A shared mealtime approach to improving social and nutritional functioning among older adults living alone: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Older adults living alone are at increased risk of malnutrition as well as social isolation. Previous research has evaluated psychosocial interventions aimed at improving social support for older adults living alone. One meta-analysis in particular has suggested that multimodal psychosocial interventions are more effective than unimodal interventions. As such, it may be more effective to deliver an intervention which combines nutritional and social support together. Consequently, we designed the RelAte intervention, which focuses on shared mealtimes as a source of combined social and nutritional support for older adults living alone who are at risk of social isolation. OBJECTIVE:The objective of the RelAte trial was to evaluate the impact of such an intervention on energy intake, anthropometric measurements, and nutritional social cognitive variables among older adults living alone in the community. METHODS:There are 100 participants that will be recruited and randomized to either the treatment (n=50) or the control group. The treatment group will receive a visit from a trained peer volunteer once weekly for a period of 8 weeks. Outcomes of interest include: energy intake, social cognitive factors related to diet, abdominal circumference, body mass index, psychosocial well-being, frailty, nutritional status, and health utilities. Outcomes will be obtained at baseline, immediately postintervention (8 weeks after baseline), 12-week follow-up, and 26-week follow-up by assessors blinded to participants' randomized assignment. RESULTS:The Relate trial is currently active. We are currently at data analysis stage. The study started in June 2013 and will run until June 2015. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study will primarily describe the effectiveness of a shared mealtime intervention for older adults living alone in terms of their dietary well-being, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02007551; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00102401 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6WptuVTtz).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to the demographic ageing process and the increasing number of pre-frail and frail individuals, new lifestyle interventions to enhance the quality of life (QoL) in community-dwelling older adults are necessary. Therefore, we performed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare effects of a lay-led home-based physical and nutritional intervention programme with social support alone on different QoL domains in community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older adults. METHODS:In this analysis within a RCT (12 weeks), lay volunteers visited one-on-one pre-frail or frail older adults at home twice a week. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention (PTN) group performed six strength exercises and discussed main nutritional issues during each visit. The social support (SOSU) group received home visits twice a week for social exchanges. The QoL was assessed with the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD instruments. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to examine differences between groups with baseline values as the covariate. Changes within groups were assessed with paired t-tests. RESULTS:Eighty participants (n = 39 in the PTN group and n = 41 in the SOSU group) were included. No significant differences were found between the two groups except in past, present and future activities domain [β = 3.66 (95% confidence interval 0.13 to 7.18)] in favour of the PTN group. However, there was some evidence of greater within group improvements in the PTN group particularly in overall QoL, social relations and social participation. In the SOSU group, no significant effect was observed in any QoL domain. CONCLUSION:A combination of a home-based physical and nutritional intervention was not more effective compared to social support alone, on QoL in community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older adults. However, the small but significant improvement within the PTN group suggests that a home-based physical and nutritional intervention delivered by volunteers may influence the QoL in a positive way. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study protocol was registered on 6 November 2013 at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01991639 ).
Project description:Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol.
Project description:Eating by oneself may be a risk factor for mental illness among older adults, but may be influenced by cohabitation status. We examined the association between eating alone and depression in the context of cohabitation status in older adults in Japan.A longitudinal, population-based study.Data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study.We analysed 17,612 men and 19,581 women aged ?65 without depression (Geriatric Depression Scale <5) at baseline in 2010.Eating status was classified into two categories: eating with others and eating alone. The risk of depression onset by 2013 was estimated using Poisson regression.After adjusting for socioeconomic status, physical health, nutritional status, social support, social participation, frequency of meet friends, employment status and marital status, the adjusted rate ratio (ARR) for depression onset in men who ate alone compared with those who ate with others was 2.36 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.18-4.71) for those living alone and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81-1.32) for those living with others. Among women, the ARR for depression for those who ate alone compared with those who ate with others was 1.31 (95% CI: 1.00-1.72) for those living alone and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01-1.44) for those living with others.Eating alone may be a risk factor for depression. Among men, the effect of eating alone on depression may be reinforced by living alone, but appears to be broadly comparable in women living alone and women living with others.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends incorporating psychosocial stimulation into the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). However, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of these interventions for SAM children, particularly when serious food shortages and lack of a balanced diet prevail. The objective of this study was to examine whether family-based psychomotor/psychosocial stimulation in a low-income setting improves the development, linear growth, and nutritional outcomes in children with SAM. METHOD:Children with SAM (N?=?339) admitted for treatment to the Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, were randomized to a control (n?=?170) or intervention (n?=?169) group. Both groups received routine medical care and nutritional treatment at the hospital. The intervention group additionally received play-based psychomotor/psychosocial stimulation during their hospital stay, and at home for 6 months after being discharged from hospital. The fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) functions, language (LA) and personal-social (PS) skills of the children were assessed using adapted Denver II, the social-emotional (SE) behavior was assessed using adapted Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional, and the linear growth and nutritional status were determined through anthropometric assessments. All outcomes were assessed before the intervention, upon discharge from hospital, and 6 months after discharge (as end-line). The overtime changes of these outcomes measured in both groups were compared using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS:The intervention group improved significantly on GM during hospital follow-up by 0.88 points (p?<?0.001, effect size?=?0.26 SD), and on FM functions during the home follow-up by 1.09 points (p?=?0.001, effect size?=?0.22 SD). Both young and older children benefited similarly from the treatment. The intervention did not contribute significantly to linear growth and nutritional outcomes. CONCLUSION:Psychomotor/psychosocial stimulation of SAM children enhances improvement in gross motor functions when combined with standard nutrient-rich diets, but it can enhance the fine motor functions even when such standard dietary care is not available. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was retrospectively registered on 30 January 2017 at the US National Institute of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov) # NCT03036176 .
