Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice.
ABSTRACT: Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs) can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag), non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO) and a triethoxycaprylylsilane functionalised ZnO NM suspended in water with 2% mouse serum were examined 24 hours following a single intratracheal instillation (I.T.). An acute pulmonary inflammation was noted (marked by a polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx) with cell damage (LDH and total protein) in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after administration of both non-functionalised and functionalised ZnO. The latter also induced systemic inflammation measured as an increase in blood neutrophils and a decrease in blood lymphocytes. Exposure to Ag NM was not accompanied by pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity, or by systemic inflammation. A decrease in glutathione levels was demonstrated in the liver following exposure to high doses of all three nanomaterials irrespective of any noticeable inflammatory or cytotoxic effects in the lung. By applying benchmark dose (BMD) modeling statistics to compare potencies of the NMs, we rank functionalised ZnO ranked the highest based on the largest number of affected endpoints, as well as the strongest responses observed after 24 hours. The non-functionalised ZnO NM gave an almost similar response, whereas Ag NM did not cause an acute response at similar doses.
Project description:Within EU FP7 project NANOVALID, the (eco)toxicity of 7 well-characterized engineered nanomaterials (NMs) was evaluated by 15 bioassays in 4 laboratories. The highest tested nominal concentration of NMs was 100?mg/l. The panel of the bioassays yielded the following toxicity order: Ag?>?ZnO?>?CuO?>?TiO2?>?MWCNTs?>?SiO2?>?Au. Ag, ZnO and CuO proved very toxic in the majority of assays, assumingly due to dissolution. The latter was supported by the parallel analysis of the toxicity of respective soluble metal salts. The most sensitive tests/species were Daphnia magna (towards Ag NMs, 24-h EC50?=?0.003?mg Ag/l), algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (ZnO and CuO, 72-h EC50?=?0.14?mg Zn/l and 0.7?mg Cu/l, respectively) and murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 (CuO, 48-h EC50?=?0.7?mg Cu/l). MWCNTs showed toxicity only towards rat alveolar macrophages (EC50?=?15.3?mg/l) assumingly due to high aspect ratio and TiO2 towards R. subcapitata (EC50?=?6.8?mg Ti/l) due to agglomeration of TiO2 and entrapment of algal cells. Finally, we constructed a decision tree to select the bioassays for hazard ranking of NMs. For NM testing, we recommend a multitrophic suite of 4 in vitro (eco)toxicity assays: 48-h D. magna immobilization (OECD202), 72-h R. subcapitata growth inhibition (OECD201), 30-min Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (ISO2010) and 48-h murine fibroblast BALB/3T3 neutral red uptake in vitro (OECD129) representing crustaceans, algae, bacteria and mammalian cells, respectively. Notably, our results showed that these assays, standardized for toxicity evaluation of "regular" chemicals, proved efficient also for shortlisting of hazardous NMs. Additional assays are recommended for immunotoxicity evaluation of high aspect ratio NMs (such as MWCNTs).
Project description:Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2 displayed higher toxicity compared with ZnO and SiO2. Importantly, the in vitro methodology applied could identify cell- and NM-specific responses, with a low variability observed between different test assays. Overall, this testing approach, based on a battery of cellular systems and test assays, complemented by an exhaustive physico-chemical characterization of NMs, could be deployed for the development of an ITS suitable for risk assessment of NMs. This study also provides a rich source of data for modeling of NM effects.
Project description:Dandruff is a prominent scalp problem caused by the growth of fungus Malassezia furfur, potentially cascading into dermal inflammation, itching, and tissue damage. The present work outlines a detailed analysis of the treatment of scalp infection using silver nanomaterials (Ag NMs), and focuses on biocidal activity owing to manipulation of size, shape, and structure. Monodisperse silver spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by chemical routes that were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Ag NMs demonstrated enhanced biocidal tendencies compared to market available drugs, itracanozole and ketoconazole, showing greater zones of inhibition. The obtained 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs and 50 nm NRs showed concentration-, size-, and shape-dependent antifungal activity, with 20 nm spherical-shaped NPs exhibiting excellent potency. Minimum inhibitory concentration for 20 nm was lowest at 0.2 mg/mL in comparison to 0.3 mg/mL for NRs. Primary irritation index was 0.33 and 0.16 for 20 nm and 50 nm spherical-shaped NPs, respectively, while 50 nm rod-shaped NMs exhibited negligible redness. An in vivo model for M. furfur infection was generated by passing fungi subcutaneously in rats' skin. Again, 20 nm particles showed best normalization of skin after 10 days on regular dosing, in comparison with bigger and rod-shaped particles. The statistical clinical score was highest for Ag nanorods, followed by 50 nm Ag NPs-treated animals. It was observed that 20 nm spherical particles exhibited the lowest score (0) compared with others as well as with antifungal drugs. Biochemical analysis performed by checking antioxidant enzymatic activities indicated tissue repair and normalization of enzymes and protein concentration by Ag NPs.
