An internet-based adolescent depression preventive intervention: study protocol for a randomized control trial.
ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in adolescents and the low rate of successful treatment highlight a pressing need for accessible, affordable adolescent depression prevention programs. The Internet offers opportunities to provide adolescents with high quality, evidence-based programs without burdening or creating new care delivery systems. Internet-based interventions hold promise, but further research is needed to explore the efficacy of these approaches and ways of integrating emerging technologies for behavioral health into the primary care system.We developed a primary care Internet-based depression prevention intervention, Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training (CATCH-IT), to evaluate a self-guided, online approach to depression prevention and are conducting a randomized clinical trial comparing CATCH-IT to a general health education Internet intervention. This article documents the research framework and randomized clinical trial design used to evaluate CATCH-IT for adolescents, in order to inform future work in Internet-based adolescent prevention programs. The rationale for this trial is introduced, the current status of the study is reviewed, and potential implications and future directions are discussed.The current protocol represents the only current, systematic approach to connecting at-risk youth with self-directed depression prevention programs in a medical setting. This trial undertakes the complex public health task of identifying at-risk individuals through mass screening of the general primary care population, rather than solely relying on volunteers recruited over the Internet, and the trial design provides measures of both symptomatic and diagnostic clinical outcomes. At the present time, we have enrolled N?=?234 adolescents/expected 400 and N?=?186 parents/expected 400 in this trial, from N?=?6 major health systems. The protocol described here provides a model for a new generation of interventions that blend substantial computer-based instruction with human contact to intervene to prevent mental disorders such as depression. Because of the potential for broad generalizability of this model, the results of this study are important, as they will help develop the guidelines for preventive interventions with youth at-risk for the development of depressive and other mental disorders.NCT01893749 date 6 May 2012.
Project description:<label>OBJECTIVE</label>To explore the implementation of CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an Internet-based depression intervention program in 12 primary care sites, occurring as part of a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 versions of the intervention (motivational interview + Internet program versus brief advice + Internet program) in 83 adolescents aged 14 to 21 years recruited from February 1, 2007, to November 31, 2007.<label>METHOD</label>The CATCH-IT intervention model consists of primary care screening to assess risk, a primary care physician interview to encourage participation, and 14 online modules of Internet training to teach adolescents how to reduce behaviors that increase vulnerability to depressive disorders. Specifically, we evaluated this program from both a management/organizational behavioral perspective (provider attitudes and demonstrated competence) and a clinical outcomes perspective (depressed mood scores) using the RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of the intervention).<label>RESULTS</label>While results varied by clinic, overall, clinics demonstrated satisfactory reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of the CATCH-IT depression prevention program. Measures of program implementation and management predicted clinical outcomes at practices in exploratory analyses.<label>CONCLUSION</label>Multidisciplinary approaches may be essential to evaluating the impact of complex interventions to prevent depression in community settings. Primary care physicians and nurses can use Internet-based programs to create a feasible and cost-effective model for the prevention of mental disorders in adolescents in primary care settings.<label>TRIAL REGISTRATION</label>ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00152529 and NCT00145912.
Project description:We developed and tested two primary care based approaches for the early identification and prevention of depressive disorders in adolescents. We conducted a randomized controlled trial originally intended to compare Brief Advice (BA) + Internet intervention with Motivational Interviewing (MI) + Internet intervention in primary care for adolescents experiencing persistent subthreshold depression (Project CATCH-IT). This is an exploratory long-term 2.5 year follow-up study of a phase II study comparing pre/post outcomes and potential moderators of outcomes. Participants (n=44) in the entire cohort maintained from baseline and continued to reduce depressive symptoms and percentage of subsyndromal depression. Greater motivation for depression prevention and lower ratings of self-efficacy at baseline were associated with greater declines in depression symptoms. These results suggest adolescents can be followed-up after Internet studies and there may be evidence of sustained reductions in depressed mood. The CATCH-IT model offers the possibility of a long term effect, but these results are limited by the small sample size and pre-post design. A large scale randomized clinical trial of the intervention is currently in progress.
Project description:We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.
