A new porphyrin for the preparation of functionalized water-soluble gold nanoparticles with low intrinsic toxicity.
ABSTRACT: A potential new photosensitizer based on a dissymmetric porphyrin derivative bearing a thiol group was synthesized. 5-[4-(11-Mercaptoundecyloxy)-phenyl-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (PR-SH) was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles in order to obtain a potential drug delivery system. Water-soluble multifunctional gold nanoparticles GNP-PR/PEG were prepared using the Brust-Schiffrin methodology, by immobilization of both a thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the porphyrin thiol compound (PR-SH). The nanoparticles were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the ability of GNP-PR/PEGs to induce singlet oxygen production was analyzed to demonstrate the activity of the photosensitizer. Cytotoxicity experiments showed the nanoparticles are nontoxic. Finally, cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the functionalized gold nanoparticles are internalized. Therefore, this colloid can be considered to be a novel nanosystem that could potentially be suitable as an intracellular drug delivery system of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.
Project description:Polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings are widely used to render stealth properties to nanoparticles in biological applications. There is abundant literature on the benefits of PEG coatings and their ability to reduce protein adsorption, to diminish nonspecific interactions with cells, and to improve pharmacokinetics, but very little discussion of the limitations of PEG coatings. Here, we show that physiological concentrations of cysteine and cystine can displace methoxy-PEG-thiol molecules from the gold nanoparticle (GNP) surface that leads to protein adsorption and cell uptake in macrophages within 24 h. Furthermore, we address this problem by incorporating an alkyl linker between the PEG and the thiol moieties that provides a hydrophobic shield layer between the gold surface and the hydrophilic outer PEG layer. The mPEG-alkyl-thiol coating greatly reduces protein adsorption on GNPs and their macrophage uptake. This has important implications for the design of GNP for biological systems.
Project description:We report that poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) copolymers that bear multiple thiol groups on the polymer backbone are exceptional ligands for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In general, these graft copolymer ligands stabilize AuNPs against environments that would ordinarily lead to particle aggregation. To characterize the effect of copolymer structure on AuNP stability, we synthesized thiolated PLL-g-PEGs (PLL-g-[PEG:SH]) with different backbone lengths, PEG grafting densities, and number of thiols per polymer chain. AuNPs were then combined with these polymer ligands, and the stabilities of the resulting AuNP@PLL-g-[PEG:SH] particles against high temperature, oxidants, and competing thiol ligands were characterized using dynamic light scattering, visible absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Our observations indicate that thiolated PLL-g-PEG ligands combine thermodynamic stabilization via multiple Au-S bonds and steric stabilization by PEG grafts, and the best graft copolymer ligands balance these two effects. We hope that this new ligand system enables AuNPs to be applied to biotechnological applications that require harsh experimental conditions.
Project description:In this work, we report the synthesis and biophysical studies carried out on a new kind of biocompatible and very stable gold nanoparticle (GNP) stabilized with glucose through a PEG linker (AuNP-PEG-Glu). The synthetic path was optimized to obtain nanoparticles of controlled sizes. ?-potential and dynamic light scattering measurements allowed assessment of the nanodimension, dispersity, surface charge, and stability of our GNPs. Confocal microscopy demonstrated qualitatively that glucose molecules are successfully bonded to GNP surfaces. For our study, we selected nanoparticles with diameter in a range that maximizes the internalization efficiency in cells (40 nm). A detailed investigation about the biophysical proprieties of AuNP-PEG-Glu was carried out by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and orbital tracking techniques. This work gives new insights about the uptake mechanism of gold nanoparticles capped with glucose molecules.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study investigated the effectiveness and underpinning mechanisms of radiosensitization using octaarginine (R8)-modified gold nanoparticle-poly(ethylene glycol) (GNP-PEG-R8) in colorectal cancer cell line LS180 to megavoltage radiotherapy in vitro.<h4>Method</h4>In-house synthesized GNP-PEG was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to quantify internalization. Direct cytotoxicity was established using the Cell Counting Kit-8, while radiosensitivity was determined using the gold standard in vitro clonogenic assay. Cell-cycle distribution, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry, further exploring the key mechanisms driving GNP-PEG-R8 radiosensitization.<h4>Results</h4>The core GNP diameter was 6.3±1.1 nm (mean±SD). Following functionalization, the hydrodynamic diameter increased to 19.7±2.8 nm and 27.8±1.8 nm for GNP-PEG and GNP-PEG-R8, with respective surface plasmon resonance peaks of 515 nm and 525 nm. Furthermore, incorporation of the R8 significantly increased nanoparticle internalization compared to GNP-PEG (<i>p</i><0.001) over a 1 h treatment period. Functionalized GNPs confer little cytotoxicity below 400 nM. In clonogenic assays, radiation combined with GNP-PEG-R8 induced a significant reduction in colony formation compared with radiation alone, generating a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.59. Furthermore, GNP-PEG-R8 plus radiation predominantly induced cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, increasing G2/M stalling by an additional 10% over GNP-PEG, markedly promoting apoptosis (<i>p</i><0.001). Finally, ROS levels and alterations in MMP were investigated, indicating a highly significant (<i>p</i><0.001) change in both parameters following the combined treatment of GNP-PEG-R8 and radiation over radiation alone.<h4>Conclusion</h4>R8-modified GNPs were efficiently internalized by LS180 cells, exhibiting minimal cytotoxicity. This yielded significant radiosensitization in response to megavoltage radiation. GNP-PEG-R8 may enhance radiosensitivity by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, with elevated ROS identified as the likely initiator.
