ATP-dependent effector-like functions of RIG-I-like receptors.
ABSTRACT: The vertebrate antiviral innate immune system is often considered to consist of two distinct groups of proteins: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect viral infection and induce the interferon (IFN) signaling, and effectors that directly act against viral replication. Accordingly, previous studies on PRRs, such as RIG-I and MDA5, have primarily focused on their functions in viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) detection and consequent antiviral signaling. We report here that both RIG-I and MDA5 efficiently displace viral proteins pre-bound to dsRNA in a manner dependent on their ATP hydrolysis, and that this activity assists a dsRNA-dependent antiviral effector protein, PKR, and allows RIG-I to promote MDA5 signaling. Furthermore, truncated RIG-I/MDA5 lacking the signaling domain, and hence the IFN stimulatory activity, displaces viral proteins and suppresses replication of certain viruses in an ATP-dependent manner. Thus, this study reveals novel "effector-like" functions of RIG-I and MDA5 that challenge the conventional view of PRRs.
Project description:Viral infection leads to activation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor-3 and NF-kappaB, which collaborate to induce type I IFNs. The RNA helicase proteins RIG-I and MDA5 were recently identified as two cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that recognize different species of viral RNAs produced during viral replication. In this study, we identified DAK, a functionally unknown dihydroacetone kinase, as a specific MDA5-interacting protein. DAK was associated with MDA5, but not RIG-I, under physiological conditions. Overexpression of DAK inhibited MDA5- but not RIG-I- or TLR3-mediated IFN-beta induction. Overexpression of DAK also inhibited cytoplasmic dsRNA and SeV-induced activation of the IFN-beta promoter, whereas knockdown of endogenous DAK by RNAi activated the IFN-beta promoter, and increased cytoplasmic dsRNA- or SeV-triggered activation of the IFN-beta promoter. In addition, overexpression of DAK inhibited MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity, whereas DAK RNAi increased cytoplasmic dsRNA-triggered antiviral activity. These findings suggest that DAK is a physiological suppressor of MDA5 and specifically inhibits MDA5- but not RIG-I-mediated innate antiviral signaling.
Project description:MDA5, an RIG-I-like helicase, is a conserved cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor, which recognizes dsRNA from a wide-range of viruses in a length-dependent manner. It has been proposed that MDA5 forms higher-order structures upon viral dsRNA recognition or during antiviral signaling, however the organization and nature of this proposed oligomeric state is unknown. We report here that MDA5 cooperatively assembles into a filamentous oligomer composed of a repeating segmental arrangement of MDA5 dimers along the length of dsRNA. Binding of MDA5 to dsRNA stimulates its ATP hydrolysis activity with little coordination between neighboring molecules within a filament. Individual ATP hydrolysis in turn renders an intrinsic kinetic instability to the MDA5 filament, triggering dissociation of MDA5 from dsRNA at a rate inversely proportional to the filament length. These results suggest a previously unrecognized role of ATP hydrolysis in control of filament assembly and disassembly processes, thereby autoregulating the interaction of MDA5 with dsRNA, and provides a potential basis for dsRNA length-dependent antiviral signaling.
Project description:RIG-I and MDA5, two related pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), are known to be required for sensing various RNA viruses. Here we investigated the roles that RIG-I and MDA5 play in eliciting the antiviral response to West Nile virus (WNV). Functional genomics analysis of WNV-infected fibroblasts from wild-type mice and RIG-I null mice revealed that the normal antiviral response to this virus occurs in two distinct waves. The initial response to WNV resulted in the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 target genes and IFN-stimulated genes, including several subtypes of alpha IFN. Subsequently, a second phase of IFN-dependent antiviral gene expression occurred very late in infection. In cells lacking RIG-I, both the initial and the secondary responses to WNV were delayed, indicating that RIG-I plays a critical role in initiating innate immunity against WNV. However, another PRR(s) was able to trigger a response to WNV in the absence of RIG-I. Disruption of both MDA5 and RIG-I pathways abrogated activation of the antiviral response to WNV, suggesting that MDA5 is involved in the host's defense against WNV infection. In addition, ablation of the function of IPS-1, an essential RIG-I and MDA5 adaptor molecule, completely disabled the innate antiviral response to WNV. Our data indicate that RIG-I and MDA5 are responsible for triggering downstream gene expression in response to WNV infection by signaling through IPS-1. We propose a model in which RIG-I and MDA5 operate cooperatively to establish an antiviral state and mediate an IFN amplification loop that supports immune effector gene expression during WNV infection.
