Long-term influence of chemotherapy on steatosis-associated advanced hepatic fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether chemotherapy treatment at least 6 months prior to the detection of hepatic steatosis is associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis. Demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory data for cancer patients with hepatic steatosis were reviewed. The primary end point of this study was a low probability of fibrosis as calculated by the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)-a surrogate for the absence of histologic bridging fibrosis and/or cirrhosis. Of 279 patients, 117 (41.9 %) were treated with chemotherapy and 197 (66.3 %) had a low probability of fibrosis by APRI. A smaller proportion of patients treated with chemotherapy had a low probability of hepatic fibrosis compared with untreated patients (64.1 vs. 75.3 %, p = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, chemotherapy treatment was a negative predictive factor for a low probability of fibrosis (OR 0.366 [95 % CI 0.184-0.708], p < 0.01). Among chemotherapy-treated patients, 75 (64.1 %) had a low probability of fibrosis. There were no differences in chemotherapy duration (mean 7.8 vs. 7.5 cycles) and interval from last dose to steatosis diagnosis (24.3 vs. 21.4 months) between patients with and without a low probability of fibrosis. A smaller proportion of patients treated with irinotecan or 5-fluorouracil had a low probability of fibrosis (37.3 vs. 66.7 %, p = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, irinotecan or 5-fluorouracil treatment was a negative predictive factor for low probability of fibrosis (OR 0.277 [95 % CI 0.091-0.779], p = 0.02). Prior chemotherapy treatment, especially with 5-fluorouracil or irinotecan, is a negative predictor for the absence of advanced hepatic fibrosis among patients with steatosis.
Project description:Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark of chemotherapy-induced liver injury. We made serial (1) H MRS measurements of hepatic lipids in patients over the time course of a 24-week chemotherapeutic regimen to determine whether (1) H MRS could be used to monitor the progression of chemotherapy-induced steatosis. Thirty-four patients with stage III or IV colorectal cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin (n=21) or hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine with systemic irinotecan (n=13) were studied prospectively. (1) H MRS studies were performed at baseline and after 6 and 24 weeks of treatment. A (1) H MR spectrum was acquired from the liver during a breath hold and the ratio of fat to fat+water (FFW) was calculated to give a measure of hepatic triglycerides (HTGCs). The methodology was histologically validated in 18 patients and the reproducibility was assessed in 16 normal volunteers. Twenty-seven patients completed baseline, 6-week and 24-week (1) H MRS examinations and one was censored. Thirteen of 26 patients (50%) showed an increase in FFW after completion of treatment. Six patients (23%) developed hepatic steatosis and two patients converted from steatosis to nonsteatotic liver. Patients whose 6-week hepatic lipid levels had increased significantly relative to baseline also had a high probability of lipid elevation relative to baseline at the completion of treatment. Serial (1) H MRS is effective for the monitoring of HTGC changes during chemotherapy and for the detection of chemotherapy-associated steatosis. Six of 26 patients developed steatosis during chemotherapy. Lipid changes were observable at 6 weeks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The evolution of the relationship between adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients during viral clearance is unclear and warrants investigation. METHODS:A prospective study including 747 consecutive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, of whom 546 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and underwent pre-, peri- and post-therapy surveys for anthropomorphic, viral, metabolic and hepatic profiles and adiponectin levels, was conducted in a tertiary care center. RESULTS:Multivariate analyses indicated associations of sex, triglyceride levels and hepatic steatosis with adiponectin levels and of triglyceride levels and interferon ?3 (IFNL3) genotype with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels before anti-HCV therapy. In patients with a sustained virological response (SVR; n = 455), at 24 weeks post-therapy, sex, BMI, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), HOMA-IR and steatosis were associated with adiponectin