TLR3/TRIF signalling pathway regulates IL-32 and IFN-? secretion through activation of RIP-1 and TRAF in the human cornea.
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) and RNA helicase retinoic-acid-inducible protein-1 (RIG-I) serve as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA components. In this study, we investigated how the TLR3 and RIG-I signalling pathway was stimulated by viral infection to produce interleukin (IL)-32-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon in the corneal epithelium using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human cornea epithelial cells (HCECs/EBV) as a model of viral keratitis. Increased TLR3 and RIG-I that are responded to EBV-encoded RNA 1 and 2 (EBER1 and EBER2) induced the secretion of IL-32-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFN-? through up-regulation of TRIF/TRAF family proteins or RIP-1. TRIF silencing or TLR3 inhibitors more efficiently inhibited sequential phosphorylation of TAK1, TBK1, NF-?B and IRFs to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFN-? than RIG-I-siRNA transfection in HCECs/EBV. Blockade of RIP-1, which connects the TLR3 and RIG-I pathways, significantly blocked the TLR3/TRIF-mediated and RIG-I-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and IFN-? production in HCECs/EBV. These findings demonstrate that TLR3/TRIF-dependent signalling pathway against viral RNA might be a main target to control inflammation and anti-viral responses in the ocular surface.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and cytosolic RIG-I-like helicases (RIG-I and MDA5) sense viral RNAs and activate innate immune signaling pathways that induce expression of interferon (IFN) through specific adaptor proteins, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), respectively. Previously, we demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV), a unique hepatotropic human picornavirus, disrupts RIG-I/MDA5 signaling by targeting MAVS for cleavage by 3ABC, a precursor of the sole HAV protease, 3C(pro), that is derived by auto-processing of the P3 (3ABCD) segment of the viral polyprotein. Here, we show that HAV also disrupts TLR3 signaling, inhibiting poly(I:C)-stimulated dimerization of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), IRF-3 translocation to the nucleus, and IFN-? promoter activation, by targeting TRIF for degradation by a distinct 3ABCD processing intermediate, the 3CD protease-polymerase precursor. TRIF is proteolytically cleaved by 3CD, but not by the mature 3C(pro) protease or the 3ABC precursor that degrades MAVS. 3CD-mediated degradation of TRIF depends on both the cysteine protease activity of 3C(pro) and downstream 3D(pol) sequence, but not 3D(pol) polymerase activity. Cleavage occurs at two non-canonical 3C(pro) recognition sequences in TRIF, and involves a hierarchical process in which primary cleavage at Gln-554 is a prerequisite for scission at Gln-190. The results of mutational studies indicate that 3D(pol) sequence modulates the substrate specificity of the upstream 3C(pro) protease when fused to it in cis in 3CD, allowing 3CD to target cleavage sites not normally recognized by 3C(pro). HAV thus disrupts both RIG-I/MDA5 and TLR3 signaling pathways through cleavage of essential adaptor proteins by two distinct protease precursors derived from the common 3ABCD polyprotein processing intermediate.
Project description:PURPOSE: The toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), and the activation of TLR3 is known to induce the production of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by innate responses to a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection of the corneal epithelial cells. In addition, we determined the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on the innate responses. METHODS: Cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were exposed to poly(I:C), and the expressions of the mRNAs of the cytokines/chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP1-alpha), macrophage-inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP1-beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), Interferon-beta (IFN-beta), and TLR3 were determined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-6) or 10(-5) M) and cyclosporine A (CsA, 10(-6) or 10(-5) M) on the expression of these cytokines and TLR3 were also determined using real-time RT-PCR. Levels of MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, and IFN-beta were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in HCECs was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The effects of DEX and CsA on HCECs exposed to HSV-1 (McKrae strain) were also examined. RESULTS: The expressions of MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, IFN-beta, and TLR3 were up-regulated in HCECs exposed to poly(I:C). The poly(I:C)-induced expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 were down-regulated by both DEX and CsA, while the expressions of IFN-beta and TLR3 were suppressed by DEX alone. Similarly, the poly(I:C)-induced activation of NFkappaB was decreased by both DEX and CsA, and the activation of IRF3 was reduced by DEX alone. When HCECs were inoculated with HSV-1, DEX led to a decrease in the expression of IL6, IFN-beta, and TLR3, and an extension of plaque formation. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that DEX may increase the susceptibility of HCECs to viral infections by altering the TLR3 signaling pathways.
