Release of mitochondrial Opa1 following oxidative stress in HT22 cells.
ABSTRACT: Cellular mechanisms involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases converge on mitochondria to induce overproduction of reactive oxygen species, damage to mitochondria, and subsequent cytochrome c release. Little is currently known regarding the contribution mitochondrial dynamics play in cytochrome c release following oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Here we induced oxidative stress in the HT22 cell line with glutamate and investigated key mediators of mitochondrial dynamics to determine the role this process may play in oxidative stress induced neuronal death. We report that glutamate treatment in HT22 cells induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of the mitochondrial fusion protein Opa1 into the cytosol, with concomitant release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, following the glutamate treatment alterations in cell signaling coincide with mitochondrial fragmentation which culminates in significant cell death in HT22 cells. Finally, we report that treatment with the antioxidant tocopherol attenuates glutamate induced-ROS increase, release of mitochondrial Opa1 and cytochrome c, and prevents cell death.
Project description:Protein kinase A (PKA) is a ser/thr kinase that is critical for maintaining essential neuronal functions including mitochondrial homeostasis, bioenergetics, neuronal development, and neurotransmission. The endogenous pool of PKA is targeted to the mitochondrion by forming a complex with the mitochondrial scaffold A-kinase anchoring protein 121 (AKAP121). Enhanced PKA signaling via AKAP121 leads to PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the fission modulator Drp1, leading to enhanced mitochondrial networks and thereby blocking apoptosis against different toxic insults. In this study, we show for the first time that AKAP121/PKA confers neuroprotection in an in vitro model of oxidative stress induced by exposure to excess glutamate. Unexpectedly, treating mouse hippocampal progenitor neuronal HT22 cells with an acute dose or chronic exposure of glutamate robustly elevates PKA signaling, a beneficial compensatory response that is phenocopied in HT22 cells conditioned to thrive in the presence of excess glutamate but not in parental HT22 cells. Secondly, redirecting the endogenous pool of PKA by transiently transfecting AKAP121 or transfecting a constitutively active mutant of PKA targeted to the mitochondrion (OMM-PKA) or of an isoform of AKAP121 that lacks the KH and Tudor domains (S-AKAP84) are sufficient to significantly block cell death induced by glutamate toxicity but not in an oxygen deprivation/reperfusion model. Conversely, transient transfection of HT22 neuronal cells with a PKA-binding-deficient mutant of AKAP121 is unable to protect against oxidative stress induced by glutamate toxicity suggesting that the catalytic activity of PKA is required for AKAP121's protective effects. Mechanistically, AKAP121 promotes neuroprotection by enhancing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Drp1 to increase mitochondrial fusion, elevates ATP levels, and elicits an increase in the levels of antioxidants GSH and superoxide dismutase 2 leading to a reduction in the level of mitochondrial superoxide. Overall, our data supports AKAP121/PKA as a new molecular target that confers neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity by phosphorylating Drp1, to stabilize mitochondrial networks and mitochondrial function and to elicit antioxidant responses.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Nitration of tyrosine residues in protein is a post-translational modification, which occurs under oxidative stress, and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the role of nitrated proteins in oxidative stress-induced cell death, we identified nitrated proteins and checked correlation of their nitration in glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Nitrated proteins were detected by western blotting using an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody, extracted from matching reference 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Glutamate treatment induced apoptosis in HT22 cells, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor blocked glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. Nitration levels of 13 proteins were increased after glutamate stimulation; six of them were involved in regulation of energy production and two were related to apoptosis. The other nitrated proteins were associated with calcium signal modulation, ER dysfunction, or were of unknown function. CONCLUSIONS:The 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins were detected in these glutamate-treated HT22 cells. Results demonstrated that cell death, ROS accumulation and nNOS expression were related to nitration of protein tyrosine in the glutamate-stimulated cells.