Project description:Background and Purpose:Depression affects millions of adolescents in the United States each year. This population may benefit from targeted preventive interventions. We sought to understand the internal factors that affect the ability of healthcare organizations to implement an intervention that involves mental health screening and depression prevention treatment of at-risk adolescents in primary care settings. Methods:From November 2011 to July 2016 we conducted a study of the implementation of a multisite (N=30) phase 3 randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based depression prevention intervention program (CATCH-IT). We describe the prevalence of internal barriers on the screening and enrollment process by reporting REACH (the proportion of target audience exposed to the intervention). Results:A total of 369 adolescents were randomized into the intervention or control program. Mean REACH values for the study clinics were 0.216 for screening and 0.181 for enrollment to CATCH-IT. Mean REACH enrollment lost due to internal barriers was 0.233. This translated to 4,691 adolescents lost at screening and 2,443 adolescents lost at enrollment due to internal barriers. Conclusion:We propose a model of the implementation process that emphasizes the importance of positive relational work that assists in overcoming internal barriers to REACH. We also provide implications for policy and practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adolescent depression carries a high burden of disease worldwide, but access to care for this population is limited. Prevention is one solution to curtail the negative consequences of adolescent depression. Internet interventions to prevent adolescent depression can overcome barriers to access, but few studies examine long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE:This study compares CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an internet-based intervention, to a general health education active control for depression onset at 12 and 24 months in adolescents presenting to primary care settings. METHODS:A 2-site randomized trial, blinded to the principal investigators and assessors, was conducted comparing Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training to health education to prevent depressive episodes in 369 adolescents (193 youths were randomly assigned to Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training and 176 to health education) with subthreshold depressive symptoms or prior depressive episodes. Participants were recruited from primary care settings in the United States. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a depressive episode, determined by the Depression Symptom Rating. The secondary outcome was functioning, measured by the Global Assessment Scale. RESULTS:In intention-to-treat analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio favoring Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training for first depressive episode was not statistically significant at 12 months (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.42-1.40, P=.39) and 24 months (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.52-1.47, P=.61). Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training provided preventive benefit for first depressive episode for those with mild hopelessness or at least moderate paternal monitoring at baseline. Global Assessment Scale scores improved comparably in both groups (intention-to-treat). CONCLUSIONS:A technology-based intervention for adolescent depression prevention implemented in primary care did not have additional benefit at 12 or 24 months. Further research is necessary to determine whether internet interventions have long-term benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01893749; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01893749.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We developed a primary care/Internet-based intervention for adolescents at risk for depression (CATCH-IT, Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral, Humanistic and Interpersonal Training). This phase II clinical trial compares two forms of primary care provider (PCP) engagement (motivational interview [MI] and brief advice [BA]) for adolescents using the Internet program. METHOD:ADOLESCENTS SCREENING POSITIVE FOR DEPRESSION WERE RECRUITED FROM PRIMARY CARE PRACTICES AND RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO A VERSION OF THE INTERVENTION: PCP MI + Internet program or PCP BA + Internet program. Between-group and within-group comparisons were conducted on depressive disorder outcome measures at baseline and one-year post-enrollment. Regression analyses examined factors predicting declines in depressed mood. RESULTS:Both groups demonstrated significant within-group decreases in depressed mood, loneliness, and self-harm ideation. While no between-group differences were noted in depressed mood or depressive disorder measures at one-year, fewer participants in the MI group had experienced a depressive episode. Greater participant automatic negative thoughts and more favorable ratings of a component of the Internet-based training experience predicted declines in depressed mood at one-year. CONCLUSIONS:A primary care/Internet-based intervention for depression prevention demonstrated sustained reductions in depressed mood, and, when coupled with motivational interviewing, reduction in the likelihood of being diagnosed with a depressive episode. This tool may help extend the services at the disposal of a primary care provider and can provide a bridge for adolescents at risk for depression prior to referral to mental health specialists.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Although 13-20% of American adolescents experience a depressive episode annually, no scalable primary care model for adolescent depression prevention is currently available.<h4>Objective</h4>To study whether CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training) reduces the hazard for depression in at-risk adolescents identified in primary care, as compared to a general health education attention control (HE).<h4>Design</h4>The Promoting AdolescenT Health (PATH) study compares CATCH-IT and HE in a phase 3 single-blind multicenter randomized attention control trial. Participants were enrolled from 2012 to 2016 and assessed at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-randomization.<h4>Setting</h4>Primary care.<h4>Participants</h4>Eligible adolescents were 13-18 years with subsyndromal depression and/or history of depression and no current depression diagnosis or treatment. Of 2,250 adolescents screened for eligibility, 446 participants completed the baseline interview and 369 were randomized into CATCH-IT (n=193) and HE (n=176).<h4>Interventions</h4>CATCH-IT is a 20-module (15 adolescent modules, 5 parent modules) online psychoeducation course that includes a parent program, supported by three motivational interviews.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Time-to-event for depressive episode; depressive symptoms at 6 months.<h4>Results</h4>Mean age was 15.4 years, and 68% were female; 28% had both a past episode and subsyndromal depression; 12% had a past episode only, 59% had subsyndromal depression only, and 1% had borderline subsyndromal depression. The outcome of time-to-event favored CATCH-IT but was not significant with intention-to-treat analyses (N=369; <i>unadjusted</i> HR=0.59; 95% CI 0.27, 1.29; p=0.18; <i>adjusted</i> HR=0.53; 95% CI 0.23, 1.23, p=0.14). Adolescents with higher baseline CES-D<sub>10</sub> scores showed a significantly stronger effect of CATCH-IT on time-to-event relative to those with lower baseline scores (p=0.04). For example, for a CES-D<sub>10</sub> score of 15 (significant sub-syndromal depression), HR=0.20 (95% CI 0.05, 0.77), compared to CES-D<sub>10</sub> of 5 (no sub-syndromal depression), HR=1.44 (95% CI, 0.41, 5.03). In both CATCH-IT and HE groups, depression symptoms declined and functional scores increased.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>CATCH-IT may be better than HE for preventing depressive episodes for at-risk adolescents with sub-syndromal depression. CATCH-IT may be a scalable approach to prevent depressive episodes in adolescents in primary care.
