Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton.
ABSTRACT: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development.
Project description:Increasing evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disease affecting the whole joint, including both cartilage and subchondral bone. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be one of the important destructive factors during early-stage OA development. The objective of this study was to investigate isorhamnetin (Iso) treatment on osteoclast formation and chondrocyte protection to attenuate OA by modulating ROS. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) was used to establish the osteoclast differentiation model in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in vivo. H2 O2 was used to induce ROS, which could further cause chondrocyte apoptosis. We demonstrated that Iso suppressed RANKL-induced ROS generation, which could mediate osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, we found that Iso inhibited osteoclast formation and function by suppressing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes and proteins. We proved that Iso inhibited RANKL-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and AKT signalling pathways in BMMs. In addition, Iso inhibited ROS-induced chondrocyte apoptosis by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. Moreover, Iso was administered to an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced OA mouse model. The results indicated that Iso exerted beneficial effects on inhibiting excessive osteoclast activity and chondrocyte apoptosis, which further remedied cartilage damage. Overall, our data showed that Iso is an effective candidate for treating OA.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cells/osteoblasts were originally thought to be the major player in regulating osteoclast differentiation through expressing RANKL/OPG cytokines. Recent studies have established that chondrocytes also express RANKL/OPG and support osteoclast formation. Till now, the in vivo function of chondrocyte-produced OPG in osteoclast formation and postnatal bone growth has not been directly investigated. In this study, chondrocyte-specific Opg transgenic mice were generated by using type II collagen promoter. The Col2-Opg transgenic mice showed delayed formation of secondary ossification center and localized increase of bone mass in proximal metaphysis of tibiae. TRAP staining showed that osteoclast numbers were reduced in both secondary ossification center and proximal metaphysis. This finding was further confirmed by in vitro chondrocyte/spleen cell co-culture assay. In contrast, the mineral apposition rates were not changed in Col2-Opg transgenic mice. TUNEL staining revealed more apoptotic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate of Col2-Opg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed fewer RANK-expressing cells in the marrow of Col2a1-Opg mice, suggesting the role of OPG in blocking the differentiation of early mesenchymal progenitors into RANK-expressing pre-osteoclasts. Our results demonstrated that OPG expression in chondrocyte increases bone mass in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae through negative regulation of osteoclast formation.
Project description:Faulty bony repair causes dysrepair of injured growth plate cartilage and bone growth defects in children; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recently, we observed the prominent induction of neurotrophin?3 (NT-3) and its important roles as an osteogenic and angiogenic factor promoting the bony repair. The current study investigated its roles in regulating injury site remodelling. In a rat tibial growth plate drill-hole injury repair model, NT-3 was expressed prominently in osteoblasts at the injury site. Recombinant NT-3 (rhNT-3) systemic treatment enhanced, but NT-3 immunoneutralization attenuated, expression of cartilage-removal proteases (MMP-9 and MMP-13), presence of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and expression of osteoclast protease cathepsin K, and remodelling at the injury site. NT-3 was also highly induced in cultured mineralizing rat bone marrow stromal cells, and the conditioned medium augmented osteoclast formation and resorptive activity, an ability that was blocked by presence of anti-NT-3 antibody. Moreover, NT-3 and receptor TrkC were induced during osteoclastogenesis, and rhNT-3 treatment activated TrkC downstream kinase Erk1/2 in differentiating osteoclasts although rhNT-3 alone did not affect activation of osteoclastogenic transcription factors NF-?B or NFAT in RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cells. Furthermore, rhNT-3 treatment increased, but NT-3 neutralization reduced, expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines (RANKL, TNF-?, and IL-1) in mineralizing osteoblasts and in growth plate injury site, and rhNT-3 augmented the induction of these cytokines caused by RANKL treatment in RAW264.7 cells. Thus, injury site osteoblast-derived NT-3 is important in promoting growth plate injury site remodelling, as it induces cartilage proteases for cartilage removal and augments osteoclastogenesis and resorption both directly (involving activing Erk1/2 and substantiating RANKL-induced increased expression of osteoclastogenic signals in differentiating osteoclasts) and indirectly (inducing osteoclastogenic signals in osteoblasts).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether ?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes regulates osteoclastogenesis, thereby contributing to postnatal bone growth and bone remodeling. METHODS:Mice with conditional knockout (cKO) or conditional activation (cAct) of chondrocyte-specific ?-catenin were generated. Changes in bone mass, osteoclast numbers, and osteoblast activity were examined. The mechanisms by which ?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes regulates osteoclast formation were determined. RESULTS:The ?-catenin cKO mice developed localized bone loss, whereas cAct mice developed a high bone mass phenotype. Histologic findings suggested that these phenotypes were caused primarily by impaired osteoclast formation, rather than impaired bone formation. Further molecular signaling analyses revealed that ?-catenin signaling controlled this process by regulating the expression of the RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) genes in chondrocytes. Activation of ?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes suppressed Rankl gene transcription through a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanism. The severe bone loss phenotype observed in ?-catenin cKO mice was largely restored by treatment with human recombinant OPG or transgenic overexpression of Opg in chondrocytes. CONCLUSION:?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes plays a key role in postnatal bone growth and bone remodeling through its regulation of osteoclast formation.
