PPAR?-Deficient ob/ob Obese Mice Become More Obese and Manifest Severe Hepatic Steatosis Due to Decreased Fatty Acid Oxidation.
ABSTRACT: Obesity poses an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and closely associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including liver cancer. Satiety hormone leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, considered paradigmatic of nutritional obesity, develop hepatic steatosis but are less prone to developing liver tumors. Sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in ob/ob mouse liver increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which contributes to attenuation of obesity but enhances liver cancer risk. To further evaluate the role of PPAR?-regulated hepatic FAO and energy burning in the progression of fatty liver disease, we generated PPAR?-deficient ob/ob (PPAR?(?)ob/ob) mice. These mice become strikingly more obese compared to ob/ob littermates, with increased white and brown adipose tissue content and severe hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis becomes more severe in fasted PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice as they fail to up-regulate FAO systems. PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice also do not respond to peroxisome proliferative and mitogenic effects of PPAR? agonist Wy-14,643. Although PPAR?(?)ob/ob mice are severely obese, there was no significant increase in liver tumor incidence, even when maintained on a diet containing Wy-14,643. We conclude that sustained PPAR? activation-related increase in FAO in fatty livers of obese ob/ob mice increases liver cancer risk, whereas deletion of PPAR? in ob/ob mice aggravates obesity and hepatic steatosis. However, it does not lead to liver tumor development because of reduction in FAO and energy burning.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Myc is involved in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, energy metabolism, and differentiation. Whether it is essential for hepatocellular proliferation and carcinogenesis is unclear due to a lack of an efficient hepatocyte-specific Myc disruption model. This study used a novel genetic model to investigate the involvement of Myc in hepatocellular proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. METHODS:Temporal hepatocyte-specific Myc disruption was achieved by use of the tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ER(T2) recombinase system under control of the serum albumin promoter. Hepatocyte proliferation was assessed by administering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist Wy-14,643. A diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer model was used to evaluate the role of Myc in hepatocarcinogenesis. RESULTS:Tamoxifen administration induced recombination of Myc specifically in hepatocytes of Myc(fl/fl,ERT2-Cre) mice. When treated with a known hepatocellular proliferative stimulus Wy-14,643, Myc(fl/fl,ERT2-Cre) mice showed a lower liver/body weight ratio and suppressed hepatocyte proliferation as compared to Myc(fl/fl) mice. Hepatic expression of cell cycle control genes, DNA repair genes, and Myc target gene miRNAs were upregulated in Wy-14,643-treated Myc(fl/fl) mouse livers, but not in Wy-14,643-treated Myc(fl/fl,ERT2-Cre) livers. However, no differences were observed in the lipid-lowering effect of Wy-14,643 between Myc(fl/fl,ERT2-Cre) and Myc(fl/fl) mice, consistent with no differences in the expression of several PPAR? target genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation. Moreover, when subjected to the diethylnitrosamine liver cancer bioassay, Myc(fl/fl,ERT2-Cre) mice exhibited a markedly lower incidence of tumor formation compared with Myc(fl/fl) mice. CONCLUSIONS:Myc plays an essential role in hepatocellular proliferation and liver tumorigenesis.
Project description:Recently, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? has been implicated in hepatic lipid accumulation. We found that the C3H mouse strain does not express PPAR? in the liver and, when subject to a high-fat diet, is resistant to hepatic steatosis, compared with C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Adenoviral PPAR?2 injection into B6 and C3H mice caused hepatic steatosis, and microarray analysis demonstrated that hepatic PPAR?2 expression is associated with genes involved in fatty acid transport and the triglyceride synthesis pathway. In particular, hepatic PPAR?2 expression significantly increased the expression of monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (MGAT1). Promoter analysis by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that PPAR?2 directly regulates the MGAT1 promoter activity. The MGAT1 overexpression in cultured hepatocytes enhanced triglyceride synthesis without an increase of PPAR? expression. Importantly, knockdown of MGAT1 in the liver significantly reduced hepatic steatosis in 12-wk-old high-fat-fed mice as well as ob/ob mice, accompanied by weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. These results suggest that the MGAT1 pathway induced by hepatic PPAR? is critically important in the development of hepatic steatosis during diet-induced obesity.
Project description:A number of chemical compounds have been shown to induce liver tumors in mice but not in other species. While several mechanisms for this species-specific tumorigenicity have been proposed, no definitive mechanism has been established. We examined the effects of the nongenotoxic rodent hepatic carcinogen, WY-14,643, in male mice from a high liver tumor susceptible strain (C3H/HeJ), and from a low tumor susceptible strain (C57BL/6). WY-14,643, a PPAR? activator induced widespread increases in the expression of some endogenous retroelements, namely members of LTR and LINE elements in both strains. The expression of a number of known retroviral defense genes was also elevated. We also demonstrated that basal immune-mediated viral defense was elevated in C57BL/6 mice (the resistant strain) and that WY-14,643 further activated those immuno-defense processes. We propose that the previously reported >100X activity of retroelements in mice drives mouse-specific tumorigenicity. We also propose that C57BL/6's competent immune to retroviral activation allows it to remove cells before the activation of these elements can result in significant chromosomal insertions and mutation. Finally, we showed that WY-14,643 treatment induced gene signatures of DNA recombination in the sensitive C3H/HeJ strain.
