Patterns of thyroid hormone levels in pediatric medullary thyroid carcinoma patients on vandetanib therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with elevated TSH as a drug class effect. Prior studies of vandetanib in adults with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) described an increase in levothyroxine (LT) requirement. We studied TSH, free T4, and LT dosing in children and adolescents enrolled in the phase I/II trial of vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). METHODS:Data from 13 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) and MTC were analyzed [6 M, 7 F, median age 13.0 y (9.1-17.3)] Eleven patients (85%) had undergone prior thyroidectomy and all received single-drug therapy with vandetanib for?>?6 months. Confirmed compliance with vandetanib (67-150 mg/m(2)/day) and LT was a necessary inclusion criterion. RESULTS:While on vandetanib treatment, all 11 athyerotic patients exhibited significantly increased TSH levels. The baseline TSH level was 4.37 mclU/ml (0.08 - 23.30); in comparison, the first peak TSH concentration on vandetanib was 15.70 mclU/ml (12.50 - 137.00, p?=?0.0010). The median time to reach the initial peak of elevated TSH was 1.8 months (0.3 - 9.3). Free T4 levels remained within the normal reference range. An increase from a baseline LT dose of 91 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) to 116 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) was required in order to resume normative TSH levels (p?=?0.00005), equal to an increase of 36.6% (±16.56) in the dosage of LT in mcg/day. For the 2 patients with intact thyroid glands, free T4 and TSH remained normal over a combined 6 patient years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort of pediatric MTC patients, athyreotic patients with preexisting hypothyroidism developed increased TSH and reduced free T4 during the first few months of treatment with vandetanib, necessitating an increase in LT dosage. Additional patients with normal thyroid function before treatment and intact glands (n?=?2) maintained normal thyroid function tests during treatment. Elevated TSH in athyreotic patients may be due to an indirect effect of vandetanib on the metabolism of thyroid hormone, or to altered TSH sensitivity at the pituitary. Proper recognition and management of abnormal thyroid hormone levels is critical in growing children on TKIs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00514046.
Project description:Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated as a measure of T4-T3 conversion efficiency. In euthyroid subjects, the median l-T4 dose was 1.3??g/kg per day (interquartile range (IQR) 0.94,1.60). The dose was independently associated with gender, age, aetiology and deiodinase activity (all P<0.001). Comparable FT3 levels required higher l-T4 doses in the carcinoma group (n=143), even after adjusting for different TSH levels. Euthyroid athyreotic thyroid carcinoma patients (n=50) received 1.57??g/kg per day l-T4 (IQR 1.40, 1.69), compared to 1.19??g/kg per day (0.85,1.47) in autoimmune thyroiditis (P<0.01, n=76) and 1.08??g/kg per day (0.82, 1.44) in patients operated on for benign disease (P< 0.01, n=80). Stratifying patients by deiodinase activity categories of <23, 23-29 and >29?nmol/s revealed an increasing FT3-FT4 dissociation; the poorest converters showed the lowest FT3 levels in spite of the highest dose and circulating FT4 (P<0.001). An l-T4-related FT3-TSH disjoint was also apparent; some patients with fully suppressed TSH failed to raise FT3 above the median level. These findings imply that thyroid hormone conversion efficiency is an important modulator of the biochemical response to l-T4; FT3 measurement may be an additional treatment target; and l-T4 dose escalation may have limited success to raise FT3 appropriately in some cases.