Project description:This study tested whether activation of adrenoreceptors in chondrocytes has roles in degenerative remodelling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to determine associated mechanisms. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was established to induce TMJ degeneration in rats. Saline vehicle, ?2- and ?-adrenoreceptor antagonists or agonists were injected locally into the TMJ area of UAC rats. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone microarchitecture and the expression of adrenoreceptors, aggrecans, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and RANKL by chondrocytes were evaluated. Chondrocytes were stimulated by norepinephrine to investigate signal transduction of adrenoreceptors. Increased ?2A-adrenoreceptor expression was observed in condylar cartilage of UAC rats, together with cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone loss. Norepinephrine depresses aggrecans expression but stimulates MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL production by chondrocytes through ERK1/2 and PKA pathway; these effects were abolished by an ?2A-adrenoreceptor antagonist. Furthermore, inhibition of ?2A-adrenoreceptor attenuated degenerative remodelling in the condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, as revealed by increased cartilage thickness, proteoglycans and aggrecan expression, and decreased MMP-3, MMP-13 and RANKL expressions in cartilage, increased BMD, BV/TV, and decreased Tb.Sp in subchondral bone. Conversely, activation of ?2A-adrenoreceptor intensified aforementioned degenerative changes in UAC rats. It is concluded that activation of ?2A-adrenergic signal in chondrocytes promotes TMJ degenerative remodelling by chondrocyte-mediated pro-catabolic activities.
Project description:Osteoblasts and chondrocytes arise from common osteo-chondroprogenitor cells. We show here that inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in osteo-chondroprogenitor cells causes a block in osteoblast differentiation and leads to ectopic chondrogenic differentiation in the bone-forming region in the perichondrium. Furthermore, increased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in mesenchymal cells enhances osteoblast differentiation and inhibits chondrocyte differentiation. These observations indicate that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in the lineage specification of mesenchymal cells. The inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 resulted in reduced beta-catenin expression, suggesting a role for canonical Wnt signaling in ERK1 and ERK2 regulation of skeletal lineage specification. Furthermore, inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 significantly reduced RANKL expression, accounting for a delay in osteoclast formation. Thus, our results indicate that ERK1 and ERK2 not only play essential roles in the lineage specification of osteo-chondroprogenitor cells but also support osteoclast formation in vivo.
Project description:Loss of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity in mice alters growth plate development, impairs endochondral ossification, and retards growth. However, the detailed mechanism by which EGFR regulates endochondral bone formation is unknown. Here, we show that administration of an EGFR-specific small-molecule inhibitor, gefitinib, into 1-month-old rats for 7 days produced profound defects in long bone growth plate cartilage characterized by epiphyseal growth plate thickening and massive accumulation of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Immunostaining demonstrated that growth plate chondrocytes express EGFR, but endothelial cells and osteoclasts show little to no expression. Gefitinib did not alter chondrocyte proliferation or differentiation and vascular invasion into the hypertrophic cartilage. However, osteoclast recruitment and differentiation at the chondro-osseous junction were attenuated owing to decreased RANKL expression in the growth plate. Moreover, gefitinib treatment inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9, -13, and -14), increased the amount of collagen fibrils, and decreased degraded extracellular matrix products in the growth plate. In vitro, the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) strongly stimulated RANKL and MMPs expression and suppressed osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in primary chondrocytes. In addition, a mouse model of cartilage-specific EGFR inactivation exhibited a similar phenotype of hypertrophic cartilage enlargement. Together our data demonstrate that EGFR signaling supports osteoclastogenesis at the chondro-osseous junction and promotes chondrogenic expression of MMPs in the growth plate. Therefore, we conclude that EGFR signaling plays an essential role in the remodeling of growth plate cartilage extracellular matrix into bone during endochondral ossification.