Project description:Aim. To gain an insight into the effect of HCV replication-associated interference with the IFN system on hepatic mRNA expression involved in IFN production. Methods. Relative mRNA expression of TLR3/RIG-I signaling genes involved in IFN- ? production was correlated with positive- and negative-strand HCV RNAs in pretreatment liver tissues responsive and nonresponsive to peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1. Treatment response was analyzed for per protocol population at weeks 12 (n = 45) and 24 (n = 40) and at 24 weeks aftertreatment (n = 38). Results. HCV replication had no relation to the expression of TLR3, RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, IRF3, and IFN- ? mRNAs in responders. In striking contrast, positive- and/or negative-strand HCV showed positive correlations with TLR3, RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, and IRF3 mRNAs in week-12 nonresponders; with RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, and IRF3 mRNAs in week-24 nonresponders; and with TLR3, RIG-I, and IRF3 mRNAs in posttreatment nonresponders. Thus mRNA expression of TLR3/RIG-I signaling genes was increased in relation to viral replication in nonresponders. Conclusions. The findings in IFN nonresponders may imply a host feedback response to severe impairment of the IFN system associated with HCV replication.
Project description:Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated signaling is important for host defense against RNA virus. Upon viral RNA stimulation, toll and interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-? (TRIF) is recruited to TLR3 and then undergoes oligomerization, which is required for the recruitment of downstream molecules to transmit signals. Here, we identified zinc finger CCHC-type containing 3 (ZCCHC3) as a positive regulator of TLR3-mediated signaling. Overexpression of ZCCHC3 promoted transcription of downstream antiviral genes stimulated by the synthetic TLR3 ligand poly(I:C). ZCCHC3-deficiency markedly inhibited TLR3- but not TLR4-mediated induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Zcchc3-/- mice were more resistant to poly(I:C)- but not lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory death. Mechanistically, ZCCHC3 promoted recruitment of TRIF to TLR3 after poly(I:C) stimulation. Our findings reveal that ZCCHC3 plays an important role in TLR3-mediated innate immune response by promoting the recruitment of TRIF to TLR3 after ligand stimulation.
Project description:Recognition of viral double-stranded RNA by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) triggers activation of the transcription factors NF-?B and interferon regulated factor 3, leading to induction of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) is an adapter protein required for TLR3-mediated signaling. Here we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase WW domain-containing protein 2 (WWP2) as a TRIF-associated protein by biochemical purification. WWP2 mediated K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TRIF upon TLR3 activation. Overexpression of WWP2 inhibited TLR3-mediated NF-?B and interferon regulated factor 3 activation, whereas knockdown of WWP2 had opposite effects. We generated Wwp2-deficient mice to further investigate the roles of Wwp2 in innate immune responses. Consistently, production of IFN-?, CCL5, TNF?, and IL-6 in response to the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) was elevated in Wwp2(-/-) macrophages and Wwp2-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to poly(I:C)-induced death than the control littermates. Our findings suggest that WWP2 negatively regulates TLR3-mediated innate immune and inflammatory responses by targeting TRIF for ubiquitination and degradation.
Project description:The relative roles of the endosomal TLR3/7/8 versus the intracellular RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA5 in viral infection is much debated. We investigated the roles of each pattern recognition receptor in rhinovirus infection using primary bronchial epithelial cells. TLR3 was constitutively expressed; however, RIG-I and MDA5 were inducible by 8-12 h following rhinovirus infection. Bronchial epithelial tissue from normal volunteers challenged with rhinovirus in vivo exhibited low levels of RIG-I and MDA5 that were increased at day 4 post infection. Inhibition of TLR3, RIG-I and MDA5 by siRNA reduced innate cytokine mRNA, and increased rhinovirus replication. Inhibition of TLR3 and TRIF using siRNA reduced rhinovirus induced RNA helicases. Furthermore, IFNAR1 deficient mice exhibited RIG-I and MDA5 induction early during RV1B infection in an interferon independent manner. Hence anti-viral defense within bronchial epithelium requires co-ordinated recognition of rhinovirus infection, initially via TLR3/TRIF and later via inducible RNA helicases.
Project description:We report here that mouse macrophages undergo receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3)-dependent but TNF-?-independent necrosis when Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4 are activated by poly(I:C) and LPS, respectively. An adaptor protein, Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-? (TRIF/TICAM-1), which is dispensable for TNF-?-induced necrosis, forms a complex with RIP3 upon TLR3/TLR4 activation and is essential for TLR3/TLR4-induced necrosis. Mice without RIP3 or functional TRIF did not show macrophage loss and elevation of inflammatory cytokines when they were exposed to LPS. Necrosis in mouse macrophages induced by either TNFR or TLR3/TLR4 is executed by reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these data indicate that there are multiple upstream necrosis-initiating signaling pathways converging on the RIP3 during an innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections in mammals.
