Costs and quality of life associated with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the UK: cohort analysis of patients in a cluster randomised trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Data on costs associated with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) are scarce. We provide estimates of UK healthcare costs, indirect costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients presenting to hospital with AUGIB. SETTING:Six UK university hospitals with >20 AUGIB admissions per month, >400 adult beds, 24?h endoscopy, and on-site access to intensive care and surgery. PARTICIPANTS:936 patients aged ?18?years, admitted with AUGIB, and enrolled between August 2012 and March 2013 in the TRIGGER trial of AUGIB comparing restrictive versus liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Healthcare resource use during hospitalisation and postdischarge up to 28? days, unpaid informal care, time away from paid employment and HRQoL using the EuroQol EQ-5D at 28? days were measured prospectively. National unit costs were used to value resource use. Initial in-hospital treatment costs were upscaled to a UK level. RESULTS:Mean initial in-hospital costs were £2458 (SE=£216) per patient. Inpatient bed days, endoscopy and RBC transfusions were key cost drivers. Postdischarge healthcare costs were £391 (£44) per patient. One-third of patients received unpaid informal care and the quarter in paid employment required time away from work. Mean HRQoL for survivors was 0.74. Annual initial inhospital treatment cost for all AUGIB cases in the UK was estimated to be £155.5 million, with exploratory analyses of the incremental costs of treating hospitalised patients developing AUGIB generating figures of between £143 million and £168 million. CONCLUSIONS:AUGIB is a large burden for UK hospitals with inpatient stay, endoscopy and RBC transfusions as the main cost drivers. It is anticipated that this work will enable quantification of the impact of cost reduction strategies in AUGIB and will inform economic analyses of novel or existing interventions for AUGIB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate UK trainee experience in endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB).Data was prospectively collected from all patients presenting to South Yorkshire Hospitals with AUGIB from September 2011 to December 2011 and compared with data from 1996. Concurrently, all gastroenterology trainees registered with the British Society of Gastroenterology were invited to respond to a web-based questionnaire regarding their experience in AUGIB management.77% (589/766) of the patient cohort underwent endoscopy for AUGIB; 15% (90/589) were performed by trainees. 7.2% (9/125) of the out of hours endoscopy case load was performed by trainees; all were low-risk or medium-risk cases (pre-endoscopy Rockall score ≤4). During the study period, dual therapy was delivered by a trainee on only four occasions. Comparison with the 1996 cohort demonstrated a marked reduction in the number of trainee performed endoscopies (76% vs 15%; p<0.001). Questionnaires were returned by 51% (245/478) of British Society of Gastroenterology trainees. 81% (198/245) thought that <10% of the gastroscopies they had performed involved therapeutic intervention. 23% (57/245) felt they would not be competent in AUGIB endoscopy by completion of specialty training.This study demonstrates the decline over time in trainee experience in AUGIB endoscopy. It also highlights a lack of trainee exposure to more challenging cases, out of hours endoscopy and therapeutic procedures. Furthermore, trainees are concerned that a level of competency may not be attained during specialty training. We advocate reviewing UK endoscopic training provision for AUGIB to ensure that experienced endoscopists are produced to meet future service needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:there are around 100,000 new stroke cases and over a million people living with its consequences annually in the UK. This has large impacts on health and social care, unpaid carers and lost productivity. We aimed to estimate associated costs. METHODS:we estimated 2014/2015 annual mean cost per person and aggregate UK cost of stroke for individuals aged ?40 from a societal perspective. Health and social care costs in the first and subsequent years after stroke were estimated from discrete event simulation modelling, with probability of progression and length of receipt of different health and social care services obtained from routine registry and audit data. Unpaid care hours and lost productivity were obtained from trial data. UK unit costs were applied to estimate mean costs. Epidemiological estimates of stroke incidence and prevalence were then applied to estimate aggregate costs for the UK. RESULTS:mean cost of new-onset stroke is £45,409 (95% CI 42,054-48,763) in the first year after stroke and £24,778 (20,234-29,322) in subsequent years. Aggregate societal cost of stroke is £26 billion per year, including £8.6 billion for NHS and social care. The largest component of total cost was unpaid care (61%) and, given high survival, £20.6 billion related to ongoing care. CONCLUSION:the estimated aggregate cost of stroke substantially exceeds previous UK estimates. Since most of the cost is attributed to unpaid care, interventions aimed at rehabilitation and reducing new and recurrent stroke are likely to yield substantial benefits to carers and cost savings to society.