levels, and IFNL3 genotype was associated with HOMA-IR levels. GEE analysis demonstrated that SVR affected longitudinal trends in adiponectin levels. Compared with pre-therapy levels, adiponectin and APRI levels decreased 24 weeks post-therapy in SVR patients, regardless of baseline insulin resistance (IR). However, HOMA-IR levels decreased in SVR patients with baseline IR but increased in those without baseline IR. Compared with controls, immunohistochemical studies showed that pre-therapy CHC patients had higher hepatic adiponectin expression associated with hepatic fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:During HCV infection, adiponectin may affect insulin sensitivity through triglycerides. After viral clearance, adiponectin levels were directly associated with insulin sensitivity and decreased upon improved hepatic fibrosis; with a link to the IFNL3 genotype, insulin sensitivity improved only in patients with baseline IR.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Elastography point quantification is a convenient method for measuring liver stiffness. It can be performed simultaneously with conventional ultrasonography. This study aimed to evaluate its diagnostic performance for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD), including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS:The diagnostic performance of elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) was evaluated and compared with that of serum fibrosis markers, including the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), using the receiver operating characteristics analysis with histologic evaluation as the reference standard. RESULTS:In 49 AIH patients, sensitivity and specificity of ElastPQ were 93.6% and 44.4%, respectively, for significant fibrosis (? F2, cutoff 4.47 kPa), and 63.6% and 86.8% for cirrhosis (F4, cutoff 9.28 kPa). In 41 PBC patients, they were 81.8% and 73.3%, respectively, for significant fibrosis (? F2, cutoff 5.56 kPa), and 100% and 81.6%, respectively, for advanced fibrosis (? F3, cutoff 6.04 kPa). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of ElastPQ for significant fibrosis (0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.86) and cirrhosis (0.81, 95% CI 0.65-0.96) were higher than those of APRI and FIB-4 in AILD patients. According to the multivariable analysis, histological activity, steatosis, and body max index (BMI) were not significant factors that influenced the result of ElastPQ. CONCLUSIONS:ElastPQ exhibited better diagnostic performance-without the influence of confounding factors-for assessing hepatic fibrosis in AILD patients than serum fibrosis markers.
Project description:The primary purpose of this study was to explore the short-term efficacy of different cisplatin and fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of patients with esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) using a network meta-analysis (NMA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to chemotherapy regimens based on cisplatin and fluorouracil for EGJA were included from the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library electronic databases (from inception to June 2016). Direct and indirect evidence were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) as well as to draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves. This NMA finally enrolled ten eligible RCTs with the following five regimens: cisplatin plus fluorouracil (cisplatin+fluorouracil), cisplatin+fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (cisplatin+fluorouracil+docetaxel/epirubicin/irinotecan), fluorouracil-based chemotherapy (fluorouracil+docetaxel/doxorubicin/methotrexate/irinotecan), cisplatin-based chemotherapy (cisplatin+docetaxel/epirubicin/irinotecan/capecitabine/s-1) and other drug-based chemotherapy (docetaxel/irinotecan/capecitabine). These results revealed that compared with a cisplatin+ fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen, the fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen had a lower overall response rate (ORR) and partial response (PR) for EGJA patients (ORR: OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.22-0.86; PR: OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.23-0.91). Cluster analyses suggested that the cisplatin+fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen had the best short-term efficacy for EGJA in terms of the complete response (CR), PR, ORR, stable disease (SD) and progression disease (PD). Our results indicated that cisplatin+fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens may have the best short-term efficacy in the treatment of EGJA.
