Diabetes irreversibly depletes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cell subpopulations.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic vascular pathology is largely attributable to impairments in tissue recovery from hypoxia. Circulating progenitor cells have been postulated to play a role in ischemic recovery, and deficiencies in these cells have been well described in diabetic patients. Here, we examine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs) that have previously been shown to be important for new blood vessel formation and demonstrate significant deficits in the context of diabetes. Further, we determine that this dysfunction is attributable to intrinsic defects in diabetic BM-MPCs that are not correctable by restoring glucose homeostasis. We identify two transcriptionally distinct subpopulations that are selectively depleted by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and these subpopulations have provasculogenic expression profiles, suggesting that they are vascular progenitor cells. These results suggest that the clinically observed deficits in progenitor cells may be attributable to selective and irreversible depletion of progenitor cell subsets in patients with diabetes.
Project description:In diabetes, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression and progenitor cell recruitment are reduced. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibits SDF-1 expression and progenitor cell recruitment. Here we examined the impact of the DPP-4 inhibitor, MK0626, on progenitor cell kinetics in the context of wound healing. Wildtype (WT) murine fibroblasts cultured under high-glucose to reproduce a diabetic microenvironment were exposed to MK0626, glipizide, or no treatment, and SDF-1 expression was measured with ELISA. Diabetic mice received MK0626, glipizide, or no treatment for 6 weeks and then were wounded. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify neovascularization and SDF-1 expression. Gene expression was measured at the RNA and protein level using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to characterize bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cell (BM-MPC) population recruitment to wounds. BM-MPC gene expression was assayed using microfluidic single cell analysis. WT murine fibroblasts exposed to MK0626 demonstrated increased SDF-1 expression. MK0626 treatment significantly accelerated wound healing and increased wound vascularity, SDF-1 expression, and dermal thickness in diabetic wounds. MK0626 treatment increased the number of BM-MPCs present in bone marrow and in diabetic wounds. MK0626 had no effect on BM-MPC population dynamics. BM-MPCs harvested from MK0626-treated mice exhibited increased chemotaxis in response to SDF-1 when compared to diabetic controls. Treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor significantly improved wound healing, angiogenesis, and endogenous progenitor cell recruitment in the setting of diabetes.
Project description:Stromal precursor antigen (STRO)-3 has previously been shown to identify a subset of adult human bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal lineage precursors, which may have cardioprotective potential. We sought to characterize STRO-3-immunoselected and culture-expanded mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) with respect to their biology and therapeutic potential in myocardial ischemia. Immunoselection of STRO-3(+) MPCs enriched for fibroblastic colony forming units from unfractionated BM mononuclear cells (MNCs). Compared to mesenchymal stem cells conventionally isolated by plastic adherence, MPCs demonstrated increased proliferative capacity during culture expansion, expressed higher levels of early 'stem cell' markers and various pro-angiogenic and cardioprotective cytokines, and exhibited greater trilineage developmental efficiency. Intramyocardial injection of MPCs into a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI) promoted left ventricular recovery and inhibited left ventricular dilatation. These beneficial effects were associated with cardioprotective and pro-angiogenic effects at the tissue level, despite poor engraftment of cells. Treatment of MI rats with MPC-conditioned medium (CM) preserved left ventricular function and dimensions, reduced myocyte apoptosis and fibrosis, and augmented neovascularization, involving both resident vascular cells and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Profiling of CM revealed various cardioprotective and pro-angiogenic factors, which had biological activity in cultures of myocytes, tissue-resident vascular cells and EPCs. Prospective immunoselection of STRO-3(+) MPCs from BM MNCs conferred advantage in maintaining a population of immature MPCs during ex vivo expansion. Transplantation of culture-expanded MPCs into the post-MI heart resulted in therapeutic benefit, attributable at least in part to paracrine mechanisms of action. Thus, MPCs represent a promising therapy for myocardial ischemia.
Project description:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are appealing for cell-based wound therapies because of their accessibility and ease of harvest, but their utility is limited by poor cell survival within the harsh wound microenvironment. In prior work, our laboratory has demonstrated that seeding ASCs within a soft pullulan-collagen hydrogel enhances ASC survival and improves wound healing. To more fully understand the mechanism of this therapy, we examined whether ASC-seeded hydrogels were able to modulate the recruitment and/or functionality of endogenous progenitor cells. Employing a parabiosis model and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, we demonstrate that application of ASC-seeded hydrogels to wounds, when compared with injected ASCs or a noncell control, increased the recruitment of provascular circulating bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs). BM-MPCs comprised 23.0% of recruited circulating progenitor cells in wounds treated with ASC-seeded hydrogels versus 8.4% and 2.1% in those treated with controls, p < 0.05. Exploring the potential for functional modulation of BM-MPCs, we demonstrate a statistically significant increase in BM-MPC migration, proliferation, and tubulization when exposed to hydrogel-seeded ASC-conditioned medium versus control ASC-conditioned medium (73.8% vs. 51.4% scratch assay closure; 9.1% vs. 1.4% proliferation rate; 10.2 vs. 5.5 tubules/HPF; p < 0.05 for all assays). BM-MPC expression of genes related to cell stemness and angiogenesis was also significantly increased following exposure to hydrogel-seeded ASC-conditioned medium (p < 0.05). These data suggest that ASC-seeded hydrogels improve both progenitor cell recruitment and functionality to effect greater neovascularization.