Project description:Background:Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are common procedures performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, conservative transfusion approaches have been recommended to avoid RBC transfusions that are not clinically necessary and to achieve optimal patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the utilization and costs of RBC transfusions in medical-surgical ICUs and to compare this information against clinical guideline recommendations for best practice. Methods:Retrospective observational analysis of RBC transfusions in stable, non-bleeding adult patients was examined in a geographically-defined, population-based cohort of nine integrated ICUs between April 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. RBC transfusions associated with a pre-transfusion hemoglobin value of 70 g/L or more were examined through linear and logistic regression. The total costs of RBC transfusions, based on the RBC unit cost, were estimated. Results:A total of 4632 RBC transfusions (2287 ICU admissions) were included. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin values were identified for 4487 transfusions. On average, 61% occurred at or above a hemoglobin value of 70 g/L (mean 73.4 ± 9.2 g/L). Factors associated with such transfusions included being male, age over 75, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score greater or equal to 10, transfer from operating room, gastrointestinal bleeding, and trauma. A pre-transfusion hemoglobin value at or above 70 g/L was associated with increased odds of ICU mortality; there was no impact on overall hospital mortality. The total estimated cost of RBC transfusions was $2.99M Canadian dollars (CAD), with $1.82M CAD attributed to those with a hemoglobin value at or above 70 g/L. Conclusions:Over half of the examined RBC transfusions may not have aligned with recommended best practice; this suggests significant opportunity for improvement. The present findings are an essential step towards optimizing RBC transfusions in the ICU.
Project description:Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are progressive disabling neurological conditions usually fatal within 10 years of onset. Little is known about the economic costs of these conditions. This paper reports service use and costs from France, Germany and the UK and identifies patient characteristics that are associated with cost. 767 patients were recruited, and 760 included in the study, from 44 centres as part of the NNIPPS trial. Service use during the previous six months was measured at entry to the study and costs calculated. Mean six-month costs were calculated for 742 patients. Data on patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded and used in regression models to identify predictors of service costs and unpaid care costs (i.e., care from family and friends). The mean six-month service costs of PSP were €24,491 in France, €30,643 in Germany and €25,655 in the UK. The costs for MSA were €28,924, €25,645 and €19,103 respectively. Unpaid care accounted for 68-76%. Formal and unpaid costs were significantly higher the more severe the illness, as indicated by the Parkinson's Plus Symptom scale. There was a significant inverse relationship between service and unpaid care costs.
Project description:<h4>Background and Aims</h4> The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has severely impacted the daily practice of gastrointestinal endoscopy worldwide. Most endoscopy centers in China were shut down in late January 2020. We investigated the impact of the shutdown on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) events in Xingtai City, Hebei Province, China. <h4>Methods</h4> A web-based survey collected information on gastroscopy workload and AUGIB events. The study period was from 4 weeks before to 4 weeks after lockdown initiation in Xingtai City. Fourteen public gastrointestinal endoscopy centers performing emergency endoscopies were contacted via e-mail to collect weekly emergency gastroscopy volumes and the number of AUGIB events. AUGIB was defined as recent melena, hematemesis, or both, with an endoscopically visible source of bleeding. <h4>Results</h4> Twelve (85.7%) of the 14 surveyed gastrointestinal endoscopy centers in the city- and county-level hospitals responded. Altogether, 4,045 and 1,077 gastroscopy procedures were performed 4 weeks before and after lockdown initiation (73.4% reduction), respectively. Peptic ulcer-related AUGIB and variceal AUGIB events showed a 58.5% and 52.9% decline, respectively, compared with pre-COVID-19 data. Although the absolute number of AUGIB events decreased during the pandemic (from 149 to 66), the likelihood of detecting AUGIB during gastroscopy increased (3.68% (pre-COVID-19 period) versus 6.13% (COVID-19 period); P < 0.05). <h4>Conclusion</h4> The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a considerable reduction in gastroscopy workload and AUGIB events; however, the likelihood of detecting AUGIB increased significantly during gastroscopies.