Project description:Oxaliplatin-based regimens are standard treatments for the patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, owing to hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), the use of oxaliplatin sometimes results in splenomegaly. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between chemotherapy-associated changes of noninvasive liver fibrosis indices and volumetric changes of the spleen.From February 2004 to April 2014, patients with CRC or AGC receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were studied. The possibility of SOS development was evaluated before and after the oxaliplatin exposure with splenic volume index (SVI). Four different noninvasive liver fibrosis indices were used for risk analysis, namely age-platelet index (API), AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), platelet-to-spleen ratio (PSR), and fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4).A total of 275 patients were eligible for evaluation: 200 patients had CRC and 75 patients had AGC. Using the cutoff of SVI increase ? 0.3, 113 patients (41.1%) were positive for splenomegaly. The changes of indices significantly correlated with SVI increase. Adjusted odds ratios for those indices were as follows: API?=?1.16 (95% confidential interval [CI], 1.01-1.32; P?=?.03); APRI?=?2.45 (95% CI, 1.30-4.63; P?=?.01); PSR?=?0.69 (95% CI, 0.59-0.80; P?<?.01); and FIB-4?=?1.37 (95% CI, 1.16-1.63; P?<?.01). Optimal cutoff values with statistical significance were calculated and suggested.The changes of noninvasive liver fibrosis indices showed a good correlation with the increase in the spleen volume during oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Validation of these indices for monitoring of oxaliplatin-induced hepatic SOS is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is also related to fatty change of the liver. Variation in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene is associated with disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent reports have suggested that PNPLA3, IL28B and TLR4-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may have an impact on hepatic steatosis or fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four SNPs (PNPLA3 rs738409, TLR4 rs4986790, TLR4 rs4986791, IL28B rs8099917) were identified in Japanese patients infected with HCV. We examined the association between the distribution of these SNP alleles and fatty change of the liver or existence of hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed by ultrasonography, one of the widely accessible and easy-to-use methods. PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele and IL28B rs 8099917 minor allele were found in 70.0% and 31.1%, respectively. These two TLR4 SNPs were uniform in Japanese. Fatty change of the liver developed independent of the abscence of hepatic cirrhosis on sonographic findings and younger age. Hepatic cirrhosis was associated with a higher aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI), no fatty change of the liver, higher BMI and higher AFP levels. No association between PNPLA3 rs738409/IL28B rs8099917 genotypes and hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: According to ultrasound examinations, no association between PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype and fatty change of the liver or hepatic cirrhosis was found in Japanese patients infected with HCV. Together, our results suggested that the mechanism of hepatic steatosis underlying HCV infection might differ from that of NAFLD and should be explored.
Project description:Changes in the liver and bile ducts observed in patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis result from inflammatory processes as well as fibrosis, remodeling, apoptosis, and cholestasis. As a consequence, portal hypertension, cirrhosis, and hepatic failure may develop. So far, the complexity of these processes has not been elucidated. Study Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the selected parameters of hepatitis and fibrosis (Fibrotest, Actitest, and APRI) in patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Material and Methods. The study included 79 patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 1 to 20 years (mean age 9.8 years), 49 girls (62%) and 30 boys (38%). The analysis involved the following: age, sex, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests evaluating pancreas function, parameters of liver damage, and cholestasis. Fibrotest, Actitest, and APRI were performed in all subjects. Results. Elevated parameters of hepatic cell damage (hypertransaminasemia) were found in 31/79 (39.2%) patients, while abnormal cholestasis parameters in 21/79 (26.6%). The abnormal results of Fibrotest were reported in 15% of patients (12/79), while of Actitest in 10% (8/79). In contrast, elevated APRI values were found in only 7.6% (6/79) of subjects. There was a statistically significant correlation between APRI and age (higher values were observed in younger children) and between Fibrotest and Actitest and pancreatic insufficiency (higher values were found in subjects without this abnormality). Moreover, Fibrotest values were significantly higher in girls. There was no correlation between Fibrotest, Actitest, and APRI values and the type of mutation. Conclusion. It appears that Fibrotest may be used as an early marker of liver fibrosis in patients with cystic fibrosis. Increased APRI values were only found in subjects with advanced hepatic lesions, most often in the form of portal hypertension.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular related death, particularly in those with hepatic fibrosis. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on non-invasive fibrosis markers and the association of hepatic fibrosis with cardiovascular risk factors.Cross-sectional study of 575 Framingham Heart Study participants with NAFLD based on computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of predicted fibrosis based on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), the Fibrosis-4 score (FIB4), and the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS). Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the association between low, indeterminate, or high risk for fibrosis according to the NFS and various cardiometabolic risk factors.The predicted risk of fibrosis was 12%, 4%, 5%, and 32% for the NFS, FIB4, APRI, and AST/ALT ratio, respectively. In multivariable models, participants with a high risk for advanced fibrosis by the NFS had a wider pulse pressure (adjusted mean difference = 6.87 mm Hg; p = 0.0002) and an increased odds of hypertension (OR 2.92; p = 0.007) compared to those with low risk of fibrosis. There were no statistically significant differences between other cardiovascular risk factors for those with a high versus low risk of fibrosis.The AST/ALT ratio, APRI, and NFS give widely disparate predictions of liver fibrosis. Participants with a high risk for fibrosis based on NFS had wider pulse pressure and increased odds of hypertension. Whether modifying these risk factors impacts cardiovascular endpoints in NAFLD patients remains unknown.
