The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein forms aggregates depending on the cytoskeleton integrity and binds viral genomic DNA.
ABSTRACT: The spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was accompanied by the formation of coat protein (CP) aggregates of increasing size in the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cells. In order to better understand the TYLCV-host interaction, we investigated the properties and the subcellular accumulation pattern of the non-structural viral protein V2. CP and V2 are the only sense-oriented genes on the virus circular single-stranded DNA genome. Similar to CP, V2 localized to cytoplasmic aggregates of increasing size and as infection progressed was also found in nuclei, where it co-localized with CP. V2 was associated with viral genomic DNA molecules, suggesting that V2 functions as a DNA shuttling protein. The formation and the 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of V2 aggregates were dependent on the integrity of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose that the cytoskeleton-dependent formation and growth of V2 aggregates play an important role during TYLCV infection, and that microtubules and actin filaments are important for the delivery of V2 to the 26S proteasome.
Project description:The V2 protein encoded by Begomovirus is essential for virus infection and is involved in multiple functions, such as virus movement and suppression of the host defence response. In this study, we reported that V2 encoded by the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is one of the most devastating tomato-infecting begomoviruses, could interact with itself and a S71A mutation of V2 (V2S71A) abolished its self-interaction. Fluorescence results showed that V2 localized primarily in the cytoplasm and around the nucleus. Site-directed mutagenesis V2S71A had the similar subcellular localization, but V2S71A formed fewer large aggregates in the cytoplasm compared to wild-type V2, whereas the level of aggregates came to a similar after treatment with MG132, which indicates that the S71A mutation might affect 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of V2 aggregates. Meanwhile, heterologous expression of V2S71A from a Potato virus X vector induced mild symptoms compared to wild-type V2, delay of virus infection associated with mild symptoms was observed in plants inoculated with TYLCV-S71A, which indicates that the amino acid on position 71 is also involved in the pathogenicity of V2. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to state that the S71A mutation of V2 encoded by TYLCV affects the self-interaction, aggregate formation and pathogenicity of V2.
Project description:Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus infecting tomato plants worldwide. TYLCV needs a healthy host environment to ensure a successful infection cycle for long periods. Hence, TYLCV restrains its destructive effect and induces neither a hypersensitive response nor cell death in infected tomatoes. On the contrary, TYLCV counteracts cell death induced by other factors, such as inactivation of HSP90 functionality. Suppression of plant death is associated with the inhibition of the ubiquitin 26S proteasome degradation and with a deactivation of the heat shock transcription factor HSFA2 pathways (including decreased HSP17 levels). The goal of the current study was to find if the individual TYLCV genes were capable of suppressing HSP90-dependent death and HSFA2 deactivation. The expression of C2 (C3 and CP to a lesser extent) caused a decrease in the severity of death phenotypes, while the expression of V2 (C1 and C4 to a lesser extent) strengthened cell death. However, C2 or V2 markedly affected stress response under conditions of viral infection. The downregulation of HSFA2 signaling, initiated by the expression of C1 and V2, was detected in the absence of virus infection, but was enhanced in infected plants, while CP and C4 mitigated HSFA2 levels only in the infected tomatoes. The dependence of analyzed plant stress response suppression on the interaction of the expressed genes with the environment created by the whole virus infection was more pronounced than on the expression of individual TYLCV genes.
Project description:A functional capsid protein (CP) is essential for host plant infection and insect transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other monopartite begomoviruses. We have previously shown that TYLCV CP specifically interacts with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of the virus insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. Here we demonstrate that during the development of tomato plant infection with TYLCV, a significant amount of HSP70 shifts from a soluble form into insoluble aggregates. CP and HSP70 co-localize in these aggregates, first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus of cells associated with the vascular system. CP-HSP70 interaction was demonstrated by co-immunopreciptation in cytoplasmic - but not in nuclear extracts from leaf and stem. Inhibition of HSP70 expression by quercetin caused a decrease in the amount of nuclear CP aggregates and a re-localization of a GFP-CP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HSP70 inactivation resulted in a decrease of TYLCV DNA levels, demonstrating the role of HSP70 in TYLCV multiplication in planta. The current study reveals for the first time the involvement of plant HSP70 in TYLCV CP intracellular movement. As described earlier, nuclear aggregates contained TYLCV DNA-CP complexes and infectious virions. Showing that HSP70 localizes in these large nuclear aggregates infers that these structures operate as nuclear virus factories.
Project description:To ensure a successful long-term infection cycle, begomoviruses must restrain their destructive effect on host cells and prevent drastic plant responses, at least in the early stages of infection. The monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) does not induce a hypersensitive response and cell death on whitefly-mediated infection of virus-susceptible tomato plants until diseased tomatoes become senescent. The way in which begomoviruses evade plant defences and interfere with cell death pathways is still poorly understood. We show that the chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) and its co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1) are involved in the establishment of TYLCV infection. Inactivation of HSP90, as well as silencing of the Hsp90 and Sgt1 genes, leads to the accumulation of damaged ubiquitinated proteins and to a cell death phenotype. These effects are relieved under TYLCV infection. HSP90-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasome degradation and the transcriptional activation of the heat shock transcription factors HsfA2 and HsfB1 and of the downstream genes Hsp17 and Apx1/2 are suppressed in TYLCV-infected tomatoes. Following suppression of the plant stress response, TYLCV can replicate and accumulate in a permissive environment.
