Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Revision of an Enigmatic Group of Haptorian Ciliates, with Establishment of the Kentrophyllidae fam. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Litostomatea, Pleurostomatida).
ABSTRACT: Haptorian ciliates in the closely similar genera Kentrophyllum and Epiphyllum possess a unique pattern of ciliature and are distinguished from one another only by the presence or absence of cytoplasmic spines projecting from the margin of the cell. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences of three new samples from coastal habitats in China revealed that species in the two genera clustered together indiscriminately (i.e. forms of neither genus clustered into an independent clade) as a maximally supported, monophyletic clade that branches basally to all other clades in the order Pleurostomatida and is strongly divergent from other members of the family in which the genera have been placed. As a result, we propose that Epiphyllum be synonymized with Kentrophyllum and that a new family Kentrophyllidae fam. n. be established for the genus. We hypothesize that the two-sutures of Kentrophyllum is a plesiomorphy within the Pleurostomatida and the unique peripheral kinety might represent an autapomorphy of Kentrophyllum. In addition, we provide a taxonomic revision of Kentrophyllum including description of three new species (K. bispinum sp. n., K. strumosum sp. n., and K. qingdaoense sp. n.), redescription of K. verrucosum (Stokes, 1893) Petz et al., 1995, and three new combinations (K. soliforme (Fauré-Fremiet, 1908) comb. n., K. hohuensis (Wang and Nie, 1933) comb. n. and K. shenzhenense (Pan et al., 2010) comb. n.). The surface ultrastructure of the genus Kentrophyllum is recorded for the first time. And a key to all known species of Kentrophyllum was also suggested.
Project description:Symbioses between ciliate hosts and prokaryote or unicellular eukaryote symbionts are widespread. Here, we report on a novel ciliate species within the genus Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent, 1824, isolated from shallow-water sunken wood in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), proposed as Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. We found this ciliate species to be associated with a novel genus of bacteria, here proposed as "Candidatus Navis piranensis" gen. nov., sp. nov. The descriptions of host and symbiont species are based on morphological and ultrastructural studies, the SSU rRNA sequences, and in situ hybridization with symbiont-specific probes. The host is characterized by alternate microzooids on alternate branches arising from a long, common stalk with an adhesive disc. Three different types of zooids are present: microzooids with a bulgy oral side, roundish to ellipsoid macrozooids, and terminal zooids ellipsoid when dividing or bulgy when undividing. The oral ciliature of the microzooids runs 1¼ turns in a clockwise direction around the peristomial disc when viewed from inside the cell and runs into the infundibulum, where it makes another ¾ turn. The ciliature consists of a paroral membrane (haplokinety), three adoral membranelles (polykineties), and one stomatogenic kinety (germinal kinety). One circular row of barren kinetosomes is present aborally (trochal band). Phylogenetic analyses placed Z. ignavum sp. nov. within the clade II of the polyphyletic family Zoothamniidae (Oligohymenophorea). The ectosymbiont was found to occur in two different morphotypes, as rods with pointed ends and coccoid rods. It forms a monophyletic group with two uncultured Gammaproteobacteria within an unclassified group of Gammaproteobacteria, and is only distantly related to the ectosymbiont of the closely related peritrich Z. niveum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838.
Project description:A well-developed recurrent veinlet is found in the forewing of two species of Nymphidae from the Middle Jurassic locality of Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, China), Liminympha makarkini Ren & Engel and Daonymphes bisulca gen. et sp. n. This is the first record of this trait in the clade comprised of the superfamilies Myrmeleontoidea and Chrysopoidea. We interpret the recurrent veinlet in these species as a remnant of the condition present more basally in the psychopsoid + ithonoid + chrysopoid + myrmeleontoid clade (i.e., as a plesiomorphy). Other venational character states of Daonymphes bisulca of interest include the configuration of subcosta anterior (ScA), which is very similar to that of extant Nymphidae. We consider the short ScA terminating on ScP to be an autapomorphy of Neuroptera.
Project description:The endemic Neotropical genus Gaujonia Dognin is revised. Morphological characters and a phylogenetic analysis demonstrate paraphyletic relationships among the species. Four different groups are interpreted to represent four different genera. The G. arbosi group is the only remaining clade in the genus Gaujonia, and the other groups have been arranged into three new genera: Millerana gen. nov., Oculicattus gen. nov., and Cicadoforma gen. nov. Additionally, two other genera Cicadomorphus gen. nov., and Gaujoptera gen. nov. were found using morphological and molecular analyses based on some specimens that were misidentified as Gaujonia spp. A total of five new genera, three new combinations (Cicadoforma vau-nigrum Hampson, comb. nov., Oculicattus renifera Hampson, comb. nov., and Millerana arbosioides Dognin, comb. nov.) and 21 new species (Cicadoforma ocelotus sp. nov., Cicadomorphus chicharra sp. nov., Cicadomorphus chuya sp. nov., Cicadomorphus falkasiska sp. nov., Cicadomorphus lilianae sp. nov., Gaujonia bichu sp. nov., Gaujonia chiqyaq sp. nov., Gaujonia kanakusika sp. nov., Gaujonia sourakovi sp. nov., Gaujoptera amsa sp. nov., Millerana austini sp. nov., Millerana cajas sp. nov., Millerana cundinamarquensis sp. nov., Millerana matthewsae sp. nov., Millerana tigrina sp. nov., Oculicattus boliviana sp. nov., Oculicattus brehmi sp. nov., Oculicattus inca sp. nov., Oculicattus raizae sp. nov., Oculicattus schmidti sp. nov., and Oculicattus uturunku sp. nov.) are established.