Project description:Obesity is a calorie-excessive state associated with high risk of diabetes, atherosclerosis, and certain types of tumors. Obesity may induce inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). We found that the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), a major transcription factor mediating IFN responses, was lower in livers of obese mice than in those of their lean counterparts. Furthermore, whole-body IRF9 knockout (KO) mice were more obese and had aggravated IR, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation after chronic high-fat diet feeding. In contrast, adenoviral-mediated hepatic IRF9 overexpression in both diet-induced and genetically (ob/ob) obese mice showed markedly improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and attenuated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. We further employed a yeast two-hybrid screening system to investigate the interactions between IRF9 and its cofactors. Importantly, we identified that IRF9 interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-?), an important metabolism-associated nuclear receptor, to activate PPAR-? target genes. In addition, liver-specific PPAR-? overexpression rescued insulin sensitivity and ameliorated hepatic steatosis and inflammation in IRF9 KO mice.IRF9 attenuates hepatic IR, steatosis, and inflammation through interaction with PPAR-?.
Project description:UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (Ugt) catalyze phase II conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, which enhances chemical polarity and the elimination from the body. Few studies have addressed whether Ugt expression and activity are affected by liver disease, such as steatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether steatosis induced by obesity or fasting could affect liver Ugt mRNA expression and activity. Male C57BL/6J and Lep(ob/ob) (ob/ob) mice were fed ad libitum or food was withheld for 24 h. In steatotic livers of ob/ob mice, Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a9, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression increased. Fasting, which also induced steatosis, increased hepatic Ugt1a1, -1a6, -1a7, -1a9, -2b1, -2b5, -2a3, -3a1, and -3a2 mRNA expression in mouse liver. Likewise, acetaminophen glucuronidation increased by 47% in hepatic microsomes from ob/ob mice compared with that in C57BL/6J mice, but not after fasting. In both steatosis models, Ugt induction was accompanied by increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, pregnane X receptor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? mRNA expression. In addition, fasting increased CAR, PPAR, and Nrf2 binding activity. The work points to hepatic triglyceride concentrations corresponding with nuclear receptor and Ugt expression. The findings indicate that steatosis significantly alters hepatic Ugt expression and activity, which could have a significant impact on determining circulating hormone levels, drug efficacy, and environmental chemical clearance.
Project description:Obesity, a major health concern, results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are paradigmatic of obesity, resulting from excess energy intake and storage. Mice lacking acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), the first enzyme of the peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation system, are characterized by increased energy expenditure and a lean body phenotype caused by sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) by endogenous ligands in liver that remain unmetabolized in the absence of Acox1. We generated ob/ob mice deficient in Acox1 (Acox1(-/-)) to determine how the activation of PPAR? by endogenous ligands might affect the obesity of ob/ob mice. In contrast to Acox1(-/-) (14.3±1.2 g at 6 mo) and the Acox1-deficient (ob/ob) double-mutant mice (23.8±4.6 g at 6 mo), the ob/ob mice are severely obese (54.3±3.2 g at 6 mo) and had significantly more (P<0.01) epididymal fat content. The resistance of Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice to obesity is due to increased PPAR?-mediated up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver. Activation of PPAR? in Acox1-deficient ob/ob mice also reduces serum glucose and insulin (P<0.05) and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Further, PPAR? activation reduces hepatic steatosis and increases hepatocellular regenerative response in Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice at a more accelerated pace than in mice lacking only Acox1. However, Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice manifest hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and also develop hepatocellular carcinomas (8 of 8 mice) similar to those observed in Acox1(-/-) mice (10 of 10 mice), but unlike in ob/ob (0 of 14 mice) and OB/OB (0 of 6 mice) mice, suggesting that superimposed ER stress and PPAR? activation contribute to carcinogenesis in a fatty liver. Finally, absence of Acox1 in ob/ob mice can impart resistance to high-fat diet (60% fat)-induced obesity, and their liver had significantly (P<0.01) more cell proliferation. These studies with Acox1(-/-)/ob/ob mice indicate that sustained activation of lipid-sensing nuclear receptor PPAR? attenuates obesity and restores glucose homeostasis by ameliorating insulin resistance but increases the risk for liver cancer development, in part related to excess energy combustion.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate lipogenesis and inflammation, but their contribution to the metabolic syndrome is unclear. We show that LXRs modulate key aspects of the metabolic syndrome in mice. LXR??