Project description:RIG-I and MDA5 sense cytoplasmic viral RNA and set-off a signal transduction cascade, leading to antiviral innate immune response. The third RIG-I-like receptor, LGP2, differentially regulates RIG-I- and MDA5-dependent RNA sensing in an unknown manner. All three receptors possess a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD), which in the case of RIG-I senses the viral pattern 5'-triphosphate RNA and activates ATP-dependent signaling by RIG-I. Here we report the 2.6 A crystal structure of LGP2 RD along with in vitro and in vivo functional analyses and a homology model of MDA5 RD. Although LGP2 RD is structurally related to RIG-I RD, we find it rather binds double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and this binding is independent of 5'-triphosphates. We identify conserved and receptor-specific parts of the RNA binding site. Latter are required for specific dsRNA binding by LGP2 RD and could confer pattern selectivity between RIG-I-like receptors. Our data furthermore suggest that LGP2 RD modulates RIG-I-dependent signaling via competition for dsRNA, another pattern sensed by RIG-I, while a fully functional LGP2 is required to augment MDA5-dependent signaling.
Project description:Cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) proteins in mammalian cells recognize viral RNA and initiate an antiviral response that results in IFN-? induction. Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) forms fibers along viral dsRNA and propagates an antiviral response via a signaling domain, the tandem CARD. The most enigmatic RLR, laboratory of genetics and physiology (LGP2), lacks the signaling domain but functions in viral sensing through cooperation with MDA5. However, it remains unclear how LGP2 coordinates fiber formation and subsequent MDA5 activation. We utilized biochemical and biophysical approaches to observe fiber formation and the conformation of MDA5. LGP2 facilitated MDA5 fiber assembly. LGP2 was incorporated into the fibers with an average inter-molecular distance of 32 nm, suggesting the formation of hetero-oligomers with MDA5. Furthermore, limited protease digestion revealed that LGP2 induces significant conformational changes on MDA5, promoting exposure of its CARDs. Although the fibers were efficiently dissociated by ATP hydrolysis, MDA5 maintained its active conformation to participate in downstream signaling. Our study demonstrated the coordinated actions of LGP2 and MDA5, where LGP2 acts as an MDA5 nucleator and requisite partner in the conversion of MDA5 to an active conformation. We revealed a mechanistic basis for LGP2-mediated regulation of MDA5 antiviral innate immune responses.
Project description:Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) is a member of the RIG-I-like receptor family of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors that detect molecular signatures of virus infection and initiate antiviral signal transduction cascades. The ATP hydrolysis activity of LGP2 is essential for antiviral signaling, but it has been unclear how the enzymatic properties of LGP2 regulate its biological response. Quantitative analysis of the dsRNA binding and enzymatic activities of LGP2 revealed high dsRNA-independent ATP hydrolysis activity. Biochemical assays and single-molecule analysis of LGP2 and mutant variants that dissociate basal from dsRNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis demonstrate that LGP2 utilizes basal ATP hydrolysis to enhance and diversify its RNA recognition capacity, enabling the protein to associate with intrinsically poor substrates. This property is required for LGP2 to synergize with another RIG-I-like receptor, MDA5, to potentiate IFN? transcription in vivo during infection with encephalomyocarditis virus or transfection with poly(I:C). These results demonstrate previously unrecognized properties of LGP2 ATP hydrolysis and RNA interaction and provide a mechanistic basis for a positive regulatory role for LGP2 in antiviral signaling.
Project description:Because of their potent regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have promising therapeutic benefits in clinical treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recent studies suggest that many biological activities of MSCs are largely determined by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the role of PRRs in regulating the survival of MSCs remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the viability of MSCs after stimulation of distinct PRRs. Activation of TLRs by direct addition with their respective ligands showed no significant effect on the survival of MSCs, whereas transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) resulted in marked cell death in MSCs. Transfection of dsRNA upregulated cytosolic retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), including RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated antigen 5 (MDA5). Moreover, transfection of dsRNA activated downstream transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), as well as induced the expression of interferon-? (IFN-?) and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) via RLR signaling. Furthermore, we found that transfection of dsRNA triggered both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic responses via RLRs. However, ectopic expression of RIG-I or MDA5 was not sufficient to induce apoptosis of MSCs without dsRNA transfection. Our study also revealed that I?B kinase ?/? (IKK?/?) was required for RLR-mediated apoptosis in MSCs, while TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/IKK? served a pro-survival role. Moreover, neither overexpression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) nor neutralizing autocrined IFN-? reduced RLR-mediated apoptosis. In addition, autophagy was induced upon activation of RLRs, however, blocking autophagy did not rescue MSCs from the dsRNA-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the role of RLRs in controlling the survival of MSCs, which may provide a clue to understand the pathogenesis of viral infection in MSCs.