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-supported self-management programme to improve social participation of dual sensory impaired older adults in long-term care homes. DESIGN:Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Thirty long-term care homes across the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:Long-term care homes were randomised into intervention clusters (n=17) and control clusters (n=13), involving 89 dual sensory impaired older adults and 56 licensed practical nurses. INTERVENTION:Nurse-supported self-management programme. MEASUREMENTS:Effectiveness was evaluated by the primary outcome social participation using a participation scale adapted for visually impaired older adults distinguishing four domains: instrumental activities of daily living, social-cultural activities, high-physical-demand and low-physical-demand leisure activities. A questionnaire assessing hearing-related participation problems was added as supportive outcome. Secondary outcomes were autonomy, control, mood and quality of life and nurses' job satisfaction. For effectiveness analyses, linear mixed models were used. Sampling and intervention quality were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:Self-management did not affect all four domains of social participation; however. the domain 'instrumental activities of daily living' had a significant effect in favour of the intervention group (P=0.04; 95% CI 0.12 to 8.5). Sampling and intervention quality was adequate. CONCLUSIONS:A nurse-supported self-management programme was effective in empowering the dual sensory impaired older adults to address the domain 'instrumental activities of daily living', but no differences were found in addressing the other three participation domains. Self-management showed to be beneficial for managing practical problems, but not for those problems requiring behavioural adaptations of other persons. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01217502; Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Age-related hearing loss (HL) is a prevalent disability associated with loneliness, isolation, declines in cognitive and physical function and premature mortality. Group audiological rehabilitation (GAR) and hearing technologies address communication and cognitive decline. However, the relationship between loneliness, physical function and GAR among older adults with HL has not been studied. OBJECTIVES:Explore the impact of a group exercise and socialisation/health education intervention and GAR on physical function and loneliness among older adults with HL. TRIAL DESIGN:A Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA)-based, 10-week, single-blind, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). PARTICIPANTS:Ambulatory adults aged 65 years or older with self-reported HL. INTERVENTIONS:Seventy-one participants were screened. Thirty-five were randomised to intervention (strength and resistance exercise, socialisation/health education) and GAR (hearing education, communication strategies, psychosocial support) or control (n=31): GAR only. OUTCOMES:Ninety-five per cent of eligible participants were randomised. GAR and exercise adherence rates were 80% and 85%, respectively. 88% of participants completed the study. Intervention group functional fitness improved significantly (gait speed: effect size: 0.57, 30?s Sit to Stand Test: effect size: 0.53). Significant improvements in emotional and social loneliness (effect size: 1.16) and hearing-related quality of life (effect size: 0.76) were related to GAR attendance and poorer baseline hearing-related quality of life. Forty-two per cent of participants increased social contacts outside the study. DISCUSSION:Walk, Talk and Listen was feasible and acceptable. Exercise and socialisation/health education improved loneliness and key fitness measures but provided no additional benefit to GAR only for loneliness. This is the first preliminary evidence about the benefits of exercise on fitness and GAR on loneliness among older adults with HL. IMPLICATIONS:This pilot trial provides key information on the sample size required for a larger, longer term RCT to determine the enduring effects of this holistic intervention addressing the negative psychosocial and musculoskeletal downstream effects of HL among older adults.
