Synthesis of new metastable nanoalloys of immiscible metals with a pulse laser technique.
ABSTRACT: The generation of nanoalloys of immiscible metals is still a challenge using conventional methods. However, because these materials are currently attracting much attention, alternative methods are needed. In this article, we demonstrate a simple but powerful strategy for the generation of a new metastable alloy of immiscible metals. Au(1-x)Ni(x) 3D structures with 56 at% of nickel in gold were successfully manufactured by the pulsed laser irradiation of colloidal nanoparticles. This technology can be used for preparing different metastable alloys of immiscible metals. We hypothesise that this technique leads to the formation of alloy particles through the agglomerations of nanoparticles, very fast heating, and fast cooling/solidification. Thus, we expect that our approach will be applicable to a wide range of inorganic solids, yielding even new metastable solids that fail to be stable in the bulk systems, and therefore do not exist in Nature.
Project description:Bimetallic nanoparticles have a myriad of technological applications, but investigations of their chemical and physical properties are precluded due to their structural complexity. Here, the chemical ordering and optical properties of AgPd, AuPd, and AuPt nanoparticles have been studied computationally. One of the main aims was to clarify whether layered ordered phases similar to L1<sub>1</sub> one observed in the core of AgPt nanoparticles [Pirart J.; Nat. Commun.2019, 10, 1982] are also stabilized in other nanoalloys of coinage metals with platinum-group metals, or the remarkable ordering is a peculiarity only of AgPt nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effects of different chemical orderings and compositions of the nanoalloys on their optical properties have been explored. Particles with a truncated octahedral geometry containing 201 and 405 atoms have been modeled. For each particle, the studied stoichiometries of the Ag- or Au-rich compositions, ca. 4:1 for 201-atomic particles and ca. 3:1 for 405-atomic particles, corresponded to the layered structures L1<sub>1</sub> and L1<sub>0</sub> inside the monatomic coinage-metal skins. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with a recently developed topological (TOP) approach [Kozlov S. M.; Chem. Sci.2015, 6, 3868-3880] have been performed to study the chemical ordering of the particles, whose optical properties have been investigated using the time-dependent DFT method. The obtained results revealed that the remarkable ordering L1<sub>1</sub> of inner atoms can be noticeably favored only in small AgPt particles and much less in AgPd ones, whereas this L1<sub>1</sub> ordering in analogous Au-containing nanoalloys is significantly less stable compared to other calculated lowest-energy orderings. Optical properties were found to be more dependent on the composition (concentration of two metals) than on the chemical ordering. Both Pt and Pd elements promote the quenching of the plasmon.
Project description:Nanostructuring of bulk metals is now well documented with the development of severe plastic deformation (SPD) for improving the physical and mechanical properties of engineering materials. Processing by high-pressure torsion (HPT), which was developed initially as a grain refinement technique, was extended recently to the mechanical bonding of dissimilar metals during nanostrcturing which generally involves significant microstructural heterogeneity. Here we introduce, for the first time, a bulk metastable Al-Mg supersaturated solid solution by the diffusion bonding of separate Al and Mg metal solids at room temperature using HPT. Exceptional hardness was achieved homogeneously throughout the metastable alloy with a record maximum supersaturated Mg content of ~38.5?at.% in the Al matrix having a grain size of ~35-40?nm. Our results demonstrate the synthesis of a bulk nanocrystalline metastable alloy with good microstructural stability at room temperature where such bulk solids are not yet reported for mechanical alloying by powder metallurgy.
Project description:Using the magnetocaloric effect in nanoparticles holds great potential for efficient refrigeration and energy conversion. The most promising candidate materials for tailoring the Curie temperature to room temperature are rare-earth-based magnetic nanoalloys. However, only few high-nuclearity lanthanide/transition-metal nanoalloys have been produced so far. Here we report, for the first time, the observation of magnetic response in spark-produced LaFeSi nanoalloys. The results suggest that these nanoalloys can be used to exploit the magnetocaloric effect near room temperature; such a finding can lead to the creation of unique multicomponent materials for energy conversion, thus helping toward the realization of a sustainable energy economy.
Project description:The classification of miscible and immiscible systems of binary alloys plays a critical role in the design of multicomponent alloys. By mining data from hundreds of experimental phase diagrams, and thousands of thermodynamic data sets from experiments and high-throughput first-principles (HTFP) calculations, we have obtained a comprehensive classification of alloying behavior for 813 binary alloy systems consisting of transition and lanthanide metals. Among several physics-based descriptors, the slightly modified Pettifor chemical scale provides a unique two-dimensional map that divides the miscible and immiscible systems into distinctly clustered regions. Based on an artificial neural network algorithm and elemental similarity, the miscibility of the unknown systems is further predicted and a complete miscibility map is thus obtained. Impressively, the classification by the miscibility map yields a robust validation on the capability of the well-known Miedema's theory (95% agreement) and shows good agreement with the HTFP method (90% agreement). Our results demonstrate that a state-of-the-art physics-guided data mining can provide an efficient pathway for knowledge discovery in the next generation of materials design.