Project description:Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents is associated with the potential for massive intraoperative blood loss, which requires significant allogeneic blood transfusion. Until now, the intraoperative use of the cell saver has been extensively adopted; however, its efficacy and cost-effectiveness have not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative cell saver use. This study was a single-center, retrospective study of 247 school-aged and adolescent patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery between August 2007 and June 2013. A cell saver was used intraoperatively in 67 patients and was not used in 180 patients. Matched case-control pairs were selected using a propensity score to balance potential confounders in baseline characteristics. Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) and plasma transfusions as well as blood transfusion costs were analyzed. The propensity score matching produced 60 matched pairs. Compared to the control group, the cell saver group had significantly fewer intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions (P = 0.012). However, when the combined postoperative and total perioperative periods were evaluated for the use of allogeneic RBC transfusion, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.813 and P = 0.101, respectively). With regard to the total cost of perioperative transfusion of all blood products (RBC and plasma), costs for the control group were slightly lower than those of the cell saver group, but this variance did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.095). The use of the cell saver in posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents was able to decrease the amount of intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion but failed to decrease total perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion. Moreover, the use of the cell saver was not cost-effective.
Project description:Primary postpartum haemorrhage is an obstetrical emergency often causing acute anaemia that may require immediate red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This anaemia results in symptoms such as fatigue, which may have major impact on the health-related quality of life. RBC transfusion is generally thought to alleviate these undesirable effects although it may cause transfusion reactions. Moreover, the postpartum haemoglobin level seems to influence fatigue only for a short period of time. At present, there are no strict transfusion criteria for this specific indication, resulting in a wide variation in postpartum policy of RBC transfusion in the Netherlands.The WOMB trial is a multicentre randomised non-inferiority trial. Women with acute anaemia due to postpartum haemorrhage, 12-24 hours after delivery and not initially treated with RBC transfusion, are eligible for randomisation. Patients with severe physical complaints are excluded. Patients are randomised for either RBC transfusion or expectant management. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) will be assessed at inclusion, at three days and one, three and six weeks postpartum with three validated measures (Multi-dimensional Fatigue Inventory, ShortForm-36, EuroQol-5D). Primary outcome of the study is physical fatigue three days postpartum. Secondary outcome measures are general and mental fatigue scores and generic health related quality of life scores, the number of RBC transfusions, length of hospital stay, complications and health-care costs. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat. The various longitudinal scores will be evaluated using Repeated Measurements ANOVA. A costs benefit analysis will also be performed. The power calculation is based on the exclusion of a difference in means of 1.3 points or greater in favour of RBC transfusion arm regarding physical fatigue subscale. With missing data not exceeding 20%, 250 patients per arm have to be randomised (one-sided alpha = 0.025, power = 80%).This study will provide evidence for a guideline regarding RBC transfusion in the postpartum patient suffering from acute anaemia. Equivalence in fatigue score, remaining HRQoL scores and physical complications between both groups is assumed, in which case an expectant management would be preferred to minimise transfusion reactions and costs.