Project description:Chicken MDA5 (chMDA5), the sole known pattern recognition receptor for cytoplasmic viral RNA in chickens, initiates type I interferon (IFN) production. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) evades host innate immunity, but the mechanism is unclear. We report here that IBDV inhibited antiviral innate immunity via the chMDA5-dependent signaling pathway. IBDV infection did not induce efficient type I interferon (IFN) production but antagonized the antiviral activity of beta interferon (IFN-?) in DF-1 cells pretreated with IFN-?/?. Dual-luciferase assays and inducible expression systems demonstrated that IBDV protein VP3 significantly inhibited IFN-? expression stimulated by naked IBDV genomic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The VP3 protein competed strongly with chMDA5 to bind IBDV genomic dsRNA in vitro and in vivo, and VP3 from other birnaviruses also bound dsRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that deletion of the VP3 dsRNA binding domain restored IFN-? expression. Our data demonstrate that VP3 inhibits antiviral innate immunity by blocking binding of viral genomic dsRNA to MDA5.MDA5, a known pattern recognition receptor and cytoplasmic viral RNA sensor, plays a critical role in host antiviral innate immunity. Many pathogens escape or inhibit the host antiviral immune response, but the mechanisms involved are unclear for most pathogens. We report here that birnaviruses inhibit host antiviral innate immunity via the MDA5-dependent signaling pathway. The antiviral innate immune system involving IFN-? did not function effectively during birnavirus infection, and the viral protein VP3 significantly inhibited IFN-? expression stimulated by naked viral genomic dsRNA. We also show that VP3 blocks MDA5 binding to viral genomic dsRNA in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that birnavirus-encoded viral protein VP3 is an inhibitor of the antiviral innate immune response and inhibits the antiviral innate immune response via the MDA5-dependent signaling pathway.
Project description:The RLRs play critical roles in sensing and fighting viral infections especially RNA virus infections. Despite the extensive studies on RLRs in humans and mice, there is a lack of systemic investigation of livestock animal RLRs. In this study, we characterized the porcine RLR members RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2. Compared with their human counterparts, porcine RIG-I and MDA5 exhibited similar signaling activity to distinct dsRNA and viruses, <i>via</i> similar and cooperative recognitions. Porcine LGP2, without signaling activity, was found to positively regulate porcine RIG-I and MDA5 in transfected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), gene knockout PAMs and PK-15 cells. Mechanistically, LGP2 interacts with RIG-I and MDA5 upon cell activation, and promotes the binding of dsRNA ligand by MDA5 as well as RIG-I. Accordingly, porcine LGP2 exerted broad antiviral functions. Intriguingly, we found that porcine LGP2 mutants with defects in ATPase and/or dsRNA binding present constitutive activity which are likely through RIG-I and MDA5. Our work provided significant insights into porcine innate immunity, species specificity and immune biology.
Project description:Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a virus-encoded signature capable of triggering intracellular Rig-like receptors (RLR) to activate antiviral signaling, but whether intercellular dsRNA structural reshaping mediated by the N<sup>6</sup>-methyladenosine (m<sup>6</sup>A) modification modulates this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, in response to infection by the RNA virus Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), the m<sup>6</sup>A methyltransferase METTL3 translocates into the cytoplasm to increase m<sup>6</sup>A modification on virus-derived transcripts and decrease viral dsRNA formation, thereby reducing virus-sensing efficacy by RLRs such as RIG-I and MDA5 and dampening antiviral immune signaling. Meanwhile, the genetic ablation of METTL3 in monocyte or hepatocyte causes enhanced type I IFN expression and accelerates VSV clearance. Our findings thus implicate METTL3-mediated m<sup>6</sup>A RNA modification on viral RNAs as a negative regulator for innate sensing pathways of dsRNA, and also hint METTL3 as a potential therapeutic target for the modulation of anti-viral immunity.