Project description:DNA encoding the coat protein (CP) of an Egyptian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) under the control of polyhedrin promoter. The generated recombinant baculovirus construct harboring the coat protein gene was characterized using PCR analysis. The recombinant coat protein expressed in infected insect cells was used as a coating antigen in an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot to test its utility for the detection of antibody generated against TYLCV virus particles. The results of ELISA and dot blot showed that the TYLCV-antibodies reacted positively with extracts of infected cells using the recombinant virus as a coating antigen with strong signals as well as the TYLCV infected tomato and beat plant extracts as positive samples. Scanning electron microscope examination showed that the expressed TYLCV coat protein was self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar in size and morphology to TYLCV virus particles. These results concluded that, the expressed coat protein of TYLCV using baculovirus vector system is a reliable candidate for generation of anti-CP antibody for inexpensive detection of TYLCV-infected plants using indirect CP-ELISA or dot blot with high specificity.
Project description:Geminiviruses are an important group of circular, single-stranded DNA viruses that cause devastating diseases in crops. Geminiviruses replicate their genomic DNA in the nucleus and the newly synthesized viral DNA is subsequently transported to the cytoplasm for further cell-to-cell and long-distance movement to establish systemic infection. Thus, nucleocytoplasmic transportation is crucial for successful infection by geminiviruses. For Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the V1 protein is known to bind and shuttle viral genomic DNA, however, the role of the V2 protein in this process is still unclear. Here, we report that the V1 protein is primarily localized in the nucleus when expressed but the nucleus-localized V1 protein dramatically decreases when co-expressed with V2 protein. Moreover, the V2-facilitated nuclear export of V1 protein depends on host exportin-? and a specific V1-V2 interaction. Chemical inhibition of exportin-? or a substitution at cysteine 85 of the V2 protein, which abolishes the V1-V2 interaction, blocks redistribution of the V1 protein to the perinuclear region and the cytoplasm. When the V2C85S mutation is incorporated into a TYLCV infectious clone, the TYLCV-C85S causes delayed onset of very mild symptoms compared to wild-type TYLCV, suggesting that the V1-V2 interaction and, thus, the V2-mediated nuclear export of the V1 protein is crucial for viral spread and systemic infection. Our data point to a critical role of the V2 protein in promoting the nuclear export of the V1 protein and viral systemic infection, likely by promoting V1 protein-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transportation of TYLCV genomic DNA.
Project description:Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a monopartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) is responsible for heavy yield losses for tomato production around the globe. In Oman at least five distinct begomoviruses cause disease in tomato, including TYLCV. Unusually, TYLCV infections in Oman are sometimes associated with a betasatellite (Tomato leaf curl betasatellite [ToLCB]; a symptom modulating satellite). RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop resistance against begomoviruses at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels.A hairpin RNAi (hpRNAi) construct to express double-stranded RNA homologous to sequences of the intergenic region, coat protein gene, V2 gene and replication-associated gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM) was produced. Initially, transient expression of the hpRNAi construct at the site of virus inoculation was shown to reduce the number of plants developing symptoms when inoculated with either TYLCV-OM or TYLCV-OM with ToLCB-OM to Nicotiana benthamiana or tomato. Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Pusa Ruby was transformed with the hpRNAi construct and nine confirmed transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with TYLCV-OM and ToLCB-OM by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation. For all but one line, for which all plants remained symptomless, inoculation with TYLCV-OM led to a proportion (?25%) of tomato plants developing symptoms of infection. For inoculation with TYLCV-OM and ToLCB-OM all lines showed a proportion of plants (?45%) symptomatic. However, for all infected transgenic plants the symptoms were milder and virus titre in plants was lower than in infected non-transgenic tomato plants.These results show that RNAi can be used to develop resistance against geminiviruses in tomato. The resistance in this case is not immunity but does reduce the severity of infections and virus titer. Also, the betasatellite may compromise resistance, increasing the proportion of plants which ultimately show symptoms.
Project description:The viral V2 protein is one of the key factors that Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen worldwide, utilizes to combat the host defense. Besides suppressing the plant RNA silencing defense by targeting the host SGS3 component of the silencing machinery, V2 also interacts with the host CYP1 protein, a papain-like cysteine protease likely involved in hypersensitive response reactions. The biological effects of the V2-CYP1 interaction, however, remain unknown. We addressed this question by demonstrating that V2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of CYP1, but does not interfere with post-translational maturation of this protein.
Project description:The V2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) functions as an RNA-silencing suppressor that counteracts the innate immune response of the host plant. The host-cell target of V2, however, remains unknown. Here we show that V2 interacts directly with SlSGS3, the tomato homolog of the Arabidopsis SGS3 protein (AtSGS3), which is known to be involved in the RNA-silencing pathway. SlSGS3 genetically complemented an AtSGS3 mutation and restored RNA silencing, indicating that SlSGS3 is indeed a functional homolog of AtSGS3. A point mutant of V2 that is unable to bind SlSGS3 also lost its ability to suppress RNA silencing, suggesting a correlation between the V2-SlSGS3 interaction in planta and the suppressor activity of V2.
Project description:The V2 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is an RNA-silencing suppressor that counteracts the innate immune response of the host plant. However, this anti-host defense function of V2 may include targeting of other defensive mechanisms of the plant. Specifically, we show that V2 recognizes and directly binds the tomato CYP1 protein, a member of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases which are involved in plant defense against diverse pathogens. This binding occurred both in vitro and in vivo, within living plant cells. The V2 binding site within mCYP1 was identified in the direct proximity to the papain-like cysteine protease active site.