Project description:Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis which typically begins in early adulthood and impacts on healthcare resource utilisation and the ability to work. Previous studies examining the cost of AS have relied on patient-reported questionnaires based on recall. This study uses a combination of patient-reported and linked-routine data to examine the cost of AS in Wales, UK.Participants in an existing AS cohort study (n = 570) completed questionnaires regarding work status, out-of-pocket expenses, visits to health professionals and disease severity. Participants gave consent for their data to be linked to routine primary and secondary care clinical datasets. Health resource costs were calculated using a bottom-up micro-costing approach. Human capital costs methods were used to estimate work productivity loss costs, particularly relating to work and early retirement. Regression analyses were used to account for age, gender, disease activity.The total cost of AS in the UK is estimated at £19016 per patient per year, calculated to include GP attendance, administration costs and hospital costs derived from routine data records, plus patient-reported non-NHS costs, out-of-pocket AS-related expenses, early retirement, absenteeism, presenteeism and unpaid assistance costs. The majority of the cost (>80%) was as a result of work-related costs.The major cost of AS is as a result of loss of working hours, early retirement and unpaid carer's time. Therefore, much of AS costs are hidden and not easy to quantify. Functional impairment is the main factor associated with increased cost of AS. Interventions which keep people in work to retirement age and reduce functional impairment would have the greatest impact on reducing costs of AS. The combination of patient-reported and linked routine data significantly enhanced the health economic analysis and this methodology that can be applied to other chronic conditions.
Project description:Babesia microti is the leading reported cause of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States. Donor screening assays are in development.A decision analytic model estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in a hypothetical cohort of transfusion recipients in Babesia-endemic areas of the United States. Strategies included: 1) no screening; 2) Uniform Donor Health History Questionnaire (UDHQ), "status quo"; 3) recipient risk targeting using donor antibody and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening; 4) universal endemic donor antibody screening; and 5) universal endemic donor antibody and PCR screening. Outcome measures were TTB cases averted, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; $/QALY). We assumed a societal willingness to pay of $1 million/QALY based on screening for other transfusion-transmitted infections.Compared to no screening, the UDHQ avoids 0.02 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $160,000/QALY whereas recipient risk-targeted strategy using antibody/PCR avoids 1.62 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $713,000/QALY compared to the UDHQ. Universal endemic antibody screening avoids 3.39 cases at an ICER of $760,000/QALY compared to the recipient risk-targeted strategy. Universal endemic antibody/PCR screening avoids 3.60 cases and has an ICER of $8.8 million/QALY compared to universal endemic antibody screening. Results are sensitive to blood donor Babesia prevalence, TTB transmission probability, screening test costs, risk and severity of TTB complications, and impact of babesiosis diagnosis on donor quality of life.Antibody screening for Babesia in endemic regions is appropriate from an economic perspective based on the societal willingness to pay for preventing infectious threats to blood safety.
Project description:BACKGROUND:we project incidence and prevalence of stroke in the UK and associated costs to society to 2035. We include future costs of health care, social care, unpaid care and lost productivity, drawing on recent estimates that there are almost 1 million people living with stroke and the current cost of their care is £26 billion. METHODS:we developed a model to produce projections, building on earlier work to estimate the costs of stroke care by age, gender and other characteristics. Our cell-based simulation model uses the 2014-based Office for National Statistics population projections; future trends in incidence and prevalence rates of stroke derived from an expert consultation exercise; and data from the Office for Budget Responsibility on expected future changes in productivity and average earnings. RESULTS:between 2015 and 2035, the number of strokes in the UK per year is projected to increase by 60% and the number of stroke survivors is projected to more than double. Under current patterns of care, the societal cost is projected to almost treble in constant prices over the period. The greatest increase is projected to be in social care costs-both public and private-which we anticipate will rise by as much as 250% between 2015 and 2035. CONCLUSION:the costs of stroke care in the UK are expected to rise rapidly over the next two decades unless measures to prevent strokes and to reduce the disabling effects of strokes can be successfully developed and implemented.