Project description:Au and Ru are elements that are immiscible in the bulk state and have the largest gap in reduction potential among noble metals. Here, for the first time, Au <sub><i>x</i></sub> Ru<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> solid-solution alloy nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized over the whole composition range through a chemical reduction method. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Au and Ru atoms are homogeneously mixed at the atomic level. We investigated the catalytic performance of Au <sub><i>x</i></sub> Ru<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub> NPs for the oxygen evolution reaction, for which Ru is well known to be one of the best monometallic catalysts, and we found that even alloying with a small amount of Au could significantly enhance the catalytic performance.
Project description:This study provides a coreduction methodology for solid solution formation in immiscible systems, with an example of a whole-region immiscible Cu-Ru system. Although the binary Cu-Ru alloy system is very unstable in the bulk state, the atomic-level well-mixed CuRu solid solution nanoparticles were found to have high thermal stability up to at least 773 K in a vacuum. The exhaust purification activity of the CuRu solid solution was comparable to that of face-centred cubic Ru nanoparticles. According to <i>in situ</i> infrared measurements, stronger NO adsorption and higher intrinsic reactivity of the Ru site on the CuRu surface than that of a pure Ru surface were found, affected by atomic-level Cu substitution. Furthermore, CuRu solid solution was a versatile catalyst for purification of all exhaust gases at a stoichiometric oxygen concentration.
Project description:In this work, we report a facile synthesis route, structural characterization, and full atomistic simulations of gold-palladium nanoalloys. Through aberration corrected-STEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and EDS chemical analysis, we were able to determine that Au(core)-Pd(shell) bimetallic nanoparticles were formed. Using different computational approaches, we were capable of establishing how the size of the core and the thickness of the shell will affect the thermodynamic stability of several core-shell nanoalloys. Finally, grand canonical simulations using different sampling procedures were used to study the growth mechanism of Pd atoms on Au seeds of different shapes.
Project description:The control of structural and chemical transitions in bimetallic nanoalloys at finite temperatures is one of the challenges for their use in advanced applications. Comparing Nested Sampling and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we investigate the phase changes of CuPt nanoalloys with the aim to elucidate the role of kinetic effects during their solidification and melting processes. We find that the quasi-thermodynamic limit for the nucleation of (CuPt)309 is 965?±?10?K, but its prediction is increasingly underestimated when the system is cooled faster than 109?K/s. The solidified nanoparticles, classified following a novel tool based on Steinhardt parameters and the relative orientation of characteristic atomic environments, are then heated back to their liquid phase. We demonstrate the kinetic origin of the hysteresis in the caloric curve as (i) it closes for rates slower than 108?K/s, with a phase change temperature of 970?K?±?25?K, in very good agreement with its quasi-thermodynamic limit; (ii) the process happens simultaneously in the inner and outer layers; (iii) an onion-shell chemical order - Cu-rich surface, Pt-rich sub-surface, and mixed core - is always preserved.
Project description:Although the vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowire is a non-equilibrium process, the equilibrium phase diagram of binary alloy provides important guidance on the growth conditions, such as the temperature and the equilibrium composition of the alloy. Given the small dimensions of the alloy seeds and the nanowires, the known phase diagram of bulk binary alloy cannot be expected to accurately predict the behavior of the nanowire growth. Here, we developed a unified model to describe the size- and dimensionality-dependent equilibrium phase diagram of Au-Ge binary eutectic nanoalloys based on the size-dependent cohesive energy model. It is found that the liquidus curves reduce and shift leftward with decreasing size and dimensionality. Moreover, the effects of size and dimensionality on the eutectic composition are small and negligible when both components in binary eutectic alloys have the same dimensionality. However, when two components have different dimensionality (e.g. Au nanoparticle-Ge nanowire usually used in the semiconductor nanowires growth), the eutectic composition reduces with decreasing size.
Project description:Metallic nanoalloys are essential because of the synergistic effects rather than the merely additive effects of the metal components. Nanoscience is currently able to produce one-atom-thick linear atomic chains (LACs), and the NiAl(110) surface is a well-tested template used to build them. We report the first study based on ab initio density functional theory methods of one-dimensional transition-metal (TM) nanoalloys (i.e., LACs) grown on the NiAl(110) surface. This is a comprehensive and detailed computational study of the effect of alloying groups 10 and 11 metals (Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, and Au) in LACs supported on the NiAl(110) surfaces to elucidate the structural, energetic, and electronic properties. From the TM series studied here, Pt appears to be an energy-stabilization species; meanwhile, Ag has a contrasting behavior. The work function changes because the alloying in LACs was satisfactorily explained from the explicit surface dipole moment calculations using an ab initio calculation-based approach, which captured the electron density redistribution upon building the LAC.