Project description:Previous studies showed that loss of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) signaling delayed fracture healing by delaying chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage resorption. Mechanistic studies showed that TNF? induced Fas expression within chondrocytes; however, the degree to which chondrocyte apoptosis is mediated by TNF? alone or dependent on the induction of Fas is unclear. This question was addressed by assessing fracture healing in Fas-deficient B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. Loss of Fas delayed cartilage resorption but also lowered bone fraction in the calluses. The reduced bone fraction was related to elevated rates of coupled bone turnover in the B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J calluses, as evidenced by higher osteoclast numbers and increased osteogenesis. Analysis of the apoptotic marker caspase 3 showed fewer positive chondrocytes and osteoclasts in calluses of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. To determine if an active autoimmune state contributed to increased bone turnover, the levels of activated T cells and Treg cells were assessed. B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice had elevated Treg cells in both spleens and bones of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J but decreased percentage of activated T cells in bone tissues. Fracture led to ?30% to 60% systemic increase in Treg cells in both wild-type and B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J bone tissues during the period of cartilage formation and resorption but either decreased (wild type) or left unchanged (B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J) the numbers of activated T cells in bone. These results show that an active autoimmune state is inhibited during the period of cartilage resorption and suggest that iTreg cells play a functional role in this process. These data show that loss of Fas activity specifically in chondrocytes prolonged the life span of chondrocytes and that Fas synergized with TNF? signaling to mediate chondrocyte apoptosis. Conversely, loss of Fas systemically led to increased osteoclast numbers during later periods of fracture healing and increased osteogenesis. These findings suggest that retention of viable chondrocytes locally inhibits osteoclast activity or matrix proteolysis during cartilage resorption.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by insufficient osteoblastic function and/or excessive osteoclastic activity. One promising strategy for treating osteoporosis is inhibiting excessive osteoclast resorbing activity. Previous studies have revealed that anemonin (ANE), isolated from various types of Chinese natural herbs, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, whether ANE regulates osteoclastogenesis is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of ANE on osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone loss in mice. In in vitro studies, ANE suppressed RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation and function by downregulating the expression of osteoclast master transcriptor NFATc1, as well as its upstream transcriptor c-Fos, by decreasing NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling. Interestingly, ANE did not change the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-? and activation of JNK and p38 MAPKs. However, ANE repressed the phosphorylation of MSK-1 which is the downstream target of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and can phosphorylate NF-?B p65 subunit. These results implicated that ANE might suppress NF-?B activity via modulation of ERK1/2 mediated NF-?B phosphorylation. In addition, ANE directly suppressed NFATc1 transcription by inhibiting Blimp-1 expression, and the subsequent enhancement of the expression of NFATc1 negative regulators, Bcl-6 and IRF-8. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted using an LPS-induced inflammatory bone loss mice model. Micro-CT and histology analysis showed that ANE treatment significantly improved trabecular bone parameters and bone destruction. These data indicate that ANE can attenuate RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and ameliorate LPS-induced inflammatory bone loss in mice through modulation of NFATc1 via ERK1/2-mediated NF-?B phosphorylation and Blimp1 signal pathways. ANE may provide new treatment options for osteoclast-related diseases.
Project description:A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) is known to be the regulator of bone homeostasis, but its regulatory mechanisms in osteoclast formation are less well-defined. Here, we demonstrate the effect of A2BAR stimulation on osteoclast differentiation and activity by RANKL. A2BAR was expressed in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage (BMM) and RANKL increased A2BAR expression during osteoclastogenesis. A2BAR stimulation with its specific agonist BAY 60-6583 was sufficient to inhibit the activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAP kinases and NF-?B by RANKL as well as it abrogated cell-cell fusion in the late stage of osteoclast differentiation. Stimulation of A2BAR suppressed the expression of osteoclast marker genes, such as <i>c-Fos</i>, <i>TRAP</i>, <i>Cathepsin-K</i> and <i>NFATc1,</i> induced by RANKL, and transcriptional activity of NFATc1 was also inhibited by stimulation of A2BAR. A2BAR stimulation caused a notable reduction in the expression of Atp6v0d2 and DC-STAMP related to cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts. Especially, a decrease in bone resorption activity through suppression of actin ring formation by A2BAR stimulation was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that A2BAR stimulation inhibits the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and NF-?B by RANKL, which suppresses the induction of osteoclast marker genes, thus contributing to the decrease in osteoclast cell-cell fusion and bone resorption activity.