Project description:Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.
Project description:The two recently established genera Apostrombidium Xu et al., 2009 and Varistrombidium Xu et al., 2009 and the analysis of ontogenetic data in Strombidium constrictum, S. montagnesi, S. wilberti, Omegastrombidium elegans, and Paratontonia gracillima necessitated a revision of the hypothesis about the somatic ciliary pattern evolution in oligotrichid ciliates. As a consequence, the species-rich genus Strombidium was split, establishing two genera for species with a horizontal girdle kinety posterior to the oral primordium: Opisthostrombidium nov. gen. with the extrusome attachment sites along the anterior margin of the girdle kinety and posterior to the oral primordium and Foissneridium nov. gen. with the extrusome attachment sites distinctly apart from the girdle kinety and anterior to the oral primordium. The ontogenetic data revealed that the ?-shaped girdle kinety pattern evolved convergently from the Pseudotontonia pattern with its horizontal girdle kinety in the tailed genus Paratontonia and from the Novistrombidium pattern with its dextrally spiralled girdle kinety in the tailless genus Omegastrombidium. The somatic ciliary pattern of the latter genus probably gave rise to the patterns of Apostrombidium and Varistrombidium.
Project description:The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsideabahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsideabaranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideadominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidearileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideataeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideatexensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideatransversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsideavariabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsusballi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscomplicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsideaconsimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsusnigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsusrufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsusclavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsusdivaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicorismyrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeustexanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsisbejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsiscunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsisquercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsideabrailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsideacuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsideadimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideafuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsideakeltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideamaxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideapueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaserrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsideatouchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsideatruncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsideatuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsusbarberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscamelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsusfascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeusmimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsideadiegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsideacamelus, Pilophoropsisbrachyptera Poppius, Renodaeusmimeticus, and Zanchismemexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.
Project description:Earlier phylogenetic analyses of the marine Rhodobacteraceae (class Alphaproteobacteria) genera Leisingera and Phaeobacter indicated that neither genus might be monophyletic. We here used phylogenetic reconstruction from genome-scale data, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry analysis and a re-assessment of the phenotypic data from the literature to settle this matter, aiming at a reclassification of the two genera. Neither Phaeobacter nor Leisingera formed a clade in any of the phylogenetic analyses conducted. Rather, smaller monophyletic assemblages emerged, which were phenotypically more homogeneous, too. We thus propose the reclassification of Leisingera nanhaiensis as the type species of a new genus as Sedimentitalea nanhaiensis gen. nov., comb. nov., the reclassification of Phaeobacter arcticus and Phaeobacter leonis as Pseudophaeobacter arcticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Pseudophaeobacter leonis comb. nov., and the reclassification of Phaeobacter aquaemixtae, Phaeobacter caeruleus, and Phaeobacter daeponensis as Leisingera aquaemixtae comb. nov., Leisingera caerulea comb. nov., and Leisingera daeponensis comb. nov. The genera Phaeobacter and Leisingera are accordingly emended.
Project description:Using morphological, morphometrical, and molecular methods, we describe Leptopharynx bromelicola n. sp. from tank bromeliads of Jamaica. We add significant data to Leptopharynx costatus and briefly characterize and review the genus Leptopharynx Mermod, 1914, including four new combinations. Nine species can be distinguished when applying the following main features and assuming that most or all have the ability to produce macrostomes (MAs): distinct ridges along the right side ciliary rows; special features like spines or wings on the body and of the oral basket; dikinetids present vs. absent from somatic kinety 3; number of kinetids in kinety 6 as two for the costatus pattern and ? five for the bromelicola pattern; beginning and structure of kinety 9 as either underneath or far underneath the adoral membranelles and with or without dikinetids; postoral complex present vs. absent; and preoral kinety 4 continuous vs. discontinuous. The 18S rDNA sequences of L. bromelicola and L. costatus differ by 1.7% and show that Leptopharynx forms a distinct clade within the Nassophorea Small & Lynn, 1981. Leptopharynx bromelicola is possibly closely related to Leptopharynx euglenivora Kahl, 1926, which, however, lacks the basket nose so typical of the former. Leptopharynx forms thin-walled, non-kinetosome-resorbing resting cysts maintaining most of the trophic organelles.
Project description:Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Two new genera of Epipaschiinae are described. The genus Arcanusa Wang, Chen & Wu, gen. n. is established for Ar. apexiarcanusa Wang, Chen & Wu, sp. n. and Ar. sinuosa (Moore, 1888), comb. n., described in Scopocera Moore, 1888 (junior synonym of Stericta Lederer, 1863). The female genitalia of Ar. sinuosa (Moore, 1888), comb. n. are described for the first time. Androconia Wang, Chen & Wu, gen. n. is erected, including two new species, An. rallusa Wang, Chen & Wu, sp. n. and An. morulusa Wang, Chen & Wu, sp. n. Illustrations of all adults and their genitalia, and a key to the two new genera are provided.