Project description:RATIONALE:The impact of diabetes mellitus on bone marrow (BM) structure is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE:Investigate the effect of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on BM microvascular and hematopoietic cell composition in patients without vascular complications. METHODS AND RESULTS:Bone samples were obtained from T2DM patients and nondiabetic controls (C) during hip replacement surgery and from T2DM patients undergoing amputation for critical limb ischemia. BM composition was assessed by histomorphometry, immunostaining, and flow cytometry. Expressional studies were performed on CD34(pos) immunosorted BM progenitor cells (PCs). Diabetes mellitus causes a reduction of hematopoietic tissue, fat deposition, and microvascular rarefaction, especially when associated with critical limb ischemia. Immunohistochemistry documented increased apoptosis and reduced abundance of CD34(pos)-PCs in diabetic groups. Likewise, flow cytometry showed scarcity of BM PCs in T2DM and T2DM+critical limb ischemia compared with C, but similar levels of mature hematopoietic cells. Activation of apoptosis in CD34(pos)-PCs was associated with upregulation and nuclear localization of the proapoptotic factor FOXO3a and induction of FOXO3a targets, p21 and p27(kip1). Moreover, microRNA-155, which regulates cell survival through inhibition of FOXO3a, was downregulated in diabetic CD34(pos)-PCs and inversely correlated with FOXO3a levels. The effect of diabetes mellitus on anatomic and molecular end points was confirmed when considering background covariates. Furthermore, exposure of healthy CD34(pos)-PCs to high glucose reproduced the transcriptional changes induced by diabetes mellitus, with this effect being reversed by forced expression of microRNA-155. CONCLUSIONS:We provide new anatomic and molecular evidence for the damaging effect of diabetes mellitus on human BM, comprising microvascular rarefaction and shortage of PCs attributable to activation of proapoptotic pathway.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide growing disease and represents a huge social and healthcare problem owing to the burden of its complications. Micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications arise from excess damage through well-known biochemical pathways. Interestingly, microangiopathy hits the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment with features similar to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The BM represents a reservoir of progenitor cells for multiple lineages, not limited to the hematopoietic system and including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteogenic cells. All these multiple progenitor cell lineages are profoundly altered in the setting of diabetes in humans and animal models. Reduction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) along with excess smooth muscle progenitor (SMP) and osteoprogenitor cells creates an imbalance that promote the development of micro- and macroangiopathy. Finally, an excess generation of BM-derived fusogenic cells has been found to contribute to diabetic complications in animal models. Taken together, a growing amount of literature attributes to circulating progenitor cells a multi-faceted role in the pathophysiology of DM, setting a novel scenario that puts BM and the blood at the centre of the stage.
Project description:Persistent vascular injury and degeneration in diabetes are attributed in part to defective reparatory function of angiogenic cells. Our recent work implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in high-glucose-induced bone marrow (BM) progenitor dysfunction. Herein, we investigated the in vivo role of ER stress in angiogenic abnormalities of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that ER stress markers and inflammatory gene expression in BM mononuclear cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells increase dynamically with disease progression. Increased CHOP and cleaved caspase- 3 levels were observed in BM--derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) after 3 months of diabetes. Inhibition of ER stress by ex vivo or in vivo chemical chaperone treatment significantly improved the generation and migration of diabetic EOCs while reducing apoptosis of these cells. Chemical chaperone treatment also increased the number of circulating angiogenic cells in peripheral blood, alleviated BM pathology, and enhanced retinal vascular repair following ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic mice. Mechanistically, knockdown of CHOP alleviated high-glucose-induced EOC dysfunction and mitigated apoptosis, suggesting a pivotal role of CHOP in mediating ER stress-associated angiogenic cell injury in diabetes. Together, our study suggests that targeting ER signaling may provide a promising and novel approach to enhancing angiogenic function in diabetes.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:We sought to determine the impact of long-standing type 1 diabetes on haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC) number and function and to examine the impact of modulating glycoprotein (GP)130 receptor in these cells. METHODS:Wild-type, gp130(-/-) and GFP chimeric mice were treated with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes. Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were used for colony-formation assay, quantification of side population (SP) cells, examination of gene expression, nitric oxide measurement and migration studies. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a population of vascular precursors derived from HSCs, were compared in diabetic and control mice. Cytokines were measured in BM supernatant fractions by ELISA and protein array. Flow cytometry was performed on enzymatically dissociated retina from gfp(+) chimeric mice and used to assess BM cell recruitment to the retina, kidney and blood. RESULTS:BM cells from the 12-month-diabetic mice showed reduced colony-forming ability, depletion of SP-HSCs with a proportional increase in SP-HSCs residing in hypoxic regions of BM, decreased EPC numbers, and reduced eNos (also known as Nos3) but increased iNos (also known as Nos2) and oxidative stress-related genes. BM supernatant fraction showed increased cytokines, GP130 ligands and monocyte/macrophage stimulating factor. Retina, kidney and peripheral blood showed increased numbers of CD11b(+)/CD45(hi)/ CCR2(+)/Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes. Diabetic gp130(-/-) mice were protected from development of diabetes-induced changes in their HSCs. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The BM microenvironment of type 1 diabetic mice can lead to changes in haematopoiesis, with generation of more monocytes and fewer EPCs contributing to development of microvascular complications. Inhibition of GP130 activation may serve as a therapeutic strategy to improve the key aspects of this dysfunction.