Project description:Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae, which primarily cause infection of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of hosts. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an economically significant coronavirus that can cause severe diarrhea in pigs. Silver nanomaterials (Ag NMs) have attracted great interests in recent years due to their excellent anti-microorganism properties. Herein, four representative Ag NMs including spherical Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs, NM-300), two kinds of silver nanowires (XFJ011) and silver colloids (XFJ04) were selected to study their inhibitory effect on TGEV-induced host cell infection in vitro. Ag NPs were uniformly distributed, with particle sizes less than 20 nm by characterization of environmental scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Two types of silver nanowires were 60 nm and 400 nm in diameter, respectively. The average diameter of the silver colloids was approximately 10 nm. TGEV infection induced the occurring of apoptosis in swine testicle (ST) cells, down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, up-regulated the expression of Bax, altered mitochondrial membrane potential, activated p38 MAPK signal pathway, and increased expression of p53 as evidenced by immunofluorescence assays, real-time PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot. Under non-toxic concentrations, Ag NPs and silver nanowires significantly diminished the infectivity of TGEV in ST cells. Moreover, further results showed that Ag NPs and silver nanowires decreased the number of apoptotic cells induced by TGEV through regulating p38/mitochondria-caspase-3 signaling pathway. Our data indicate that Ag NMs are effective in prevention of TGEV-mediated cell infection as a virucidal agent or as an inhibitor of viral entry and the present findings may provide new insights into antiviral therapy of coronaviruses.
Project description:Exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) is an emerging threat to human health, and the understanding of their intracellular behavior and related toxic effects is urgently needed. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered, iron-mediated cell death that is distinctive from apoptosis or other cell-death pathways. No evidence currently exists for the effect of "iron free" engineered NMs on ferroptosis. We showed by several approaches that (1) zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced cell death involves ferroptosis; (2) ZnO NPs-triggered ferroptosis is associated with elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, along with depletion of glutathione (GSH) and downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4); (3) ZnO NPs disrupt intracellular iron homeostasis by orchestrating iron uptake, storage and export; (4) p53 largely participates in ZnO NPs-induced ferroptosis; and (5) ZnO particle remnants and dissolved zinc ion both contribute to ferroptosis. In conclusion, our data provide a new mechanistic rationale for ferroptosis as a novel cell-death phenotype induced by engineered NMs.
Project description:Nanomaterials (NMs) are mostly synthesized by chemical and physical methods, but biological synthesis is also receiving great attention. However, the mechanisms for biological producibility of NMs, crystalline versus amorphous, are not yet understood. Here we report biosynthesis of 60 different NMs by employing a recombinant Escherichia coli strain coexpressing metallothionein, a metal-binding protein, and phytochelatin synthase that synthesizes a metal-binding peptide phytochelatin. Both an in vivo method employing live cells and an in vitro method employing the cell extract are used to synthesize NMs. The periodic table is scanned to select 35 suitable elements, followed by biosynthesis of their NMs. Nine crystalline single-elements of Mn3O4, Fe3O4, Cu2O, Mo, Ag, In(OH)3, SnO2, Te, and Au are synthesized, while the other 16 elements result in biosynthesis of amorphous NMs or no NM synthesis. Producibility and crystallinity of the NMs are analyzed using a Pourbaix diagram that predicts the stable chemical species of each element for NM biosynthesis by varying reduction potential and pH. Based on the analyses, the initial pH of reactions is changed from 6.5 to 7.5, resulting in biosynthesis of various crystalline NMs of those previously amorphous or not-synthesized ones. This strategy is extended to biosynthesize multi-element NMs including CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4, ZnMn2O4, ZnFe2O4, Ag2S, Ag2TeO3, Ag2WO4, Hg3TeO6, PbMoO4, PbWO4, and Pb5(VO4)3OH NMs. The strategy described here allows biosynthesis of NMs with various properties, providing a platform for manufacturing various NMs in an environmentally friendly manner.
Project description:In vitro three-dimensional (3D) lung cell models have been thoroughly investigated in recent years and provide a reliable tool to assess the hazard associated with nanomaterials (NMs) released into the air. In this study, a 3D lung co-culture model was optimized to assess the hazard potential of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which is known to provoke inflammation and fibrosis, critical adverse outcomes linked to acute and prolonged NM exposure. The lung co-cultures were exposed to MWCNTs at the air-liquid interface (ALI) using the VITROCELL® Cloud system while considering realistic occupational exposure doses. The co-culture model was composed of three human cell lines: alveolar epithelial cells (A549), fibroblasts (MRC-5), and macrophages (differentiated THP-1). The model was exposed to two types of MWCNTs (Mitsui-7 and Nanocyl) at different concentrations (2-10 ?g/cm2) to assess the proinflammatory as well as the profibrotic responses after acute (24 h, one exposure) and prolonged (96 h, repeated exposures) exposure cycles. The results showed that acute or prolonged exposure to different concentrations of the tested MWCNTs did not induce cytotoxicity or apparent profibrotic response; however, suggested the onset of proinflammatory response.