Project description:CONTEXT:The substitution of liothyronine (L-T3) for levothyroxine (L-T4) is commonly employed during thyroid hormone (TH) withdrawal in preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on thyroid cancer patients. Presently, only limited data are available on the L-T3 for L-T4 therapeutic substitution. Objective To characterize the pharmcodynamic equivalence of L-T3 and L-T4. DESIGN:Randomized, double-blind, cross-over intervention study. SETTING:NIH clinical center. PATIENTS:Ten thyroidectomized patients. INTERVENTIONS:Study participants were treated with L-T3 or L-T4 with a target TSH >or= 0.5 <or= 1.5 mU/l for at least 30 days before undergoing inpatient testing. Following testing, subjects crossed-over according to the same scheme. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Area under the serum concentration-time curve of TSH from 0 to 60 min (AUC(0-60)) and peak TSH serum concentration (C(max)) following thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, total L-T4 and L-T3 dose (mcg/kg), and L-T4/L-T3 ratio. RESULTS:No difference was observed for time 0 TSH values between L-T3 and L-T4 replacement phases (1.48 +/- 0.77 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.62 mU/l, P = 0.293) at average daily doses of 40.3 +/- 11.3 mcg L-T3 and 115.2 +/- 38.5 mcg L-T4, L-T3: L-T4 ratio 0.36 +/- 0.06. TRH stimulation test resulted in similar L-T3 vs. L-T4 TSH responses with AUC(0-60) of 326.1 (95% CI 232.6-457.1) and 247.1 (95% CI 153.8-397.1) mU* min/l (P = 0.285); and C(max) of 6.83 (95% CI 4.88-9.55) and 5.23 (95% CI 3.31-8.3) mU/l (P = 0.383). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study addressing the equivalency between L-T3 and L-T4 therapy measured by baseline and TRH-stimulated TSH. The therapeutic substitution of L-T3 for L-T4 was achieved at approximately 1:3 ratio.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:Vandetanib at a dose of 300 mg orally every day plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 could be administered safely.Assessing outcomes in 17 patients with medullary thyroid cancer, investigators considered the combination to be more difficult to administer than single-agent vandetanib and that achieving better outcomes was unlikely. Consequently, a planned phase II study was terminated early. BACKGROUND:The proto-oncogene RET (REarranged during Transfection) has a critical role in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Vandetanib (V), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of MTC, is thought to inhibit RET in MTC. Supported by preclinical studies demonstrating that bortezomib (B) administration lowered RET mRNA and protein levels, we conducted a phase I study in advanced solid tumors of vandetanib in combination with bortezomib. The goal was to establish an RP2D (recommended phase II dose) for the combination of vandetanib plus bortezomib, a regimen envisioned as a dual strategy for targeting RET in MTC. METHODS:Patients with advanced solid tumors were treated with escalating doses of bortezomib or vandetanib to assess the safety and tolerability of daily oral vandetanib and intravenous (IV) bortezomib administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 28-day cycle. Intrapatient dose escalation was allowed. RESULTS:Twenty-two patients were enrolled and received escalating mg/m2 bortezomib and mg vandetanib (number of patients) at initial doses of 1 and 100 (3), 1.3 and 100 (6), 1.3 and 200 (6), and 1.3 and 300 (7), respectively. Patients received a median of four cycles of bortezomib/vandetanib (range: 1-10), with 13 patients escalating to 1.3/200 and 10 to 1.3/300. G3 toxicities occurring in more than one patient included hypertension (24%), fatigue (19%), thrombocytopenia (10%), diarrhea (10%), and arthralgia (10%). There were no drug-related G4/5 toxicities. There was one dose-limiting toxicity, G3 thrombocytopenia, at bortezomib/vandetanib doses of 1.3/200 in cycle 2 that resolved without intervention. Four patients with a diagnosis of MTC (27%) had a partial response (PR). CONCLUSION:The MTD of the combination was established as bortezomib, 1.3 mg/m2 IV days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with vandetanib 300 mg p.o. daily. RECIST responses were observed in patients with a diagnosis of MTC.