Project description:Family-based behavioral interventions are efficacious and effective in preventing drug use and sexual risk behaviors; unfortunately, they have not been evaluated and disseminated in pediatric primary care practice, where they can have a significant impact. There is an increased focus on integrating parenting interventions into primary care to reduce health disparities among ethnic minorities such as Hispanics. Although Hispanic youth demonstrate higher levels of drug use and sexual risk behaviors than their non-Hispanic counterparts, few parenting interventions are available for Hispanic youth, and none have been delivered specifically to Hispanic adolescents in primary care. Therefore, this manuscript describes the rationale and design of an Internet-based, family-centered, Hispanic-specific, evidence-based prevention intervention, eHealth Familias Unidas Primary Care. Hispanic adolescents (n?=?456) and their care givers will be recruited from pediatric primary care clinics in South Florida and randomized to: eHealth Familias Unidas Primary Care or prevention as usual. The intervention will be delivered by trained interns, clinic volunteers, social workers, mental health counselors, students, and nurses. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 6, 12, 24, and 36?months post-baseline. This study will determine whether the intervention, compared to prevention as usual, is effective in reducing drug use, unprotected sex, and STI incidence in Hispanic youth through the improvement of family functioning. Additionally, we will determine the cost effectiveness of delivering eHealth Familias Unidas within primary care settings. The effectiveness of eHealth Familias Unidas Primary Care will further inform the need to integrate effective behavioral health interventions into primary care settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents' internet use for health-related matters. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents' health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research. METHODS:A total of 19 studies were selected from a search of major electronic databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO using the following search terms: "health-related internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose," "Web-based resource," "health information seeking," and "online resource," combined with "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The children's and adolescents' ages were limited to 24 years and younger. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. The studies identified to contain youth (<24 years) health-related internet use were all published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years; these studies examined general internet use seeking health care services, resources, information, or using the internet for health promotion and self-care. Studies were excluded if they explored the role of the internet as a modality for surveys, recruitment, or searching for relevant literature without specifically aiming to study participants' health-related internet use; focused solely on quality assurance for specific websites; or were designed to test a specific internet-based intervention. RESULTS:Interesting patterns in adolescents' health-related internet use, such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues, were identified. Quantitative studies reported rates of the internet use and access among youth, and the purpose and patterns of health-related internet use among youth were identified. A major objective of health-related internet use is to gain information, but there are inconsistencies in adolescents' perceptions of health-related internet use. CONCLUSIONS:This study's findings provide important information on how youth seek information and related support systems for their health care on the internet. The conceptual and methodological limitations of the identified studies, such as the lack of a theoretical background and unrepresentative samples, are discussed, and gaps within the studies are identified for future research. This review also suggests important features for potential Web-based health interventions for children and adolescents.
Project description:This article describes a mixed-methods approach to understand the experience of adolescents involved in the Internet-based intervention for depression, Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training (CATCH-IT), as well as the experiences of their parents while they were involved. Qualitative analysis was done with grounded theory-based categorization of interview comments and typed program responses (adolescents only) into themes. Quantitative analysis was done with self-report surveys. The article describes the nine themes reflecting the adolescent experience and the three themes reflecting the parent experience. The article also describes the results of the quantitative surveys of helpfulness and attitudes change, which were favorable of the Internet-based intervention. Separate models explaining the psychological transformation of the adolescents and the experience of the parents are proposed. The positive experience of the adolescents and parents involved in CATCH-IT is discussed in the context of growing interest in how best to utilize Internet-based interventions for mental illness, and suggestions are made for future investigation.