Project description:Human enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a member of the EV-D species, which belongs to the EV genus of the Picornaviridae family. Over the past several years, there have been increasingly documented outbreaks of respiratory disease associated with EV68. As a globally emerging pathogen, EV68 infects both adults and children. However, the molecular basis of EV68 pathogenesis is unknown. Here we report that EV68 inhibits Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated innate immune responses by targeting the TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing beta interferon (TRIF). In infected HeLa cells, EV68 inhibits poly(I·C)-induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and beta interferon (IFN-?) expression. Further investigations revealed that TRIF, a critical adaptor downstream of TLR3, is targeted by EV68. When expressed alone, 3C(pro), an EV68-encoded protease, cleaves TRIF. 3C(pro) mediates TRIF cleavage at Q312 and Q653, which are sites in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains, respectively. This cleavage relies on 3C(pro)'s cysteine protease activity. Cleavage of TRIF abolishes the capacity of TRIF to activate NF-?B and IFN-? signaling. These results suggest that control of TRIF by 3C(pro) may be a mechanism by which EV68 subverts host innate immune responses.EV68 is a globally emerging pathogen, but the molecular basis of EV68 pathogenesis is unclear. Here we report that EV68 inhibits TLR3-mediated innate immune responses by targeting TRIF. Further investigations revealed that TRIF is cleaved by 3C(pro). These results suggest that control of TRIF by 3C(pro) may be a mechanism by which EV68 impairs type I IFN production in response to TLR3 activation.
Project description:TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF) is an essential adaptor protein required for innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3- and TLR4. Here we identify USP19 as a negative regulator of TLR3/4-mediated signaling. USP19 deficiency increases the production of type I interferons (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines induced by poly(I:C) or LPS in vitro and in vivo. Usp19<sup>-/-</sup> mice have more serious inflammation after poly(I:C) or LPS treatment, and are more susceptible to inflammatory damages and death following Salmonella typhimurium infection. Mechanistically, USP19 interacts with TRIF and catalyzes the removal of TRIF K27-linked polyubiquitin moieties, thereby impairing the recruitment of TRIF to TLR3/4. In addition, the RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cullin-3-Rbx1-KCTD10 catalyzes K27-linked polyubiquitination of TRIF at K523, and deficiency of this complex inhibits TLR3/4-mediated innate immune signaling. Our findings thus reveal TRIF K27-linked polyubiquitination and deubiquitination as a critical regulatory mechanism of TLR3/4-mediated innate immune responses.
Project description:Binge/moderate alcohol suppresses TLR4-MyD88 proinflammatory cytokines; however, alcohol's effects on TLR-TRIF signaling, especially after in vivo exposure in humans, are unclear. We performed a comparative analysis of the TLR4-MyD88, TLR4-TRIF, and TLR3-TRIF pathways in human monocytes following binge alcohol exposure. Mechanistic regulation of TLR-TRIF signaling by binge alcohol was evaluated by analyzing IRF3 and TBK1, upstream regulator protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and immunoregulatory stress proteins HspA1A and XBP-1 in alcohol-treated human and mouse monocytes/macrophages. Two approaches for alcohol exposure were used: in vivo exposure of primary monocytes in binge alcohol-consuming human volunteers or in vitro exposure of human monocytes/murine macrophages to physiological alcohol concentrations (25-50 mM ethanol), followed by LPS (TLR4) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3) stimulation ex vivo. In vivo and in vitro binge alcohol exposure significantly inhibited the TLR4-MyD88 cytokines TNF-? and IL-6, as well as the TLR4-TRIF cytokines/chemokines IFN-?, IP-10, and RANTES, in human monocytes, but not TLR3-TRIF-induced cytokines/chemokines, as detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA. Mechanistic analyses revealed TBK-1-independent inhibition of the TLR4-TRIF effector IRF3 in alcohol-treated macrophages. Although stress protein XBP-1, which is known to regulate IRF3-mediated IFN-? induction, was not affected by alcohol, HspA1A was induced by in vivo alcohol in human monocytes. Alcohol-induced HspA1A was required for inhibition of TLR4-MyD88 signaling but not TLR4-TRIF cytokines in macrophages. In contrast, inhibition of PP1 prevented alcohol-mediated TLR4-TRIF tolerance in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro binge alcohol exposure in humans suppresses TLR4-MyD88 and TLR4-TRIF, but not TLR3-TRIF, responses. Whereas alcohol-mediated effects on the PP1-IRF3 axis inhibit the TLR4-TRIF pathway, HspA1A selectively suppresses the TLR4-MyD88 pathway in monocytes/macrophages.