Project description:12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is an important mediator of brain injury following experimental stroke in rodents. It contributes to neuronal death, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We demonstrate here that in neuronal HT22 cells subjected to glutamate-induced oxidative stress, 12/15-LOX damages mitochondria, and this represents the committed step that condemns the cell to die. Importantly these events, including breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the production of reactive oxygen species, and cytochrome c release, can all be replicated by incubation of 12/15-LOX with mitochondria in vitro, without the need to add other cytosolic factors. Proteasome activity is required downstream of mitochondrial damage to complete the cell death cascade, but proteasome inhibition is only partially protective. These findings position 12/15-LOX as the central executioner in an oxidative stress-related neuronal death program.
Project description:This data article describes the influence of <i>Cimicifuga racemosa</i> extract Ze 450 on neuronal cells in models of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cell death induced by oxidative stress. Effects of Ze 450 on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity were assessed in primary cortical rat and mouse neurons and, further, glutamate-mediated oxidative stress was analyzed in HT22 cells lacking ionotropic glutamate receptors. This study especially focusses on mitochondrial parameters like mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial integrity. Further the effects of Ze 450 on lipid-peroxidation, metabolic activity, cell proliferation and cell death were assessed under control conditions and oxidative challenge evoked by millimolar concentrations of glutamate in HT22 cells. These data support the findings in HT22, mHypo and HepG2 liver cells (Rabenau et al., 2018) .
Project description:Recent evidence indicates that autophagy-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for oxidative stress-related brain damage and repair. The highest concentration of melatonin is in the mitochondria of cells, and melatonin exhibits well-known antioxidant properties. We investigated the impact and mechanism involved in mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial oxidative stress/autophagy regulator parameters of glutamate cytotoxicity in mouse HT22 hippocampal neurons. We tested the hypothesis that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects via protecting against mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy. Cells were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin alone group, glutamate injury group, and melatonin pretreatment group. We found that glutamate induced significant changes in mitochondrial function/oxidative stress-related parameters. Leptin administration preserved mitochondrial function, and this effect was associated with increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased GSSG (oxidized glutathione) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Melatonin significantly reduced the fluorescence intensity of mitophagy via the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 pathway, which involves Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins. The mitophagy inhibitor CsA corrected these glutamate-induce changes, as measured by the fluorescence intensity of Mitophagy-Tracker Red CMXROS, mitochondrial ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. These findings indicate that melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by reducing mitophagy-related oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effect of ?-mangostin, a component of the mangosteen shell, against oxidative damage to nerve cells induced by excessive glutamate, a known excitatory neurotransmitter. To investigate the effect of ?-mangostin on apoptosis, 5 mM of glutamate was used to induce apoptotic cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. In this study, ?-mangostin was found to exert a stronger protection than N-acetyl cysteine against glutamate-induced cell damage. ?-Mangostin showed prevented glutamate-induced apoptosis in HT22 cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and stimulating the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein. In addition, glutamate significantly induced the accumulation of intracellular calcium ions, whereas treatment with ?-mangostin markedly reduced it. Hoechst 33342 staining showed an improvement in glutamate-induced nuclear condensation following ?-mangostin treatment. Furthermore, the number of annexin V-positive cells was significantly reduced following treatment with ?-mangostin. Western blot analysis showed the inhibition of glutamate-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by ?-mangostin. ?-mangostin also inhibited the regulation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Thus, the results of this study suggest that ?-mangostin is an active ingredient of mangosteen and exerts neuroprotective activities in HT22 cells.
Project description:Sulfation is a common modification of extracellular glycans, tyrosine residues on proteins, and steroid hormones, and is important in a wide variety of signaling pathways. We investigated the role of sulfation on endogenous oxidative stress, such as glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis, using mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Sodium chlorate competitively inhibits the formation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, the high energy sulfate donor in cellular sulfation reactions. The treatment of HT22 cells with sodium chlorate decreased sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Sodium chlorate and ?-d-xyloside, which prevents proteoglycan glycosaminoglycan chain attachment, exacerbated both glutamate- and erastin-induced cell death, suggesting that extracellular matrix influenced oxytosis and ferroptosis. Moreover, sodium chlorate enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in the process of oxytosis and ferroptosis. Interestingly, sodium chlorate did not affect antioxidant glutathione levels. Western blot analysis revealed that sodium chlorate enhanced erastin-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which is preferentially activated by cell stress-inducing signals. Collectively, our findings indicate that sulfation is an important modification for neuroprotection against oxytosis and ferroptosis in neuronal hippocampal cells.
