with exception of neutrophil counts being significantly more pronounced after feeding the SoS treated FUS maize. In conclusion, SoS treatment of maize did not modulate the LPS-induced acute inflammation.
Project description:Background:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species in the field, commonly found in cereal grains, which negatively affects performances and health of animals. Mycotoxin binders are supposed to reduce the toxicity of mycotoxins. Method:The effect of a mycotoxin binder (containing acid-activated bentonite, clinoptilolite, yeast cell walls and organic acids) on growth performance and gut health was studied. Hundred and twenty weaning piglets were allocated to 4 treatments, with 5 pens of 6 piglets each, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design: control diet; control diet with 1 kg/t binder; control diet with DON; and control diet with DON and 1 kg/t binder. From d0-14, the diet of DON-challenged groups was artificially contaminated with a mixture of DON (2.6 mg/kg), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.1 mg/kg) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.3 mg/kg), after which the total contamination level was reduced to 1 mg/kg, until d37. On d14, one pig from each pen was euthanized and distal small intestinal mucosa samples were collected for the assessment of intestinal permeability, and gene expression of tight junction proteins, toll-like receptor 4, inflammatory cytokines and intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Results:After 37 d, there were no differences in growth performance between control and DON-challenged groups (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, groups that received diets with binder had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) for the first 14 d as well as for the whole period, compared to groups without binder (P ? 0.05). Groups with binder in the diet also exhibited lower expression of toll-like receptor 4 in distal small intestinal mucosa at d14, compared to groups without binder (P ? 0.05). Interestingly, comparing the two DON treatments, piglets fed DON and binder had significantly higher ADFI and ADG compared to those with only DON for the first 14-d (P ? 0.05). Addition of binder to DON contaminated diets, also down-regulated the gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (P ? 0.05) and increased mRNA level zona occludens 1 (P ? 0.10) as compared to DON. Conclusions:The present data provide evidence that the binder improves growth rate in piglets associated with reduction of toll-like receptor-4 and increase of tight junction protein gene expression. However, the current study does not allow to assess whether the effects of the binder are mediated by alterations in the toxicokinetics of the mycotoxin.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of feed may result in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems in swine. Piglets can be exposed to DON via placenta before birth and via milk during lactation. The extent of early-life exposure of piglets to DON is, however, not fully known. This study was therefore aimed at investigating DON uptake in sows fed with naturally contaminated diets, DON transfer across placenta during late gestation, and transfer of DON to piglets via colostrum and milk. Forty-four crossbred sows were evaluated from day 93 ± 1 of gestation until weaning of piglets and fed with feed made from naturally DON-contaminated oats at three concentration levels: (1) control (DON < 0.2 mg/kg), (2) DON level 1 (1.4 mg DON/kg), and (3) DON level 2 (1.7 mg DON/kg). The transfer of DON to the piglets was evaluated in 15 sows, with repeated sampling of blood and milk from the sows and blood samples from five piglets of each litter. The piglet/sow plasma DON ratio and milk/plasma (M/P) DON ratio in sows were calculated to estimate the degree of transfer. Piglet/sow plasma ratios were 2.14 at birth, 2.30 within 12?36 h after parturition, 0.08 on day 7, 0.16 on day 21, and 0.20 at weaning. M/P ratios were 0.92, 1.11, 0.94, 1.21, and 0.90, respectively. The results indicate that DON is efficiently transferred across placenta and into milk. However, the low piglet/sow plasma ratios at mid-lactation to weaning indicate that the piglets were most strongly exposed to DON in early life, despite the high M/P ratios and efficient secretion of DON in milk throughout the entire lactation.
Project description:We investigated the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) and chloroquine (CQ) in supporting growth performance and the intestinal mucosal barrier in response to deoxynivalenol (DON) in piglets. A total of 32 healthy weaned piglets (bodyweight 7.10 ± 0.58?kg) were divided into four groups and treated daily with RAPA (1?mg/kg BW), CQ (10?mg/kg BW), or a control volume of normal saline (two groups) until the end of the experiment. After feeding a basal diet for seven days, three groups were then switched to mildewed feed containing 1?mg?kg/DON for a further seven days. In contrast to the control group, DON-treated piglets showed decreased average daily gain (ADG) and daily feed intake (ADFI), as well as negatively affected intestinal morphology as indicated by villus height, crypt depth, and tight junction protein expression. A group treated with RAPA and DON showed increased intestinal autophagy, aggravated inflammatory responses, and damage to the intestinal mucosa and permeability, leading to reduced growth performance. Meanwhile, a group treated with CQ and DON showed indices comparable to the non-DON control group, with alleviated inflammatory cytokines and healthy intestinal morphology and structure. They also showed better growth performance compared to DON treatment alone. These findings have important implications for mediating autophagy against DON in vivo, as well as the potential for CQ in improving growth performance and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in weanling piglets.
