Role of RNase H1 in DNA repair: removal of single ribonucleotide misincorporated into DNA in collaboration with RNase H2.
ABSTRACT: Several RNases H1 cleave the RNA-DNA junction of Okazaki fragment-like RNA-DNA/DNA substrate. This activity, termed 3'-junction ribonuclease (3'-JRNase) activity, is different from the 5'-JRNase activity of RNase H2 that cleaves the 5'-side of the ribonucleotide of the RNA-DNA junction and is required to initiate the ribonucleotide excision repair pathway. To examine whether RNase H1 exhibits 3'-JRNase activity for dsDNA containing a single ribonucleotide and can remove this ribonucleotide in collaboration with RNase H2, cleavage of a DNA8-RNA1-DNA9/DNA18 substrate with E. coli RNase H1 and H2 was analyzed. This substrate was cleaved by E. coli RNase H1 at the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction, regardless of whether it was cleaved by E. coli RNase H2 at the (5')DNA-RNA(3') junction in advance or not. Likewise, this substrate was cleaved by E. coli RNase H2 at the (5')DNA-RNA(3') junction, regardless of whether it was cleaved by E. coli RNase H1 at the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction in advance or not. When this substrate was cleaved by a mixture of E. coli RNases H1 and H2, the ribonucleotide was removed from the substrate. We propose that RNase H1 is involved in the excision of single ribonucleotides misincorporated into DNA in collaboration with RNase H2.
Project description:Two classes of RNase H hydrolyze RNA of RNA/DNA hybrids. In contrast to RNase H1 that requires four ribonucleotides for cleavage, RNase H2 can nick duplex DNAs containing a single ribonucleotide, suggesting different in vivo substrates. We report here the crystal structures of a type 2 RNase H in complex with substrates containing a (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction. They revealed a unique mechanism of recognition and substrate-assisted cleavage. A conserved tyrosine residue distorts the nucleic acid at the junction, allowing the substrate to function in catalysis by participating in coordination of the active site metal ion. The biochemical and structural properties of RNase H2 explain the preference of the enzyme for junction substrates and establish the structural and mechanistic differences with RNase H1. Junction recognition is important for the removal of RNA embedded in DNA and may play an important role in DNA replication and repair.
Project description:Eukaryotic RNases H2 have dual functions in initiating the removal of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) incorporated by DNA polymerases during DNA synthesis and in cleaving the RNA moiety of RNA/DNA hybrids formed during transcription and retrotransposition. The other major cellular RNase H, RNase H1, shares the hybrid processing activity, but not all substrates. After RNase H2 incision at the rNMPs in DNA the Ribonucleotide Excision Repair (RER) pathway completes the removal, restoring dsDNA. The development of the RNase H2-RED (Ribonucleotide Excision Defective) mutant enzyme, which can process RNA/DNA hybrids but is unable to cleave rNMPs embedded in DNA has unlinked the two activities and illuminated the roles of RNase H2 in cellular metabolism. Studies mostly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have shown both activities of RNase H2 are necessary to maintain genome integrity and that RNase H1 and H2 have overlapping as well as distinct RNA/DNA hybrid substrates. In mouse RNase H2-RED confirmed that rNMPs in DNA during embryogenesis induce lethality in a p53-dependent DNA damage response. In mammalian cell cultures, RNase H2-RED helped identifying DNA lesions produced by Top1 cleavage at rNMPs and led to determine that RNase H2 participates in the retrotransposition of LINE-1 elements. In this review, we summarize the studies and conclusions reached by utilization of RNase H2-RED enzyme in different model systems.
Project description:RNase H enzymes sense the presence of ribonucleotides in the genome and initiate their removal by incising the ribonucleotide-containing strand of an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mycobacterium smegmatis encodes four RNase H enzymes: RnhA, RnhB, RnhC and RnhD. Here, we interrogate the biochemical activity and nucleic acid substrate specificity of RnhA. We report that RnhA (like RnhC characterized previously) is an RNase H1-type magnesium-dependent endonuclease with stringent specificity for RNA:DNA hybrid duplexes. Whereas RnhA does not incise an embedded mono-ribonucleotide, it can efficiently cleave within tracts of four or more ribonucleotides in duplex DNA. We gained genetic insights to the division of labor among mycobacterial RNases H by deleting the rnhA, rnhB, rnhC and rnhD genes, individually and in various combinations. The salient conclusions are that: (i) RNase H1 activity is essential for mycobacterial growth and can be provided by either RnhC or RnhA; (ii) the RNase H2 enzymes RnhB and RnhD are dispensable for growth and (iii) RnhB and RnhA collaborate to protect M. smegmatis against oxidative damage in stationary phase. Our findings highlight RnhC, the sole RNase H1 in pathogenic mycobacteria, as a candidate drug discovery target for tuberculosis and leprosy.
