Pore-scale modeling of pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks.
ABSTRACT: Underground rocks usually have complex pore system with a variety of pore types and a wide range of pore size. The effects of pore structure on elastic wave attenuation cannot be neglected. We investigated the pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks by pore-scale modeling based on the wave theory and the similarity principle. Our modeling results indicate that pore size, pore shape (such as aspect ratio), and pore density are important factors influencing P-wave scattering attenuation in porous rocks, and can explain the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity. From the perspective of scattering attenuation, porous rocks can safely suit to the long wavelength assumption when the ratio of wavelength to pore size is larger than 15. Under the long wavelength condition, the scattering attenuation coefficient increases as a power function as the pore density increases, and it increases exponentially with the increase in aspect ratio. For a certain porosity, rocks with smaller aspect ratio and/or larger pore size have stronger scattering attenuation. When the pore aspect ratio is larger than 0.5, the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity is dominantly caused by pore size and almost independent of the pore aspect ratio. These results lay a foundation for pore structure inversion from elastic wave responses in porous rocks.
Project description:We demonstrate controlled fabrication of porous Si (PS) and vertically aligned silicon nanowires array starting from bulk silicon wafer by simple chemical etching method, and the underlying mechanism of nanostructure formation is presented. Silicon-oxidation rate and the electron-scavenging rate from metal catalysis play a vital role in determining the morphology of Si nanostructures. The size of Ag catalyst is found to influence the Si oxidation rate. Tunable morphologies from irregular porous to regular nanowire structure could be tailored by controlling the size of Ag nanoparticles and H2O2 concentration. Ag nanoparticles of size around 30 nm resulted in irregular porous structures, whereas discontinuous Ag film yielded nanowire structures. The depth of the porous Si structures and the aspect ratio of Si nanowires depend on H2O2 concentration. For a fixed etching time, the depth of the porous structures increases on increasing the H2O2 concentration. By varying the H2O2 concentration, the surface porosity and aspect ratio of the nanowires were controlled. Controlling the Ag catalyst size critically affects the morphology of the etched Si nanostructures. H2O2 concentration decides the degree of porosity of porous silicon, dimensions and surface porosity of silicon nanowires, and etch depth. The mechanisms of the size- and H2O2-concentration-dependent dissociation of Ag and the formation of porous silicon and silicon nanowire are described in detail.
Project description:Sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep geological saline aquifers is needed to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions; monitoring the mechanical integrity of reservoir formations is essential for effective and safe operations. Clogging of fluid transport pathways in rocks from CO2-induced salt precipitation reduces injectivity and potentially compromises the reservoir storage integrity through pore fluid pressure build-up. Here, we show that early warning of salt precipitation can be achieved through geophysical remote sensing. From elastic P- and S-wave velocity and electrical resistivity monitoring during controlled laboratory CO2 injection experiments into brine-saturated quartz-sandstone of high porosity (29%) and permeability (1660 mD), and X-ray CT imaging of pore-scale salt precipitation, we were able to observe, for the first time, how CO2-induced salt precipitation leads to detectable geophysical signatures. We inferred salt-induced rock changes from (i) strain changes, (ii) a permanent?~?1.5% decrease in wave velocities, linking the geophysical signatures to salt volume fraction through geophysical models, and (iii) increases of porosity (by?~?6%) and permeability (~?7%). Despite over 10% salt saturation, no clogging effects were observed, which suggests salt precipitation could extend to large sub-surface regions without loss of CO2 injectivity into high porosity and permeability saline sandstone aquifers.
Project description:We present elastic wave velocity and strength data from a suite of three volcanic rocks taken from the volcanic edifices of El Hierro and Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), and Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). These rocks span a range of porosity and are taken from volcanoes that suffer from edifice instability. We measure elastic wave velocities at known incident angles to the generated through-going fault as a function of imposed strain, and examine the effect of the damage zone on P-wave velocity. Such data are important as field measurements of elastic wave tomography are key tools for understanding volcanic regions, yet hidden fractures are likely to have a significant effect on elastic wave velocity. We then use elastic wave velocity evolution to calculate concomitant crack density evolution which ranges from 0 to 0.17: highest values were correlated to the damage zone in rocks with the highest initial porosity.
Project description:Despite tremendous efforts toward fabrication of three-dimensional macrostructures of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the existing approaches still lack sufficient control over microscopic (morphology, porosity, pore size) and macroscopic (shape, size) properties of the resulting structures. In this work, a facile fabrication method for the wet-chemical assembly of carbon 2D nanomaterials into macroscopic networks of interconnected, hollow microtubes is introduced. As demonstrated for electrochemically exfoliated graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, the approach allows for the preparation of highly porous (> 99.9%) and lightweight (<2 mg cm-3) aeromaterials with tailored porosity and pore size as well as tailorable shape and size. The unique tubelike morphology with high aspect ratio enables ultralow-percolation-threshold graphene composites (0.03 S m-1, 0.05 vol%) which even outperform most of the carbon nanotube-based composites, as well as highly conductive aeronetworks (8 S m-1, 4 mg cm-3). On top of that, long-term compression cycling of the aeronetworks demonstrates remarkable mechanical stability over 10?000 cycles, even though no chemical cross-linking is employed. The developed strategy could pave the way for fabrication of various macrostructures of 2D nanomaterials with defined shape, size, as well as micro- and nanostructure, crucial for numerous applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, and filters.