Project description:The long-held concept of a proportional negative feedback control between the thyroid and pituitary glands requires reconsideration in the light of more recent studies. Homeostatic equilibria depend on dynamic inter-relationships between thyroid hormones and pituitary thyrotropin (TSH). They display a high degree of individuality, thyroid-state-related hierarchy, and adaptive conditionality. Molecular mechanisms involve multiple feedback loops on several levels of organization, different time scales, and varying conditions of their optimum operation, including a proposed feedforward motif. This supports the concept of a dampened response and multistep regulation, making the interactions between TSH, FT4, and FT3 situational and mathematically more complex. As a homeostatically integrated parameter, TSH becomes neither normatively fixed nor a precise marker of euthyroidism. This is exemplified by the therapeutic situation with l-thyroxine (l-T4) where TSH levels defined for optimum health may not apply equivalently during treatment. In particular, an FT3-FT4 dissociation, discernible FT3-TSH disjoint, and conversion inefficiency have been recognized in l-T4-treated athyreotic patients. In addition to regulating T4 production, TSH appears to play an essential role in maintaining T3 homeostasis by directly controlling deiodinase activity. While still allowing for tissue-specific variation, this questions the currently assumed independence of the local T3 supply. Rather it integrates peripheral and central elements into an overarching control system. On l-T4 treatment, altered equilibria have been shown to give rise to lower circulating FT3 concentrations in the presence of normal serum TSH. While data on T3 in tissues are largely lacking in humans, rodent models suggest that the disequilibria may reflect widespread T3 deficiencies at the tissue level in various organs. As a consequence, the use of TSH, valuable though it is in many situations, should be scaled back to a supporting role that is more representative of its conditional interplay with peripheral thyroid hormones. This reopens the debate on the measurement of free thyroid hormones and encourages the identification of suitable biomarkers. Homeostatic principles conjoin all thyroid parameters into an adaptive context, demanding a more flexible interpretation in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction.
Project description:PURPOSE:Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes caused by germline, activating mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene. Vandetanib, a VEGF and EGF receptor inhibitor, blocks RET tyrosine kinase activity and is active in adults with hereditary MTC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We conducted a phase I/II trial of vandetanib for children (5-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) with MTC to define a recommended dose and assess antitumor activity. The starting dose was 100 mg/m(2) administered orally, once daily, continuously for 28-day treatment cycles. The dose could be escalated to 150 mg/m(2)/d after two cycles. Radiographic response to vandetanib was quantified using RECIST (v1.0), biomarker response was measured by comparing posttreatment serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels to baseline, and a patient-reported outcome was used to assess clinical benefit. RESULTS:Sixteen patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC received vandetanib for a median (range) 27 (2-52) cycles. Eleven patients remain on protocol therapy. Diarrhea was the primary dose-limiting toxicity. In subjects with M918T RET germline mutations (n = 15) the confirmed objective partial response rate was 47% (exact 95% confidence intervals, 21%-75%). Biomarker partial response was confirmed for calcitonin in 12 subjects and for CEA in 8 subjects. CONCLUSION:Using an innovative trial design and selecting patients based on target gene expression, we conclude that vandetanib 100 mg/m(2)/d is a well-tolerated and highly active new treatment for children and adolescents with MEN2B and locally advanced or metastatic MTC.
Project description:Vandetanib is a once-daily orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor that works by blocking RET (REarranged during Transfection), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3), and epidermal growth factor receptor and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1, which are important targets in thyroid cancer (TC). It is emerging as a potentially effective option in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and in dedifferentiated papillary thyroid cancer not responsive to radioiodine. The most important effect of vandetanib in aggressive MTC is a prolongation of progression-free survival and a stabilization of the disease. Significant side effects have been observed with the vandetanib therapy (as fatigue, hypertension, QTc prolongation, cutaneous rash, hand-and-foot syndrome, diarrhea, etc), and severe side effects can require the suspension of the drug. Several studies are currently under way to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of vandetanib in MTC and in dedifferentiated papillary TC. The efficacy of vandetanib in patients with MTC in long-term treatments could be overcome by the resistance to the drug. However, the effectiveness of the treatment could be ameliorated by the molecular characterization of the tumor and by the possibility to test the sensitivity of primary TC cells from each subject to different tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Association studies are evaluating the effect of the association of vandetanib with other antineoplastic agents (such as irinotecan, bortezomib, etc). Further research is needed to determine the ideal therapy to obtain the best response in terms of survival and quality of life.
Project description:Ectopic Cushing syndrome due to ACTH secretion from metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.The aim of the study was to describe the first case of Cushing syndrome associated with MTC in a pediatric patient and the successful reversal of Cushing syndrome with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (vandetanib) therapy.A 17-year-old Brazilian adolescent presented with metastatic MTC and associated ACTH-dependent ectopic Cushing syndrome in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. When the patient was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, rapid decrease in serum cortisol and improvement of clinical symptoms were observed.We describe the first pediatric case of clinical and biochemical improvement of paraneoplastic MTC-related Cushing syndrome after treatment with vandetanib. Vandetanib and possibly other tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be a novel beneficial option in patients with neuroendocrine tumor-related ectopic Cushing syndrome.