Project description:Two types of RNA:DNA associations can lead to genome instability: the formation of R-loops during transcription and the incorporation of ribonucleotide monophosphates (rNMPs) into DNA during replication. Both ribonuclease (RNase) H1 and RNase H2 degrade the RNA component of R-loops, whereas only RNase H2 can remove one or a few rNMPs from DNA. We performed high-resolution mapping of mitotic recombination events throughout the yeast genome in diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking RNase H1 (rnh1?), RNase H2 (rnh201?), or both RNase H1 and RNase H2 (rnh1? rnh201?). We found little effect on recombination in the rnh1? strain, but elevated recombination in both the rnh201? and the double-mutant strains; levels of recombination in the double mutant were ?50% higher than in the rnh201 single-mutant strain. An rnh201? mutant that additionally contained a mutation that reduces rNMP incorporation by DNA polymerase ? (pol2-M644L) had a level of instability similar to that observed in the presence of wild-type Pol ?. This result suggests that the elevated recombination observed in the absence of only RNase H2 is primarily a consequence of R-loops rather than misincorporated rNMPs.
Project description:RNases H participate in the replication and maintenance of genomic DNA. RNase H1 cleaves the RNA strand of RNA/DNA hybrids, and RNase H2 in addition hydrolyzes the RNA residue of RNA-DNA junctions. RNase H3 is structurally closely related to RNases H2, but its biochemical properties are similar to type 1 enzymes. Its unique N-terminal substrate-binding domain (N-domain) is related to TATA-binding protein. Here, we report the first crystal structure of RNase H3 in complex with its RNA/DNA substrate. Just like RNases H1, type 3 enzyme recognizes the 2'-OH groups of the RNA strand and detects the DNA strand by binding a phosphate group and inducing B-form conformation. Moreover, the N-domain recognizes RNA and DNA in a manner that is highly similar to the hybrid-binding domain of RNases H1. Our structure demonstrates a remarkable example of parallel evolution of the elements used in the specific recognition of RNA and DNA.
Project description:RNase H2 cleaves RNA sequences that are part of RNA/DNA hybrids or that are incorporated into DNA, thus, preventing genomic instability and the accumulation of aberrant nucleic acid, which in humans induces Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a severe autoimmune disorder. The 3.1 Å crystal structure of human RNase H2 presented here allowed us to map the positions of all 29 mutations found in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome patients, several of which were not visible in the previously reported mouse RNase H2. We propose the possible effects of these mutations on the protein stability and function. Bacterial and eukaryotic RNases H2 differ in composition and substrate specificity. Bacterial RNases H2 are monomeric proteins and homologs of the eukaryotic RNases H2 catalytic subunit, which in addition possesses two accessory proteins. The eukaryotic RNase H2 heterotrimeric complex recognizes RNA/DNA hybrids and (5')RNA-DNA(3')/DNA junction hybrids as substrates with similar efficiency, whereas bacterial RNases H2 are highly specialized in the recognition of the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction and very poorly cleave RNA/DNA hybrids in the presence of Mg(2+) ions. Using the crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima RNase H2-substrate complex, we modeled the human RNase H2-substrate complex and verified the model by mutational analysis. Our model indicates that the difference in substrate preference stems from the different position of the crucial tyrosine residue involved in substrate binding and recognition.
Project description:The composition of RNase H2 has been a long-standing problem. Whereas bacterial and archaeal RNases H2 are active as single polypeptides, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, Rnh2Ap, when expressed in Escherichia coli, fails to produce an active RNase H2. By affinity chromatography purification and identification of polypeptides associated with a tagged S.cerevisiae Rnh2Ap, we obtained a complex of three proteins [Rnh2Ap (Rnh201p), Ydr279p (Rnh202p) and Ylr154p (Rnh203p)] that together are necessary and sufficient for RNase H2 activity [correction]. Deletion of the gene encoding any one of the proteins or mutations in the catalytic site in Rnh2A led to loss of RNase H2 activity. Even when S.cerevisiae RNase H2 is catalytically compromised, it still exhibits a preference for cleavage of the phosphodiester bond on the 5' side of a ribonucleotide-deoxyribonucleotide sequence in substrates mimicking RNA-primed Okazaki fragments or a single ribonucleotide embedded in a duplex DNA. Interestingly, Ydr279p and Ylr154p have homologous proteins only in closely related species. The multisubunit nature of S.cerevisiae RNase H2 may be important both for structural purposes and to provide a means of interacting with other proteins involved in DNA replication/repair and transcription.