Project description:Background. ?We evaluated the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals enrolled in a rural Tanzanian prospective cohort and assessed hepatic fibrosis progression 12-24 months after antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Methods. ?All ART-naive HIV-infected adults ?15-year-old enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort who started ART between 2005 and 2015 were included. Pre-ART factors associated with significant liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index [APRI] >1.5) and cirrhosis (APRI > 2.0) were identified using logistic regression. Results. ?Of 3097 individuals screened, 227 (7.3%; 95% CI, 6.4-8.2) were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. Before ART initiation, 9.1% individuals had significant liver fibrosis and 5.3% had cirrhosis. Human immunodeficiency virus/HBV-coinfected individuals were more likely to have an APRI score indicating significant fibrosis (14.2% vs 8.7%, P = .03) and cirrhosis (9.2% vs 4.9%, P = .03) than HBV-uninfected patients. CD4 cell count <200 cell/?L and alcohol consumption were independently associated with pre-ART APRI score, indicating significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in multivariable analyses. Among individuals with elevated APRI measurements pre- and 12-24 months post-ART initiation, 53 of 57 (93.0%) of HIV-monoinfected and 4 of 5 (80.0%) of HIV/HBV-coinfected had a regression to APRI < 1.5. Conclusions. ?Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis were common in our cohort, especially among HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals. The APRI improved in most patients. Pre-ART HBsAg screening and early onset of tenofovir-based ART for HIV/HBV-coinfection should be prioritized in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Liver fibrosis, resulted from several liver diseases, are increasing up to 25% in population in global. It remains undetermined how much impact liver fibrosis have on the development of hepatic metastasis and relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence the aim of this study was to clarify the role of liver fibrosis on hepatic metastasis and relapse in CRC undergoing curative therapy. METHODS:We enrolled consecutive 1652 patients with radical colorectal surgery as the discovery cohort, and the validation set enrolled 432 CRC patients with hepatic metastasis. To determine liver fibrosis, the NFS, FIB4 and APRI scores were applied. The influence of liver fibrosis on hepatic metastasis and relapse was assessed by survival analyses. Nomograms with fibrosis score incorporated were established to identify the incremental value for individualized relapse estimation, which was then assessed with respect to calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. RESULTS:The high liver fibrosis score patients had significantly worse outcomes than low score in 5-year hepatic metastasis (22.6 vs. 8.7%) in discovery cohort, and relapse (58.2 vs. 44.1%) in validation cohort. Multivariate analysis also revealed liver fibrosis as an independent prognostic factor. The distribution analysis also demonstrated higher liver fibrosis score a powerful prognostic factor for hepatic metastasis and relapse. The nomogram incorporated with liver fibrosis score resulted in better performance than TNM staging system and clinicopathologic nomograms. Importantly, the discriminatory capacity of the fibrosis score was superior to that of the CRS score in predicting hepatic specific disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS), as demonstrated by the C-index and AUC. The concordance study showed well agreement among NFS, FIB4 and APRI in predicting DFS and RFS. Among these three noninvasive liver fibrosis scores, NFS score performed the best in predicting hepatic specific DFS and RFS. CONCLUSION:The liver fibrosis was a powerful predictor of hepatic specific DFS and RFS in CRC. Fibrosis niche may be a favorable microenvironment for metastatic formation in the liver.