Project description:Epilepsy is the most common childhood neurologic disorder. Status epilepticus (SE), which refers to continuous epileptic seizures, occurs more frequently in children than in adults, and approximately 40–50% of all cases occur in children under 2 years of age. Conventional antiepileptic drugs currently used in clinical practice have a number of adverse side effects. Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) can progressively develop in children with persistent SE, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic drugs. During SE, the persistent activation of neurons leads to decreased glutamate clearance with corresponding glutamate accumulation in the synaptic extracellular space, increasing the chance of neuronal excitotoxicity. Our previous study demonstrated that after developmental seizures in rats, E-64d exerts a neuroprotective effect on the seizure-induced brain damage by modulating lipid metabolism enzymes, especially ApoE and ApoJ/clusterin. In this study, we investigated the impact and mechanisms of E-64d administration on neuronal excitotoxicity. To test our hypothesis that E-64d confers neuroprotective effects by regulating autophagy and mitochondrial pathway activity, we simulated neuronal excitotoxicity in vitro using an immortalized hippocampal neuron cell line (HT22). We found that E-64d improved cell viability while reducing oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. In addition, E-64d treatment regulated mitochondrial pathway activity and inhibited chaperone-mediated autophagy in HT22 cells. Our findings indicate that E-64d may alleviate glutamate-induced damage via regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis, as well as inhibition of chaperone-mediated autophagy. Thus, E-64d may be a promising therapeutic treatment for hippocampal injury associated with SE.
Project description:Neurons contain a high number of mitochondria, these neuronal cells produce elevated levels of oxidative stress and live for a long time without proliferation; therefore, mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial to their health. Investigations have recently focused on mitochondrial dynamics revealing the ability of these organelles to change their distribution and morphology. It is known that mitochondrial fission is necessary for the transmission of mitochondria to daughter cells during mitosis and mitochondrial fragmentation has been used as an indicator of cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress is a trigger able to induce changes in the mitochondrial network. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of melatonin on the mitochondrial network in HT22 serum-deprived cells. Our results showed that serum deprivation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, promoted the activation of plasma membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) and affected the expression of pDRP1 and DRP1 fission proteins. Moreover, parallel increases in apoptotic and autophagic features were found. Damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria are deleterious to the cell; hence, the degradation of such mitochondria through mitophagy is crucial to cell survival. Our results suggest that melatonin supplementation reduces cell death and restores mitochondrial function through the regulation of autophagy.
Project description:Glutamate excitotoxicity leads to fragmented mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases, mediated by nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1, a mitochondrial outer membrane fission protein. Optic atrophy gene 1 (OPA1) is an inner membrane protein important for mitochondrial fusion. Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), caused by mutations in OPA1, is a neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, we showed that OPA1 deficiency in an ADOA model influences N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression, which is involved in glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Opa1(enu/+) mice show a slow progressive loss of RGCs, activation of astroglia and microglia, and pronounced mitochondrial fission in optic nerve heads as found by electron tomography. Expression of NMDA receptors (NR1, 2A, and 2B) in the retina of Opa1(enu/+) mice was significantly increased as determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression was significantly decreased, the apoptotic pathway was activated as Bax was increased, and phosphorylated Bad and BcL-xL were decreased. Our results conclusively demonstrate that not only glutamate excitotoxicity and/or oxidative stress alters mitochondrial fission/fusion, but that an imbalance in mitochondrial fission/fusion in turn leads to NMDA receptor upregulation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we propose a new vicious cycle involved in neurodegeneration that includes glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dynamics.