Project description:The grafting density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on nanoparticle (NP) surfaces is the most important parameter determining the interaction of nanoparticles with serum proteins, the subsequent sequestration of the nanoparticle from the bloodstream by the mononuclear phagocyte system, and the eventual delivery efficiency to tumor tissues. However, the majority of in vivo studies do not characterize or report the grafting density of PEG on nanoparticles due to a lack of feasible characterization methods, making it difficult to evaluate the published studies and reconcile apparent conflicting results. Herein, we develop a facile and non-sacrificial 1H NMR analytical approach for the quantitative characterization of grafting density of thiol-terminated PEG (HS-PEG) on gold NPs (GNPs). A multi-Lorentzian-splitting algorithm is used to distinguish the NMR signal of free PEG from those of the grafted ones, therefore allowing in situ monitoring of the grafting process to study the effects of GNP sizes, PEG molecular weights and NP capping ligands on grafting rates and grafting densities. The main advantage of this method is that it is not limited by the types of terminal functional groups on PEG, surface chemistry of the nanoparticles or their composition. It also provides a set of critical and standard guides for characterization of the PEG grafting density on nanoparticles for in vivo biological and biomedical studies.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles synthesized via sodium citrate reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) were functionalized with either various concentrations of thiol-terminated Bodipy(®) FL L-cystine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 ?g/mL) or Bodipy-poly(ethylene glycol) at concentrations of 0.5-18.75, 1.0-12.50, and 1.5-6.25 ?g/mL to form a mixed monolayer of BODIPY-PEG. Thiol-terminated Bodipy, a fluorescing molecule, was used as the model drug, while PEG is widely used in drug-delivery applications to shield nanoparticles from unwanted immune responses. Understanding the influence of PEG-capping on payload release is critical because it is the most widely used type of nanoparticle functionalization in drug delivery studies. It has been previously reported that glutathione can trigger release of thiol-bound payloads from gold nanoparticles. Bodipy release from Bodipy capped and from Bodipy-PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles was studied at typical intracellular glutathione levels. It was observed that the addition of PEG capping inhibits the initial burst release observed in gold nanoparticles functionalized only with Bodipy and inhibits nanoparticle aggregation. Efficient and controlled payload release was observed in gold nanoparticles cofunctionalized with only a limited amount of PEG, thus enabling the coattachment of large amounts of drug, targeting groups or other payloads.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles modified with the nuclear localization signal from simian virus 40 large T antigen (GNP-PEG/SV40) accumulate on the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear membrane in HeLa cells. Accumulation of GNP-PEG/SV40 around the nucleus blocks nucleocytoplasmic transport and prevents RNA export and nuclear shuttling of signaling proteins. This long-term blockage of nucleocytoplasmic transport results in cell death. This cell death is not caused by apoptosis or necrosis because caspases 3 and 9 are not activated, and the expression of annexin V/propidium iodide is not enhanced in HeLa cells after treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy, autophagosomes and autolysosomes were seen to appear after 72 hours of treatment with GNP-PEG/SV40. Increasing levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (EGFP-LC3)-positive punctate and LC3-II confirmed GNP-PEG/SV40-induced autophagy. In SiHa cells, treatment did not induce accumulation of GNP-PEG/SV40 around the nucleus and autophagy. Treating cells with wheat germ agglutinin, a nuclear pore complex inhibitor, induced autophagy in both HeLa and SiHa cells. GNP-PEG/SV40-induced autophagy plays a role in cell death, not survival, and virus-mediated small hairpin RNA silencing of Beclin-1 attenuates cell death. Taken together, the results indicate that long-term blockade of nucleocytoplasmic transport results in autophagic cell death.