Project description:We tested the activity of four predicated RNase H enzymes including two RNase HI-type enzymes in addition to RNase HII (RnhB) and RNase HIII (RnhC) on several RNA:DNA hybrid substrates with different divalent metal cations. We found that the two RNase HI-type enzymes YpdQ and YpeP failed to show activity on the three substrates tested. RNase HII and RNase HIII cleaved all substrates tested although activity was dependent on the metal made available. We show that B. subtilis RNase HII and RNase HIII are both able to incise 5' to a single rNMP. We show that RNase HIII incision at a single rNMP occurs most efficiently with Mn2+, an activity we found to be conserved among other Gram-positive RNase HIII enzymes. Characterization of RNase HII and HIII with metal concentrations in the physiological range showed that RNase HII can cleave at single rNMPs embedded in DNA while RNase HIII is far less effective. Further, using metal concentrations within physiological range, RNase HIII efficiently cleaved longer RNA:DNA hybrids lacking an RNA:DNA junction while RNase HII is much less effective. Phenotypic analysis shows that cells with an rnhC deletion are sensitive to hydroxyurea (HU). In contrast, cells with an rnhB deletion show wild type growth in the presence of HU supporting the hypothesis that RNase HII and HIII have distinct substrate specificities in vivo This work demonstrates how metal availability influences substrate recognition and activity of RNase HII and HIII providing insight into their function in vivoIMPORTANCE Ribonuclease H (RNase H) represents a class of proteins that cleave RNA:DNA hybrids helping resolve R-loops and Okazaki fragments as well as initiating the process of ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). We investigated the activity of four Bacillus subtilis RNase H enzymes finding that only RNase HII and HIII have activity and that their substrate preference is dependent on metal availability. To understand factors that contribute to RNase HII and RNase HIII substrate preference, we show that in the presence of metal concentrations within physiological range, RNase HII and HIII have distinct activities on different RNA:DNA hybrids. This work provides insight into how RNase HII and HIII repair the broad range of RNA:DNA hybrids that form in Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:The presence of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) in nuclear DNA decreases genome stability. To ensure survival despite rNMP insertions, cells have evolved a complex network of DNA repair mechanisms, in which the ribonucleotide excision repair pathway, initiated by type 2 RNase H (RNase HII/2), plays a major role. We recently demonstrated that eukaryotic RNase H2 cannot repair damage, that is, ribose monophosphate abasic (both apurinic or apyrimidinic) site (rAP) or oxidized rNMP embedded in DNA. Currently, it remains unclear why RNase H2 is unable to repair these modified nucleic acids having either only a sugar moiety or an oxidized base. Here, we compared the endoribonuclease specificity of the RNase HII enzymes from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi and the bacterium Escherichia coli, examining their ability to process damaged rNMPs embedded in DNA in vitro We found that E. coli RNase HII cleaves both rAP and oxidized rNMP sites. In contrast, like the eukaryotic RNase H2, P. abyssi RNase HII did not display any rAP or oxidized rNMP incision activities, even though it recognized them. Notably, the archaeal enzyme was also inactive on a mismatched rNMP, whereas the E. coli enzyme displayed a strong preference for the mispaired rNMP over the paired rNMP in DNA. On the basis of our biochemical findings and also structural modeling analyses of RNase HII/2 proteins from organisms belonging to all three domains of life, we propose that RNases HII/2's dual roles in ribonucleotide excision repair and RNA/DNA hydrolysis result in limited acceptance of modified rNMPs embedded in DNA.
Project description:Ribonuclease HII (RNase HII) is an essential endoribonuclease that binds to double-stranded DNA with RNA nucleotide incorporations and cleaves 5' of the ribonucleotide at RNA-DNA junctions. Thought to be present in all domains of life, RNase HII protects genomic integrity by initiating excision repair pathways that protect the encoded information from rapid degradation. There is sparse evidence that the enzyme cleaves some substrates better than others, but a large-scale study is missing. Such large-scale studies can be carried out on microarrays, and we employ chemical photolithography to synthesize very large combinatorial libraries of fluorescently labeled DNA/RNA chimeric sequences that self-anneal to form hairpin structures that are substrates for Escherichia coli RNase HII. The relative activity is determined by the loss of fluorescence upon cleavage. Each substrate includes a double-stranded 5 bp variable region with one to five consecutive ribonucleotide substitutions. We also examined the effect of all possible single and double mismatches, for a total of >9500 unique structures. Differences in cleavage efficiency indicate some level of substrate preference, and we identified the 5'-dC/rC-rA-dX-3' motif in well-cleaved substrates. The results significantly extend known patterns of RNase HII sequence specificity and serve as a template using large-scale photolithographic synthesis to comprehensively map landscapes of substrate specificity of nucleic acid-processing enzymes.