Electrical stimulation improves microbial salinity resistance and organofluorine removal in bioelectrochemical systems.
ABSTRACT: Fed batch bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) based on electrical stimulation were used to treat p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) wastewater at high salinities. At a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, p-FNB was removed 100% in 96 h in the BES, whereas in the biotic control (BC) (absence of current), p-FNB removal was only 10%. By increasing NaCl concentrations from 0 g/liter to 40 g/liter, defluorination efficiency decreased around 40% in the BES, and in the BC it was completely ceased. p-FNB was mineralized by 30% in the BES and hardly in the BC. Microorganisms were able to store 3.8 and 0.7 times more K(+) and Na(+) intracellularly in the BES than in the BC. Following the same trend, the ratio of protein to soluble polysaccharide increased from 3.1 to 7.8 as the NaCl increased from 0 to 40 g/liter. Both trends raise speculation that an electrical stimulation drives microbial preference toward K(+) and protein accumulation to tolerate salinity. These findings are in accordance with an enrichment of halophilic organisms in the BES. Halobacterium dominated in the BES by 56.8% at a NaCl concentration of 40 g/liter, while its abundance was found as low as 17.5% in the BC. These findings propose a new method of electrical stimulation to improve microbial salinity resistance.
Project description:The breeding of plantation forestry trees for the possible afforestation of marginal land would be one approach to addressing global warming issues. Here, we developed novel transgenic Eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) harbouring an RNA-Binding-Protein (McRBP) gene derived from a halophyte plant, common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.). We conducted screened-house trials of the transgenic Eucalyptus using two different stringency salinity stress conditions to evaluate the plants' acute and chronic salt stress tolerances. Treatment with 400 mM NaCl, as the high-stringency salinity stress, resulted in soil electrical conductivity (EC) levels >20 mS/cm within 4 weeks. With the 400 mM NaCl treatment, >70% of the transgenic plants were intact, whereas >40% of the non-transgenic plants were withered. Treatment with 70 mM NaCl, as the moderate-stringency salinity stress, resulted in soil EC levels of approx. 9 mS/cm after 2 months, and these salinity levels were maintained for the next 4 months. All plants regardless of transgenic or non-transgenic status survived the 70 mM NaCl treatment, but after 6-month treatment the transgenic plants showed significantly higher growth and quantum yield of photosynthesis levels compared to the non-transgenic plants. In addition, the salt accumulation in the leaves of the transgenic plants was 30% lower than that of non-transgenic plants after 15-week moderate salt stress treatment. There results suggest that McRBP expression in the transgenic Eucalyptus enhances their salt tolerance both acutely and chronically.
Project description:The long- and short-term effects of salt on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes were studied in an aerobic granular sludge reactor. The microbial community structure was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on 16S rRNA and amoA genes. PCR products obtained from genomic DNA and from rRNA after reverse transcription were compared to determine the presence of bacteria as well as the metabolically active fraction of bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the PCR-based results and to quantify the dominant bacterial populations. The results demonstrated that ammonium removal efficiency was not affected by salt concentrations up to 33 g/liter NaCl. Conversely, a high accumulation of nitrite was observed above 22 g/liter NaCl, which coincided with the disappearance of Nitrospira sp. Phosphorus removal was severely affected by gradual salt increase. No P release or uptake was observed at steady-state operation at 33 g/liter NaCl, exactly when the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" bacteria, were no longer detected by PCR-DGGE or FISH. Batch experiments confirmed that P removal still could occur at 30 g/liter NaCl, but the long exposure of the biomass to this salinity level was detrimental for PAOs, which were outcompeted by glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the bioreactor. GAOs became the dominant microorganisms at increasing salt concentrations, especially at 33 g/liter NaCl. In the comparative analysis of the diversity (DNA-derived pattern) and the activity (cDNA-derived pattern) of the microbial population, the highly metabolically active microorganisms were observed to be those related to ammonia (Nitrosomonas sp.) and phosphate removal ("Candidatus Accumulibacter").
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Brunei River and Bay estuarine system (BES) in the northwest of Borneo is acidic and highly turbid. The system supports extensive intertidal mudflats and presents a potentially steep salinity and pH gradient along its length (45 km). Temporal variation in physical parameters is observed diurnally due to seawater flux during tidal forcing, and stochastically due to elevated freshwater inflow after rains, resulting in a salinity range between 0 and 34 psu. High velocity freshwater run-off from acid sulphate formations during monsoon seasons results in highly variable and acidic conditions (pH 4) at the upper reaches of the BES, whereas the pH is relatively stable (pH 8) at the seaward extremes, due to mixing with seawater from the South China Sea. At their surfaces, the BES mudflats present microbial ecosystems driven by oxygenic phototrophs. To study the effect of various physical parameters on the bacterial diversity of the BES mudflats, surface samples were collected from six sites stretching over 40 km for molecular and phylogentic analysis. RESULTS: The bacterial diversity at these sites was compared by community fingerprinting analysis using 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Results revealed functionally conserved, diatom-driven microbial mudflat communities composed of mainly novel, uncultured species. Species composition was evaluated as 50-70% unique for each site along the BES. Clustering of the sequences commonly occurred and revealed that proteobacterial diversity was related to the salinity gradient. When considering all phyla, the diversity varied consistently with physical parameters (including anthropogenic) that are expected to influence microbial composition. CONCLUSION: The BES mudflats were found to comprise the typical functional groups of microorganisms associated with photosynthetic carbon flux, sulfur cycling (Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria), and decomposition (Bacteroidetes). From a structural perspective, however, the mudflats constituted discretely distributed communities along the physical gradient of the BES, composed of largely novel species of Bacteria. This study provides first insights into patterns of bacterial community structure in tropical South East Asian coastal ecosystems that are potentially threatened by increasing variability in pH and salinity, in line with predicted future environmental change.