Project description:Herein, a library of gold nanorods (GNR) decorated with polyethylene glycol-thiol (PEG-SH) containing different functionalities were synthesized and characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The colloidal stability of GNR when exposed to skin, and their preferential accumulation into excised human skin layers were investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) were utilized to track the penetration of GNR into different skin layers. The results demonstrated that cholesterol-PEG coated GNR were preferentially loaded up in the upper layers of skin (stratum corneum), while phospholipid-PEG coated counterparts were drastically deposited in skin dermis. Neutral methoxy-PEG-coated GNR were distributed in both SC and dermis skin layers, while charged GNR (anionic-carboxylic acid-PEG-GNR and cationic-amine-PEG-GNR) revealed a minimal accumulation into skin. DSPE-PEG-GNR and Chol-PEG-GNR demonstrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) at MIC values of 0.011 nM and 0.75 nM, respectively. Photothermal treatment for S. aureus at sub-MIC concentrations resulted in a significant bactericidal effect when using Chol-PEG-GNR but not DSPE-PEG-GNR. Gold-based nanoscale systems have great value as a promising platform for skin diseases therapy.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles are elective candidate for cancer therapy. Current efforts are devoted to developing innovative methods for their synthesis. Besides, understanding their interaction with cells have become increasingly important for their clinical application. This work aims to describe a simple approach for the synthesis of extra-small gold nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy. In brief, a biocompatible and biodegradable polyamidoamine (named AGMA1-SH), bearing 20%, on a molar basis, thiol-functionalized repeat units, is employed to stabilize and coat extra-small gold nanospheres of different sizes (2.5, 3.5, and 5 nm in gold core), and to generate a nanoplatform for the link with Trastuzumab monoclonal antibody for HER2-positive breast cancer targeting. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, circular dichroism, protein quantification assays are used for the characterization. The targeting properties of the nanosystems are explored to achieve enhanced and selective uptake of AGMA1-SH-gold nanoparticles by in vitro studies against HER-2 overexpressing cells, SKBR-3 and compared to HER-2 low expressing cells, MCF-7, and normal fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3. In vitro physicochemical characterization demonstrates that gold nanoparticles modified with AGMA1-SH are more stable in aqueous solution than the unmodified ones. Additionally, the greater gold nanoparticles size (5-nm) is associated with a higher stability and conjugation efficiency with Trastuzumab, which retains its folding and anticancer activity after the conjugation. In particular, the larger Trastuzumab functionalized nanoparticles displays the highest efficacy (via the pro-apoptotic protein increase, anti-apoptotic components decrease, survival-proliferation pathways downregulation) and internalization (via the activation of the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis) in HER-2 overexpressing SKBR-3 cells, without eliciting significant effects on the other cell lines. The use of biocompatible AGMA1-SH for producing covalently stabilized gold nanoparticles to achieve selective targeting, cytotoxicity and uptake is completely novel, offering an important advancement for developing new anticancer conjugated-gold nanoparticles.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases, however safety and efficacy improvements are required before it reaches its full potential and wider clinical use. Herein, we investigated a highly efficient and safe photodynamic therapy procedure by developing a high/low power density photodynamic therapy mode (high/low PDT mode) using methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) modified gold nanorod (GNR)-AlPcS4 photosensitizer complexes. mPEG-SH conjugated to the surface of simple polyelectrolyte-coated GNRs was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; this improved stability, reduced cytotoxicity, and increased the encapsulation and loading efficiency of the nanoparticle dispersions. The GNR-photosensitizer complexes were exposed to the high/low PDT mode (high light dose = 80 mW/cm(2) for 0.5 min; low light dose = 25 mW/cm(2) for 1.5 min), and a high PDT efficacy leads to approximately 90% tumor cell killing. Due to synergistic plasmonic photothermal properties of the complexes, the high/low PDT mode demonstrated improved efficacy over using single wavelength continuous laser irradiation. Additionally, no significant loss in viability was observed in cells exposed to free AlPcS4 photosensitizer under the same irradiation conditions. Consequently, free AlPcS4 released from GNRs prior to cellular entry did not contribute to cytotoxicity of normal cells or impose limitations on the use of the high power density laser. This high/low PDT mode may effectively lead to a safer and more efficient photodynamic therapy for superficial tumors.