Project description:Understanding the mode of action of nanomaterials (NMs) aids in improving predictions and environmental risk assessment. In the present study, a high-throughput (HTP) microarray was used to study Enchytraeus crypticus gene expression. Four Ag materials (Ag NM300K, PVP-coated AgNPs, AgNPs, and AgNO3) were tested at reproduction effect concentrations, EC20 and EC50, to anchor gene expression responses to higher effect level. The results showed that while PVP-AgNPs and AgNPs had similar responses, Ag NM300K caused effects via a differentiated transcriptomic profile, with uniquely affected processes (e.g. transcytosis). For the AgNPs, the EC50 negatively affected apoptosis, which can lead to accumulation of abnormal cells and cause apical damage (reproduction). Mechanisms which are known to be related to Ag toxicity and which were observed here for the various Ag forms included apoptosis regulation, cell redox homeostasis, impairment of energy production and response to DNA damage. This HTP genomic tool enabled discrimination between Ag materials, which is not possible via standard tests (i.e. survival and reproduction endpoints). Moreover, gene expression analysis provided information regarding the mechanisms of toxicity of NMs and the pathways uniquely affected by NMs. An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) was drafted for the first time for Ag NMs; this AOP can and should be used as a basis for further research. Overall design: Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus crypticus was analysed after 3 and 7 days of exposure to the EC20 and EC50 (effect concentrations on reproduction) of three silver nanomaterials (Ag-NPs PVP-Coated, Ag-NPs Non-Coated and Ag NM300K) and silver salt (AgNO3) in LUFA 2.2 soil. Three biological replicates per test treatment and controls (un-spiked LUFA soil for AgNO3, Ag-NPs PVP-Coated and Ag-NPs Non-Coated; and LUFA soil mixed with the NM300K dispersants _tween 20 for the Ag NM300K) were used.
Project description:Ag and Ni/ZnO photocatalyst nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. In this work, the photocatalyst sample was systematically studied based on several factors affecting the performance of photocatalyst, which are size, morphology, band gap, textural properties and the number of active sites presence on the surface of the nanocatalyst. X-ray diffraction revealed that Ag/ZnO nanomaterials experienced multiple phases, meanwhile for Ni/ZnO the phase of nanomaterials were pure and single phase for stoichiometry less than 5%. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed almost all of the synthesized nanomaterials possessed a mixture of nanorods and spherical-like shape morphology. The Ag/ZnO showed high photocatalytic activity, producing at least 14th trials of nanocatalyst reusability on degradation of methyl orange under UV irradiation. Interestingly, this phenomenon was not observed in larger surface area of Ni/ZnO nanomaterials which supposedly favour photocatalytic activity, but instead producing poor photocatalytic performance. The main reasons were studied and exposed by temperature-programmed desorption of carbon dioxide (TPD-CO2) which showed that incorporation of Ag into ZnO lattice has enhanced the number of active sites on the surface of the nanocatalyst. Whereas incorporation of Ni in ZnO has lowered the number of active sites with respect to undoped ZnO. Active sites measurement is effective and significant, providing opportunities in developing an intensive study as an additional factor.
Project description:The production of nanomaterials (NMs) is expected to grow continuously, yet their transformation, transport, release mechanisms, and interactions with contaminants under environmental conditions remain poorly understood. Few studies have investigated the effects of contaminants on fate and transport of NMs, especially siloxanes that are widely found in products. It is hypothesized that the model contaminant, siloxane (e.g., 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS)) may influence the mechanisms and transport kinetics of NMs under different release pathways. Sand column experiments were carried out under two different scenarios: the release from a mixed TMDS and nano-ZnO suspension (A) and the release of nano-ZnO from sand contaminated with TMDS (B). Results show that interparticle reactions are dominant in (A) and particle-porous interactions are responsible for blocking effects governing in (B). Insights, especially the kinetics of nano-ZnO from co-transport by a contaminant and from porous media preloaded with a contaminant, and environmental factors affecting the release and retention of nano-ZnO in saturated sand are unveiled. These two dominant transport mechanisms (e.g., interparticle reactions and blocking effects) were derived. This study indicates that the release of ZnO NPs is influenced by the presence of TMDS; the extent of mobility and their transport pathways depend on the pre-existence of TMDS in porous media.