Project description:A thermophilic bacterium, strain An10, was isolated from underground gas storage with methanol as a substrate and perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Cells were gram-positive straight rods, 0.4 to 0.6 mum in diameter and 2 to 8 mum in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. Spores were terminal with a bulged sporangium. The temperature range for growth was 40 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum at 55 to 60 degrees C. The pH optimum was around 7. The salinity range for growth was between 0 and 40 g NaCl liter(-1) with an optimum at 10 g liter(-1). Strain An10 was able to grow on CO, methanol, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, cellobiose, mannose, xylose, and pectin. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, thiosulfate, neutralized Fe(III) complexes, and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The G+C content of the DNA was 57.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain An10 was most closely related to Moorella thermoacetica and Moorella thermoautotrophica. The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell extracts. Strain An10 is the first thermophilic and gram-positive bacterium with the ability to use (per)chlorate as a terminal electron acceptor.
Project description:Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have great potential for treating wastewater containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, detailed data on cell physiological activities in PAH biodegradation pathways stimulated by BESs are still lacking. In this paper, a novel BES device was assembled to promote the growth of Pseudomonas sp. DGYH-12 in phenanthrene (PHE) degradation. The results showed that in the micro-electric field (0.2 V), cell growth rate and PHE degradation efficiency were 22% and 27.2% higher than biological control without electric stimulation (BC), respectively. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) concentration in BES (39.38 mg L-1) was higher than control (33.36 mg L-1); moreover, the membrane permeability and ATPase activities were also enhanced and there existing phthalic acid and salicylic acid metabolic pathways in the strain. The degradation genes nahAc, pcaH, and xylE expression levels were upregulated by micro-electric stimulation. This is the first study to analyze the physiological and metabolic effect of micro-electric stimulation on a PHE-degrading strain in detail and systematically.
Project description:Shoulder dysfunction is common after neck dissection for head and neck cancer (HNC). Brief electrical stimulation (BES) is a novel technique that has been shown to enhance neuronal regeneration after nerve injury by modulating the brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) pathways. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BES on postoperative shoulder function following oncologic neck dissection.Adult participants with a new diagnosis of HNC undergoing Level IIb +/- V neck dissection were recruited. Those in the treatment group received intraoperative BES applied to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) after completion of neck dissection for 60 min of continuous 20 Hz stimulation at 3-5 V of 0.1 msec balanced biphasic pulses, while those in the control group received no stimulation (NS). The primary outcome measured was the Constant-Murley Shoulder (CMS) Score, comparing changes from baseline to 12 months post-neck dissection. Secondary outcomes included the change in the Neck Dissection Impairment Index (?NDII) score and the change in compound muscle action potential amplitude (?CMAP) over the same period.Fifty-four patients were randomized to the treatment or control group with a 1:1 allocation scheme. No differences in demographics, tumor characteristics, or neck dissection types were found between groups. Significantly lower ?CMS scores were observed in the BES group at 12 months, indicating better preservation of shoulder function (p?=?0.007). Only four in the BES group compared to 17 patients in the NS groups saw decreases greater than the minimally important clinical difference (MICD) of the CMS (p?=?0.023). However, NDII scores (p?=?0.089) and CMAP amplitudes (p?=?0.067) between the groups did not reach statistical significance at 12 months. BES participants with Level IIb?+?V neck dissections had significantly better ?CMS and ?CMAP scores at 12 months (p?=?0.048 and p?=?0.025, respectively).Application of BES to the SAN may help reduce impaired shoulder function in patients undergoing oncologic neck dissection, and may be considered a viable adjunct to functional rehabilitation therapies.Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02268344 , October 17, 2014).
