Fermentation and Cost-Effective 13C/15N Labeling of the Nonribosomal Peptide Gramicidin S for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Gramicidin S (GS) is a nonribosomally synthesized decapeptide from Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Its pronounced antibiotic activity is attributed to amphiphilic structure and enables GS interaction with bacterial membranes. Despite its medical use for over 70 years, the peptide-lipid interactions of GS and its molecular mechanism of action are still not fully understood. Therefore, a comprehensive structural analysis of isotope-labeled GS needs to be performed in its biologically relevant membrane-bound state, using advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Here, we describe an efficient method for producing the uniformly (13)C/(15)N-labeled peptide in a minimal medium supplemented by selected amino acids. As GS is an intracellular product of A. migulanus, we characterized the producer strain DSM 5759 (rough-convex phenotype) and examined its biosynthetic activity in terms of absolute and biomass-dependent peptide accumulation. We found that the addition of either arginine or ornithine increases the yield only at very high supplementing concentrations (1% and 0.4%, respectively) of these expensive (13)C/(15)N-labeled amino acids. The most cost-effective production of (13)C/(15)N-GS, giving up to 90 mg per gram of dry cell weight, was achieved in a minimal medium containing 1% (13)C-glycerol and 0.5% (15)N-ammonium sulfate, supplemented with only 0.025% of (13)C/(15)N-phenylalanine. The 100% efficiency of labeling is corroborated by mass spectrometry and preliminary solid-state NMR structure analysis of the labeled peptide in the membrane-bound state.
Project description:Many antimicrobial peptides are synthesized non-ribosomally in bacteria, but little is known about their subcellular route of biosynthesis, their mode of intracellular accumulation, or their role in the physiology of the producer cells. Here, we present a comprehensive view on the biosynthesis of gramicidin S (GS) in Aneurinibacillus migulanus, having observed a peripheral membrane localization of its synthetases. The peptide gets accumulated in nano-globules, which mature by fusion into larger granules and end up within vacuolar structures. These granules serve as energy storage devices, as they contain GS molecules that are non-covalently attached to alkyl phosphates and protect them from dephosphorylation and premature release of energy. This finding of a fundamentally new type of high-energy phosphate storage mechanism can explain the curious role of GS biosynthesis in the physiology of the bacterial producer cells. The unknown role of the GrsT protein, which is part of the non-ribosomal GS synthetase operon, can thus be assumed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of alkyl phosphates. GS binding to alkyl phosphates may suggest its general affinity to phosphagens such as ATP and GTP, which can represent the important intracellular targets in pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:The soil-borne gram-positive bacteria Aneurinibacillus migulanus strain Nagano shows considerable potential as a biocontrol agent against plant diseases. In contrast, A. migulanus NCTC 7096 proved less effective for inhibition of plant pathogens. Nagano strain exerts biocontrol activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and oomycetes through the production of gramicidin S (GS). Apart from the antibiotic effects, GS increases the rate of evaporation from the plant surface, reducing periods of surface wetness and thereby indirectly inhibiting spore germination. To elucidate the molecular basis of differential biocontrol abilities of Nagano and NCTC 7096, we compared GS production and biosurfactant secretion in addition to genome mining of the genomes. Our results proved that: (i) Using oil spreading, blood agar lysis, surface tension and tomato leaves wetness assays, Nagano showed increased biosurfactant secretion in comparison with NCTC 7096, (ii) Genome mining indicated the presence of GS genes in both Nagano and NCTC 7096 with two amino acid units difference between the strains: T342I and P419S. Using 3D models and the DUET server, T342I and P419S were predicted to decrease the stability of the NCTC 7096 GS synthase, (iii) Nagano produced two additional GS-like molecules GS-1155 (molecular weight 1155) and GS-1169 (molecular weight 1169), where one or two ornithine residues replace lysine in the peptide. There was also a negative correlation between surface tension and the quantity of GS-1169 present in Nagano, and (iv) the Nagano genome had a full protein network of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in contrast to NCTC 7096 which lacked the first enzyme of the network. NCTC 7096 is unable to form biofilms as observed for Nagano. Different molecular layers, mainly gramicidin secondary metabolite production, account for differential biocontrol abilities of Nagano and NCTC 7096. This work highlighted the basis of differential biological control abilities between strains belonging to the same species and demonstrates techniques useful to the screening of effective biocontrol strains for environmentally friendly secondary metabolites that can be used to manage plant pathogens in the field.
