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Flavonoid ingredients of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract regulate lipid metabolism through Sp1-mediated carnitine palmitoyltranferase 1A up-regulation.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lipid accumulation is the primary evidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and its flavonoid ingredients (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) could lessen the lipid accumulation associated with up-regulation of the rate-limiting enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which GBE and its flavonoids induced expression of CPT1A. RESULTS: CPT1A inhibition with RNAi resulted in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. Through deletion and mutation analysis of CPT1A's promoter combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, the CPT1A promoter region (-50 to -5 nt) was determined to contain two putative Sp1 binding sites, namely Sp1a and Sp1b, which might act as the GBE regulation response DNA element. Sp1 might be induced to transfer from cytoplasma to nucleus to bind the promoter region of -50 to -5 nt by GBE. The regulatory effects of GBE on CPT1A were also verified on the flavonoid ingredients quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. CONCLUSION: Sp1 was crucial in regulating CPT1A expression with GBE and its flavonoid ingredients, and the -50 to -5 nt region of CPT1A promoter played important roles in Sp1 binding.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC4428510 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01


REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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