-deficient-ob/ob (LOKO) mice remain obese but show reduced hepatic steatosis and improved insulin sensitivity compared to ob/ob mice. Impaired hepatic lipogenesis in LOKO mice is accompanied by reciprocal increases in adipose lipid storage, reflecting tissue-selective effects on the SREBP, PPAR?, and ChREBP lipogenic pathways. LXRs are essential for obesity-driven SREBP-1c and ChREBP activity in liver, but not fat. Furthermore, loss of LXRs in obesity promotes adipose PPAR? and ChREBP-? activity, leading to improved insulin sensitivity. LOKO mice also exhibit defects in ? cell mass and proliferation despite improved insulin sensitivity. Our data suggest that sterol sensing by LXRs in obesity is critically linked with lipid and glucose homeostasis and provide insight into the complex relationships between LXR and insulin signaling.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) is a major regulator of fatty acid oxidation and severe hepatic steatosis occurs during acute fasting in Ppara-null mice. Thus, PPARA is considered an important mediator of the fasting response; however, its role in other fasting regiments such as every-other-day fasting (EODF) has not been investigated.Mice were pre-conditioned using either a diet containing the potent PPARA agonist Wy-14643 or an EODF regimen prior to acute fasting. Ppara-null mice were used to assess the contribution of PPARA activation during the metabolic response to EODF. Livers were collected for histological, biochemical, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analysis.Acute fasting activated PPARA and led to steatosis, whereas EODF protected against fasting-induced hepatic steatosis without affecting PPARA signaling. In contrast, pretreatment with Wy-14,643 did activate PPARA signaling but did not ameliorate acute fasting-induced steatosis and unexpectedly promoted liver injury. Ppara ablation exacerbated acute fasting-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and liver injury in mice, whereas these detrimental effects were absent in response to EODF, which promoted PPARA-independent fatty acid metabolism and normalized serum lipids.These findings indicate that PPARA activation prior to acute fasting cannot ameliorate fasting-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas EODF induced metabolic adaptations to protect against fasting-induced steatosis without altering PPARA signaling. Therefore, PPARA activation does not mediate the metabolic adaptation to fasting, at least in preventing acute fasting-induced steatosis.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) controls lipid homeostasis through regulation of lipid transport and catabolism. PPAR? activators are clinically used for hyperlipidemia treatment. The role of PPAR? in bile acid (BA) homeostasis is beginning to emerge. Herein, Ppara-null and hepatocyte-specific Ppara-null (Ppara?Hep) as well as the respective wild-type mice were treated with the potent PPAR? agonist Wy-14,643 (Wy) and global metabolomics performed to clarify the role of hepatocyte PPAR? in the regulation of BA homeostasis. Levels of all serum BAs were markedly elevated in Wy-treated wild-type mice but not in Ppara-null and Ppara?Hep mice. Gene expression analysis showed that PPAR? activation (1) down-regulated the expression of sodium-taurocholate acid transporting polypeptide and organic ion transporting polypeptide 1 and 4, responsible for the uptake of BAs into the liver; (2) decreased the expression of bile salt export pump transporting BA from hepatocytes into the bile canaliculus; (3) upregulated the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 and 4 transporting BA from hepatocytes into the portal vein. Moreover, there was a notable increase in the compositions of serum, hepatic and biliary cholic acid and taurocholic acid following Wy treatment, which correlated with the upregulated expression of the Cyp8b1 gene encoding sterol 12?-hydroxylase. The effects of Wy were identical between the Ppara?Hep and Ppara-null mice. Hepatocyte PPAR? controlled BA synthesis and transport not only via direct transcriptional regulation but also via crosstalk with hepatic farnesoid X receptor signaling. These findings underscore a key role for hepatocyte PPAR? in the control of BA homeostasis.
Project description:Creosote bush-derived nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, possesses antioxidant properties and functions as a potent antihyperlipidemic agent in rodent models. Here, we examined the effect of chronic NDGA treatment of ob/ob mice on plasma dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and changes in hepatic gene expression. Feeding ob/ob mice a chow diet supplemented with either low (0.83 g/kg diet) or high-dose (2.5 g/kg diet) NDGA for 16 wk significantly improved plasma triglyceride (TG), inflammatory chemokine levels, hyperinsulinemia, insulin sensitivity, and glucose intolerance. NDGA treatment caused a marked reduction in liver weight and TG content, while enhancing rates of fatty acid oxidation. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression demonstrated that NDGA treatment altered genes for lipid metabolism, with genes involved in fatty acid catabolism most significantly increased. NDGA upregulated the mRNA and nuclear protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), and the activated (phosphorylated) form of AMP-activated kinase. NDGA increased PPAR? promoter activity in AML12 hepatocytes and also prevented the fatty acid suppression of PPAR? expression. In contrast, PPAR? siRNA abrogated the stimulatory effect of NDGA on fatty acid catabolism. Likewise, no stimulatory effect of NDGA on hepatic fatty acid oxidation was observed in the livers of PPAR?-deficient mice, but the ability of NDGA to reverse fatty liver conditions was unaffected. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of NDGA on dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice are exerted primarily through enhanced fatty acid oxidation via PPAR?-dependent pathways. However, PPAR?-independent pathways also contribute to NDGA's action to ameliorate hepatic steatosis.