Project description:Hearing loss (HL) is a disability associated with poorer health-related quality of life including an increased risk for loneliness, isolation, functional fitness declines, falls, hospitalization and premature mortality. The purpose of this pilot trial is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a novel intervention to reduce loneliness, improve functional fitness, social connectedness, hearing and health-related quality of life in older adults with HL.This 10-week, single-blind, pilot randomized control trial (RCT) will include a convenience sample of ambulatory adults aged 65 years or older with self-reported HL. Following baseline assessments, participants will be randomized to either intervention (exercise, health education, socialization and group auditory rehabilitation (GAR)) or control (GAR only) groups. The intervention group will attend a local YMCA twice a week and the control group once a week. Intervention sessions will include 45 min of strengthening, balance and resistance exercises, 30 min of group walking at a self-selected pace and 60 min of interactive health education or GAR. The control group will attend 60-min GAR sessions. GAR sessions will include education about hearing, hearing technologies, enhancing communication skills, and psychosocial support. Pre-post trial data collection and measures will include: functional fitness (gait speed, 30-s Sit to Stand Test), hearing and health-related quality of life, loneliness, depression, social participation and social support. At trial end, feasibility (recruitment, randomization, retention, acceptability) and GAR will be evaluated.Despite evidence suggesting that HL is associated with declines in functional fitness, there are no studies aimed at addressing functional fitness declines associated with the disability of HL. This pilot trial will provide knowledge about the physical, mental and social impacts on health related to HL as a disability. This will inform the feasibility of a larger RCT and preliminary evidence about the initial effects of a novel, community-based, holistic intervention addressing both the negative psychosocial and functional physical effects of HL among older adults.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02662192 . Registered on 14 January 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although a focus on late-life depression may help preventing suicide in older adults, many older people, especially those living in rural areas, have relatively low accessibility to treatment. This study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a village-based intervention for depression targeting older adults living in rural areas. METHODS:A community-based randomised pilot trial was performed in two small rural villages in South Korea. Two villages were randomly selected and assigned to the intervention or active control group; all older adults living in the two villages (n?=?451) were included in the intervention program or received standard Community Mental Health Service (CMHS) care, and the effectiveness of the program was examined using representative samples from both groups (n?=?160). The 12-week intervention included case management according to individual risk level and group-based activities. Healthy residents living in the intervention village who played major roles in monitoring at-risk older individuals were supervised by CMHS staff. The score on the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K) was the primary outcome, while social network, functional status, and global cognitive function were secondary outcomes. Linear mixed models including the factors of intervention group, time, and their interaction were used to examine group differences in changes in primary and secondary outcomes from baseline to follow up. RESULTS:Overall, there was no significant group × time interaction with respect to the SGDS-K score, but older individuals with more depressive symptoms at baseline (SGDS-K???6) tended to have a lower likelihood of progressing to severe depression at post-intervention. The social network was strengthened in the intervention group, and there was a significant group × time interaction (F[df1, df2], 5.29 [1, 153], p?=?0.023). CONCLUSION:This study examined a 12-week village-based intervention for late-life depression in which the CMHS helped village-dwellers deal with late-life depression in their communities. Although the intervention improved social interactions among older adults, it did not reduce depressive symptoms. Further studies including more rural villages and long-term follow up are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this prevention program. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT04013165 (date: 9 July 2019, retrospectively registered).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of usual care management (UCM) and a newly-developed lifestyle modification with contingency management (LMCM) for geriatric depressive symptoms in the community. METHODS:A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 93 older adults with major depressive disorder at community mental health centers. A 12 week multi-domain LMCM was developed by providing positive reinforcement using 'gold medal stickers' as a symbolic incentive to motivate their participation and adherence. Participants were allocated to LMCM (n=47) and UCM (n=46) groups. They were then subjected to the 12 week treatment. Effects of the two intervention methods on Geriatric Depression Scale were determined using mixed model analysis. RESULTS:Participants in the LMCM group had greater decline in GDS score per month than participants in the UCM group after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, living alone, and MMSE scores at baseline examination [coefficient for GDS score (95% CI): -1.08 (-1.51, -0.65), p<0.001, reference: UCM group]. CONCLUSION:LMCM is safe and easy to use with a low cost. LMCM is suitable as psychosocial intervention for older adults with depressive symptoms in the community.
Project description:Older adults in nursing home and home-care are a particularly high-risk population for weight loss or poor nutrition. One negative consequence of undernutrition is increased health care costs. Several potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors increase the likelihood of weight loss or poor nutrition. Hence a structured and multidisciplinary approach, focusing on the nutritional risk factors and involving e.g. dieticians, occupational therapists, and physiotherapist, may be necessary to achieve benefits. Up till now a few studies have been done evaluating the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support among undernourished older adults and none of these have used such a multidisciplinary approach.An 11 week cluster randomized trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care, identified by screening with the Eating validation Scheme. Before start of the study there will be performed a train-the-trainer intervention involving educated nutrition coordinators.In addition to the nutrition coordinator, the participants assigned to the intervention group strategy will receive multidisciplinary nutrition support. Focus will be on treatment of the potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors identified by screening, by involving physiotherapist, registered dietician, and occupational therapist, as relevant and independent of the municipality's ordinary assessment and referral system.The primary outcome parameter will be change in quality of life (by means of Euroquol-5D-3L). Secondary outcomes will be: physical performance (chair stand), nutritional status (weight, Body Mass Index and hand-grip strength), oral care, fall incidents, hospital admissions, rehabilitation stay, moving to nursing homes (for participants from home-care), use of social services and mortality.An economic evaluation will be conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the multidisciplinary support.Furthermore, interviews with nursing home and home-care management, nursing staff and nutrition coordinators in both the control and intervention groups, participants in the intervention group and the involved multidisciplinary team will be performed.In this study we will evaluate in a randomized controlled trial whether multidisciplinary nutritional support is cost-effective, in undernourished older adults in home-care and nursing home and contribute to important research.ClinicalTrials.gov 2013 NCT01873456.