Project description:The prokaryotic community composition and diversity and the distribution patterns at various taxonomic levels across gradients of salinity and physiochemical properties in the surface waters of seven plateau lakes in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. These lakes included Lakes Keluke (salinity, <1 g/liter), Qing (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter), Tuosu (salinity, 24 to 35 g/liter), Dasugan (salinity, 30 to 33 g/liter), Gahai (salinity, 92 to 96 g/liter), Xiaochaidan (salinity, 94 to 99 g/liter), and Gasikule (salinity, 317 to 344 g/liter). The communities were dominated by Bacteria in lakes with salinities of <100 g/liter and by Archaea in Lake Gasikule. The clades At12OctB3 and Salinibacter, previously reported only in hypersaline environments, were found in a hyposaline lake (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter) at an abundance of ?1.0%, indicating their ecological plasticity. Salinity and the concentrations of the chemical ions whose concentrations covary with salinity (Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), Na(+), SO4 (2-), and Ca(2+)) were found to be the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity at the level of individual clades as well as entire prokaryotic communities. The distribution patterns of two phyla, five classes, five orders, five families, and three genera were well predicted by salinity. The variation of the prokaryotic community structure also significantly correlated with the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, the total nitrogen concentration, and the PO4 (3-) concentration. Such correlations varied depending on the taxonomic level, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlation analyses at various taxonomic levels in evaluating the effects of environmental variable factors on prokaryotic community structures. Our findings clarify the distribution patterns of the prokaryotic community composition in plateau lakes at the levels of individual clades as well as whole communities along gradients of salinity and ionic concentrations.
Project description:Soil salinity is generally spatially heterogeneous, but our understanding of halophyte physiology under such conditions is limited. The growth and physiology of the dicotyledonous halophyte Atriplex nummularia was evaluated in split-root experiments to test whether growth is determined by: (i) the lowest; (ii) the highest; or (iii) the mean salinity of the root zone. In two experiments, plants were grown with uniform salinities or horizontally heterogeneous salinities (10-450 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 670 mM in the high-salt side, or 10 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 500-1500 mM in the high-salt side). The combined data showed that growth and gas exchange parameters responded most closely to the root-weighted mean salinity rather than to the lowest, mean, or highest salinity in the root zone. In contrast, midday shoot water potentials were determined by the lowest salinity in the root zone, consistent with most water being taken from the least negative water potential source. With uniform salinity, maximum shoot growth was at 120-230 mM NaCl; ~90% of maximum growth occurred at 10 mM and 450 mM NaCl. Exposure of part of the roots to 1500 mM NaCl resulted in an enhanced (+40%) root growth on the low-salt side, which lowered root-weighted mean salinity and enabled the maintenance of shoot growth. Atriplex nummularia grew even with extreme salinity in part of the roots, as long as the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone was within the 10-450 mM range.
Project description:Here, we show the electrical response, bacterial community, and remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater from a gasworks site using a graphite-chambered bio-electrochemical system (BES) that utilizes granular activated carbon (GAC) as both sorption agent and high surface area anode. Our innovative concept is the design of a graphite electrode chamber system rather than a classic non-conductive BES chamber coupled with GAC as part of the BES. The GAC BES is a good candidate as a sustainable remediation technology that provides improved degradation over GAC, and near real-time observation of associated electrical output. The BES chambers were effectively colonized by the bacterial communities from the contaminated groundwater. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of UniFrac Observed Taxonomic Units shows distinct grouping of microbial types that are associated with the presence of GAC, and grouping of microbial types associated with electroactivity. Bacterial community analysis showed that β-proteobacteria (particularly the PAH-degrading Pseudomonadaceae) dominate all the samples. Rhodocyclaceae- and Comamonadaceae-related OTU were observed to increase in BES cells. The GAC BES (99% removal) outperformed the control graphite GAC chamber, as well as a graphite BES and a control chamber both filled with glass beads.
Project description:The extreme osmotic conditions prevailing in hypersaline environments result in decreasing metabolic diversity with increasing salinity. Various microbial metabolisms have been shown to occur even at high salinity, including photosynthesis as well as sulfate and nitrate reduction. However, information about anaerobic microbial iron metabolism in hypersaline environments is scarce. We studied the phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and metabolic activity of iron(II)-oxidizing and iron(III)-reducing Bacteria and Archaea in pH-neutral, iron-rich salt lake sediments (Lake Kasin, southern Russia; salinity, 348.6 g liter(-1)) using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bacteria and Archaea revealed a microbial community composition typical for hypersaline sediments. Most-probable-number counts confirmed the presence of 4.26 × 10(2) to 8.32 × 10(3) iron(II)-oxidizing Bacteria and 4.16 × 10(2) to 2.13 × 10(3) iron(III)-reducing microorganisms per gram dry sediment. Microbial iron(III) reduction was detected in the presence of 5 M NaCl, extending the natural habitat boundaries for this important microbial process. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria, total Archaea, and species dominating the iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures (relatives of Halobaculum gomorrense, Desulfosporosinus lacus, and members of the Bacilli) were highest in an iron oxide-rich sediment layer. Combined with the presented geochemical and mineralogical data, our findings suggest the presence of an active microbial iron cycle at salt concentrations close to the solubility limit of NaCl.