Project description:Although the FDA-approved receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are used to treat surgically inoperable progressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), not all patients are responsive while the disease sometimes progresses after an initial response. To better understand MTC drug resistance at molecular and biochemical levels, we have generated drug-resistant subpopulations of the human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, via prolonged exposure to vandetanib and cabozantinib. These drug-resistant progenies exhibited substantial cross-resistance to vandetanib and cabozantinib, suggesting that these inhibitors may invoke an overlapping resistance mechanism(s) in MTC cells. Of note, vandetanib and cabozantinib increased mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in drug-naïve as well as drug-resistant cells but only drug-naïve cells exhibited substantially altered oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. Therefore, these inhibitors appear to cause a bioenergetics stress to which drug-resistant MTC cells are more tolerant. Given the ability of vandetanib and cabozantinib to increase ??m, we hypothesized that these inhibitors can augment growth inhibitory effects of mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl and ubiquinone by increasing their ??m-dependent uptake/retention in MTC cells. Indeed, our in vitro and mouse xenograft data strongly support this possibility.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine if infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) whose initial dose of levothyroxine (LT4) is based on thyroid gland anatomy require fewer dose adjustments in the first 6 months of life than those who were started empirically on LT4.Newborns with CH who had a thyroid ultrasound performed at diagnosis were eligible for this prospective, historical case-controlled study. The daily LT4 dose prescribed was based on results on the thyroid ultrasound as follows: 15 mcg/kg for athyreosis, 12 mcg/kg for a dysgenetic thyroid, and 10 mcg/kg for an anatomically normal gland. Routine labs according to standard guidelines were obtained, and the number of dose adjustments over the first 6 months of therapy was recorded. Each study participant was matched with 2 historical controls with CH based on sex and thyroid anatomy.Twenty-two subjects (10 with athyreosis, 4 with dysgenetic glands, and 8 with anatomically normal glands) were matched to 44 controls. There was no significant difference in the overall number of adjustments in the study group compared to controls (P = .74). However, there were significantly fewer adjustments made for undertreatment (P = .03) and significantly more adjustments made for overtreatment (P = .006) in subjects with athyreosis compared to controls.Targeted LT4 therapy does not appear to decrease the overall frequency of dose adjustments for infants with CH. However, 15 mcg/kg/day appears to exceed thyroid hormone requirements in infants with CH due to athyreosis.CH = congenital hypothyroidism LT4 = levothyroxine OT = overtreatment T4 = thyroxine TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone UT = undertreatment.
Project description:In this study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling on a large series of sporadic and hereditary forms of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). More than 60 miRNAs were significantly deregulated in tumor vs adjacent non-tumor tissues, partially overlapping with results of previous studies. We focused our attention on the strongest up-regulated miRNA in MTC samples, miR-375, the deregulation of which has been previously observed in a variety of human malignancies including MTC. We identified miR-375 targets by combining gene expression signatures from human MTC (TT) and normal follicular (Nthy-ori 3-1) cell lines transfected with an antagomiR-375 inhibitor or a miR-375 mimic, respectively, and from an in silico analysis of thyroid cell lines of Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia datasets. This approach identified SEC23A as a bona fide miR-375 target, which we validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of non-tumor and pathological thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we observed that miR-375 overexpression was associated with decreased cell proliferation and synergistically increased sensitivity to vandetanib, the clinically relevant treatment of metastatic MTC. We found that miR-375 increased PARP cleavage and decreased AKT phosphorylation, affecting both cell proliferation and viability. We confirmed these results through SEC23A direct silencing in combination with vandetanib, highlighting the importance of SEC23A in the miR-375-associated increased sensitivity to vandetanib.Since the combination of increased expression of miR-375 and decreased expression of SEC23A point to sensitivity to vandetanib, we question if the expression levels of miR-375 and SEC23A should be evaluated as an indicator of eligibility for treatment of MTC patients with vandetanib.