Project description:Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999(T) (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999(T), which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria.
Project description:GS-5759 is a bifunctional ligand composed of a quinolinone-containing pharmacophore found in several β2-adrenoceptor agonists linked covalently to a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor (PDE4) related to GSK 256066 by a pent-1-yn-1-ylbenzene spacer. The object of the study was to detemine if gene expression changes induced by GS-5759 were replicated by a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (indacaterol; Ind) and a PDE4 inhibitor (GSK 256066; GSK) in combination. Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from BEAS-2B cells treated with GS-5759 and a combination of indacaterol and GSK 256066 to identify differentialy expressed genes. Confluent BEAS-2B cells were treated with vehicle, Ind/GSK or GS-5759 for 1h, 2h, 6h or 18h. Total RNA was extracted, quantified (NanoDrop 2000) and the quality of each sample determined by using the Agilent 2100 Lab-on-a-Chip system before being processed for gene expression chnages by Expression Analysis Inc (Dunham, NC, USA).
Project description:The complex of the HIV TAR RNA with the viral regulatory protein Tat is of considerable interest, but the plasticity of this interaction has made it impossible so far to establish the structure of that complex. In order to explore a new approach to obtain structural information on protein-RNA complexes, we performed (13)C/(15)N-(19)F REDOR NMR experiments in the solid state on TAR bound to a peptide comprising the RNA-binding section of Tat. A critical arginine in the peptide was uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled, and 5-fluorouridine was incorporated at the U23 position of TAR. REDOR irradiation resulted in dephasing of the (13)C and (15)N resonances, indicating the proximity of the U23(5F)-C and U23(5F)-N spin pairs. Best fits to the REDOR data show the U23(5F)-C distances and the U23(5F)-N distances are in good agreement with the distances obtained from solution NMR structures of partial complexes of Tat with TAR. These results demonstrate that it is possible to study protein-RNA complexes using solid-state REDOR NMR measurements, adding to a growing list of solid state techniques for studying protein-nucleic acid complexes.
Project description:A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including (13)C and (15)N chemical shift anisotropies and (13)C-(15)N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides ((2)H, (13)C, and (15)N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21 degrees was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5 degrees previously determined from (2)H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied to any transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error.
Project description:The membrane-bound conformation of a cell-penetrating peptide, penetratin, is investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The (13)C chemical shifts of (13)C, (15)N-labeled residues in the peptide indicate a reversible conformational change from beta-sheet at low temperature to coil-like at high temperature. This conformational change occurs for all residues examined between positions 3 and 13, at peptide/lipid molar ratios of 1:15 and 1:30, in membranes with 25-50% anionic lipids, and in both saturated DMPC/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylchloline/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes and unsaturated POPC/POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes. Thus, it is an intrinsic property of penetratin. The coil state of the peptide has C-H order parameters of 0.23-0.52 for C(alpha) and C(beta) sites, indicating that the peptide backbone is unstructured. Moreover, chemical shift anisotropy lineshapes are uniaxially averaged, suggesting that the peptide backbone undergoes uniaxial rotation around the bilayer normal. These observations suggest that the dynamic state of penetratin at high temperature is a structured turn instead of an isotropic random coil. The thermodynamic parameters of this sheet-turn transition are extracted and compared to other membrane peptides reported to exhibit conformational changes. We suggest that the function of this turn conformation may be to reduce hydrophobic interactions with the lipid chains and facilitate penetratin translocation across the bilayer without causing permanent membrane damage.
Project description:The three-dimensional structure of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-l-Met-l-Leu-l-Phe-OH was determined by using solid-state NMR (SSNMR). The set of SSNMR data consisted of 16 (13)C-(15)N distances and 18 torsion angle constraints (on 10 angles), recorded from uniformly (13)C,(15)N- and (15)N-labeled samples. The peptide's structure was calculated by means of simulated annealing and a newly developed protocol that ensures that all of conformational space, consistent with the structural constraints, is searched completely. The result is a high-quality structure of a molecule that has thus far not been amenable to single-crystal diffraction studies. The extensions of the SSNMR techniques and computational methods to larger systems appear promising.