Project description:We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20-0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30-3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0.08) or average daily gain (ADG) (p > 0.10) but it did significantly reduce body weight over time relative to the control piglets (p < 0.05). Cytokine analysis after initial exposure to the DON-contaminated feed did not result in significant differences in serum interleukin (IL) IL1?, IL-8, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? or interferon (IFN)-?. After day 24, no obvious changes in jejunum or ileum gut morphology, histology or changes in gene expression for IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF?, or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 genes. IL-8 showed a trend towards increased expression in the ileum in DON-fed piglets. A significant increase in gene expression for claudin (CLDN) 7 gene expression and a trend towards increased CLDN 2-expression was observed in the ileum in piglets fed the highly DON-contaminated wheat. Because CLDN localization was not negatively affected, we believe that it is unlikely that gut permeability was affected. Exposure to DON-contaminated feed did not significantly impact weaner piglet performance or gut physiology.
Project description:Trefoil factors (TFFs) are regulatory peptides playing critical roles in mucosal repair and protection against a variety of insults within the gastrointestinal tract. This work aimed to explore the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on intestinal TFFs expression using in vivo and in vitro models. In an animal trial, twenty-four 28-d-old barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; initial body weight = 7.6 ± 0.7 kg) were randomly divided into three treatments for 28 days, including a control diet (0.61 mg DON/kg feed), and two levels of DON-contaminated diets containing 1.28 and 2.89 mg DON/kg feed, respectively. Piglets exposed to DON had lower mRNA expression of TFF1, TFF2, TFF3, as well as Claudin-4 in the intestine (P < 0.05). Dietary DON exposure decreased the protein levels of TFF2 and TFF3 in the jejunum as demonstrated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. In intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), DON depressed the mRNA expression of TFF2, TFF3, and Claudin-4. Overexpression of sterile alpha motif (SAM) pointed domain E26 transformation-specific (ETS) factor (SPDEF) was found to attenuate DON-induced suppression of TFFs in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, our work shows, for the first time, that dietary DON exposure depresses the expression of intestinal TFFs in piglets. Given the fundamental role of TFFs in intestinal mucosal homeostasis, our observations indicate that the DON content in animal feed should be strictly controlled based on the existing regulation for DON.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, and exposure to this mycotoxin requires an assessment of the potential adverse effects, even at low toxin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term, low-dose DON exposure on various gut health parameters in pigs. Piglets received a commercial feed or the same feed contaminated with DON (0.9 mg/kg feed) for 10 days, and two hours after a DON bolus (0.28 mg/kg BW), weight gain was determined and samples of different segments of the intestine were collected. Even the selected low dose of DON in the diet negatively affected weight gain and induced histomorphological alterations in the duodenum and jejunum. The mRNA expression of different tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially occludin, of inflammatory markers, like interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 and the oxidative stress marker heme-oxigenase1, were affected along the intestine by low levels of DON in the diet. Taken together, our results indicate that even after low-level exposure to DON, which has been generally considered as acceptable in animal feeds, clinically-relevant changes are measurable in markers of gut health and integrity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most prevalent <i>Fusarium</i> mycotoxin in grains is deoxynivalenol (DON). Contamination of swine feed with DON can result in reduced consumption and poor growth performance. Gestating and lactating sows need sufficient feed intake for fetus development during late gestation and milk production and body maintenance during lactation. Therefore, there is considerable concern in modern piglet production about the effects of DON contamination in sow feed. Most previous studies in sows have been done under experimental conditions, with DON levels ?2.8 mg/kg feed. The aim of the current field trial was to investigate the effects of feeding grains that are naturally contaminated with more realistic levels of DON on sows during late gestation and lactation.<h4>Methods</h4>In a commercial, high-yield specific pathogen-free piglet production unit, 45 Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire sows were fed three diets from 93?±?1 days of gestation until weaning of the piglets, and average daily feed intake (ADFI), body weight (BW), production and reproduction performance, as well as sow blood parameters were recorded. Diets were made from naturally contaminated oats, with three concentration levels: 1) control (DON <?0.2 mg/kg), 2) DON level 1 (1.4 mg DON/kg), and 3) DON level 2 (1.7 mg DON/kg).<h4>Results</h4>Sows that were fed DON level 1 and 2 diets showed a 4-10% reduction in feed consumption during lactation, compared with sows in the control group. However, the DON-contaminated diets did not significantly affect sow BW or backfat thickness. Similarly, there were neither effects on production or reproduction performance, nor on blood parameters in the sows. The effects on skin temperature were variable.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Naturally contaminated diets with realistic, moderately increased DON levels, fed during late gestation and lactation in a modern high-yield piglet production farm, had limited effects on sow health and production.