Project description:We use a two-scale continuum model to simulate reactive flow and wormhole formation in carbonate rocks under 3-D radial flow conditions. More specifically, we present a new structure-property relationship based on the fractal geometry theory, to describe the evolution of local permeability, pore radius, and specific area with porosity variation. In the numerical calculation, to improve the convergence rate, the heterogeneous medium in question is extended by adding a thin layer of homogeneous porous medium to its inlet. We compare the simulation results with the available experimental observations and find that they are qualitatively consistent with each other. Additionally, sensitivity analysis of the dissolution process with respect to acid injection rate and rock heterogeneity, including heterogeneity magnitude and correlation length, is presented.
Project description:Pervious concrete is considered to be porous concrete because of its pore structure and excellent permeability. In general, larger porosity will increase the permeability coefficient, but will significantly decrease the compressive strength. The effects of water-cement ratio, fiber types, and fiber content on the permeability coefficient, porosity, compressive strength, and flexural strength were investigated. The pore tortuosity of the pervious concrete was determined by volumetric analysis and two-dimensional cross-sectional image analysis. The concept and calculation method of porosity tortuosity were further proposed. Results show that the permeability coefficient of the pervious concrete is the most suitable with a water-cement ratio of 0.30; the water permeability of the pervious concrete is influenced by fiber diameter. The permeability coefficient of pervious concrete with polypropylene thick fiber (PPTF) is greater than that with copper coated steel fiber (CCF) and the polypropylene fiber (PPF). The permeability coefficient is related to tortuosity and porosity, but when porosity is the same, the permeability coefficient may be different. Finally, general relations between the permeability coefficient and porosity tortuosity are constructed.
Project description:The achievement of H2 detection, up to 25 ppm, at room temperature using sulfur-treated, platinum (Pt)-decorated porous GaN is reported in this study. This achievement is attributed to the large lateral pore size, Pt catalyst, and surface treatment using organic sulfide. The performance of H2-gas sensors is studied as a function of the operating temperature by providing an adsorption activation energy of 22 meV at 30 ppm H2, confirming the higher sensitivity of the sulfide-treated Pt-porous GaN sensor. Furthermore, the sensing response of the sulfide-treated Pt-porous GaN gas sensor increases with the increase in porosity (surface-to-volume ratio) and pore radii. Using the Knudsen diffusion-surface reaction equation, the H2 gas concentration profile is simulated and fitted within the porous GaN layer, revealing that H2 diffusion is limited by small pore radii because of its low diffusion rate. The simulated gas sensor responses to H2 versus the pore diameter show the same trend as observed for the experimental data. The sulfide-treated Pt-porous GaN sensor achieves ultrasensitive H2 detection at room temperature for 125 nm pore radii.
Project description:The traditional production methods of porous magnesium scaffolds are difficult to accurately control the pore morphologies and simultaneously obtain appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, two open-porous magnesium scaffolds with different pore size but in the nearly same porosity are successfully fabricated with high-purity Mg ingots through the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method. The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures. In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties. In vivo findings demonstrate that both scaffolds exhibit acceptable inflammatory responses and can be almost fully degraded and replaced by newly formed bone. More importantly, under the same porosity, the scaffolds with larger pore size can promote early vascularization and up-regulate collagen type 1 and OPN expression, leading to higher bone mass and more mature bone formation. In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.
Project description:The mechanical properties of any substance are essential facts to understand its behaviour and make the maximum use of the particular substance. Rocks are indeed an important substance, as they are of significant use in the energy industry, specifically for fossil fuels and geothermal energy. Attenuation of seismic waves is a non-destructive technique to investigate mechanical properties of reservoir rocks under different conditions. The attenuation characteristics of five different rock types, siltstone, shale, Australian sandstone, Indian sandstone and granite, were investigated in the laboratory using ultrasonic and acoustic emission instruments in a frequency range of 0.1-1 MHz. The pulse transmission technique and spectral ratios were used to calculate the attenuation coefficient (α) and quality factor (Q) values for the five selected rock types for both primary (P) and secondary (S) waves, relative to the reference steel sample. For all the rock types, the attenuation coefficient was linearly proportional to the frequency of both the P and S waves. Interestingly, the attenuation coefficient of granite is more than 22% higher than that of siltstone, sandstone and shale for both P and S waves. The P and S wave velocities were calculated based on their recorded travel time, and these velocities were then used to calculate the dynamic mechanical properties including elastic modulus (E), bulk modulus (K), shear modulus (µ) and Poisson's ratio (ν). The P and S wave velocities for the selected rock types varied in the ranges of 2.43-4.61 km s-1 and 1.43-2.41 km h-1, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the P wave velocity was always greater than the S wave velocity, and this confirmed the first arrival of P waves to the sensor. According to the experimental results, the dynamic E value is generally higher than the static E value obtained by unconfined compressive strength tests.
Project description:A Bayesian probability theory approach for separating overlapping ultrasonic fast and slow waves in cancellous bone has been previously introduced. The goals of this study were to investigate whether the fast and slow waves obtained from Bayesian separation of an apparently single mode signal individually correlate with porosity and to isolate the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The Bayesian technique was applied to trabecular bone data from eight human calcanei insonified in the medial-lateral direction. The phase velocity, slope of attenuation (nBUA), and amplitude were determined for both the fast and slow waves. The porosity was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and ranged from 78.7% to 94.1%. The method successfully separated the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The phase velocity for both the fast and slow wave modes showed an inverse correlation with porosity (R(2) = 0.73 and R(2) = 0.86, respectively). The slope of attenuation for both wave modes also had a negative correlation with porosity (fast wave: R(2) = 0.73, slow wave: R(2) = 0.53). The fast wave amplitude decreased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.66). Conversely, the slow wave amplitude modestly increased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.39).