Project description:Diabetes strongly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in these patients. It is widely accepted that hyperglycemia impairs hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) by inducing stem cell niche dysfunction. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by significant depletion of circulating provascular progenitor cells and increased frequency of inflammatory cells. This unbalance, potentially responsible for the reduction of intrinsic vascular homeostatic capacity and for the establishment of a low-grade inflammatory status, suggests that bone BM-derived HSPCs are not only victims but also active perpetrators in diabetic complications. In this review, we will discuss the most recent literature on the molecular mechanisms underpinning hyperglycemia-mediated BM dysfunction and differentiation abnormality of HSPCs. Moreover, a section will be dedicated to the new glucose-lowering therapies that by specifically targeting the culprits may prevent or treat diabetic complications.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are essential in vasculogenesis and wound healing, but their circulating and wound level numbers are decreased in diabetes. This study aimed to determine mechanisms responsible for the diabetic defect in circulating and wound EPCs. Since mobilization of BM EPCs occurs via eNOS activation, we hypothesized that eNOS activation is impaired in diabetes, which results in reduced EPC mobilization. Since hyperoxia activates NOS in other tissues, we investigated whether hyperoxia restores EPC mobilization in diabetic mice through BM NOS activation. Additionally, we studied the hypothesis that impaired EPC homing in diabetes is due to decreased wound level stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), a chemokine that mediates EPC recruitment in ischemia. Diabetic mice showed impaired phosphorylation of BM eNOS, decreased circulating EPCs, and diminished SDF-1alpha expression in cutaneous wounds. Hyperoxia increased BM NO and circulating EPCs, effects inhibited by the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester. Administration of SDF-1alpha into wounds reversed the EPC homing impairment and, with hyperoxia, synergistically enhanced EPC mobilization, homing, and wound healing. Thus, hyperoxia reversed the diabetic defect in EPC mobilization, and SDF-1alpha reversed the diabetic defect in EPC homing. The targets identified, which we believe to be novel, can significantly advance the field of diabetic wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Taurine transporter gene expression (RNA-TauT) has a role in retinal cell function and is modulated in vitro and in vivo by hyperglycemia and/or oxidative stress. This study was aimed at testing whether RNA-TauT gene expression is modified in blood mononuclear peripheral cells (MPCs) of type 1 diabetic patients, is related to plasma markers of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction, or, finally, is related to presence of retinopathy. METHODS:RNA-TauT was measured in MPCs by real-time PCR-analysis in 35 type 1 diabetic patients and in 33 age- and sex-matched controls, additionally measuring plasma and cell taurine and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. RESULTS:RNA-TauT, expressed as 2(-ΔΔCt), was significantly higher in MPCs of type 1 diabetic patients than in controls [median (interquartile range): 1.32(0.31) versus 1.00(0.15); P = 0.01]. In diabetic patients RNA-TauT was related to HbA1c (r = 0.42; P = 0.01) and inversely to plasma homocysteine (r = -0.39; P = 0.02) being additionally significantly higher in MPCs of patients without retinopathy [(n = 22); 1.36(0.34)] compared to those with retinopathy [(n = 13); 1.16(0.20)], independently from HbA1c or diabetes duration. CONCLUSIONS:RNA-TauT gene expression is significantly upregulated in MPCs of type 1 diabetes patients and is related to HbA1c levels and inversely to plasma homocysteine. Finally, in diabetes patients, RNA-TauT upregulation seems to be blunted in patients with retinopathy independently of their metabolic control or longer diabetes duration.