De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Stress Transcriptome in a Salinity-Tolerant Variety CS52 of Brassica juncea.
ABSTRACT: Oilseed mustard, Brassica juncea, exhibits high levels of genetic variability for salinity tolerance. To obtain the global view of transcriptome and investigate the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in a salt-tolerant variety CS52 of B. juncea, we performed transcriptome sequencing of control and salt-stressed seedlings. De novo assembly of 184 million high-quality paired-end reads yielded 42,327 unique transcripts longer than 300 bp with RPKM ?1. When compared with non-redundant proteins, we could annotate 67% unigenes obtained in our study. Based on the mapping to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 52.6% unigenes are novel compared to EST data available for B. juncea and constituent genomes. Differential expression analysis revealed altered expression of 1469 unigenes in response to salinity stress. Of these, 587, mainly associated with ROS detoxification, sulfur assimilation and calcium signaling pathways, are up regulated. Notable of these is RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1) INTERACTING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RITF1) homolog up regulated by >100 folds in response to stress. RITF1, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is a positive regulator of SOS1 and several key genes involved in scavenging of salt stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, we performed comparative expression profiling of key genes implicated in ion homeostasis and sequestration (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1, NHX1), calcium sensing pathway (RITF1) and ROS detoxification in contrasting cultivars for salinity tolerance, B. juncea and B. nigra. The results revealed higher transcript accumulation of most of these genes in B. juncea var. CS52 compared to salt-sensitive cultivar even under normal growth conditions. Together, these findings reveal key pathways and signaling components that contribute to salinity tolerance in B. juncea var. CS52.
Project description:Oilseed mustard, Brassica juncea, exhibits high levels of genetic variability for salinity tolerance. To obtain the global view of transcriptome and investigate the molecular basis of salinity tolerance in a salt-tolerant variety CS52 of B. juncea, we performed transcriptome sequencing of control and salt-stressed seedlings. De novo assembly of 184 million high-quality paired-end reads yielded 42,327 unique transcripts longer than 300 bp with RPKM ≥1. When compared with non-redundant proteins, we could annotate 67% unigenes obtained in our study. Based on the mapping to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 52.6% unigenes are novel compared to EST data available for B. juncea and constituent genomes. Differential expression analysis revealed altered expression of 1469 unigenes in response to salinity stress. Of these, 587, mainly associated with ROS detoxification, sulfur assimilation and calcium signaling pathways, are up regulated. Notable of these is RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1) INTERACTING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RITF1) homolog up regulated by >100 folds in response to stress. RITF1, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is a positive regulator of SOS1 and several key genes involved in scavenging of salt stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, we performed comparative expression profiling of key genes implicated in ion homeostasis and sequestration (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1, NHX1), calcium sensing pathway (RITF1) and ROS detoxification in contrasting cultivars, B. juncea and B. nigra, for salinity tolerance. The results revealed higher transcript accumulation of most of these genes in B. juncea var. CS52 compared to salt-sensitive cultivar even under normal growth conditions. Together, these findings reveal key pathways and signaling components that contribute to salinity tolerance in B. juncea var. CS52. We report transcriptome sequencing of two-weeks-old seedlings of B. juncea var. CS52 under normal growth conditions (CTRL) and in response to salinity stress (SS) using Illumina paired-end sequencing
Project description:The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana plays important roles in maintaining appropriate ion homeostasis in the cytoplasm and regulating plant tolerance to salinity. However, little is known about the details regarding SOS family genes in the tuber mustard crop (Brassica juncea var. tumida). Here, 12 BjSOS family genes were identified in the B. juncea var. tumida genome including two homologous genes of SOS1, one and three homologs of SOS2 and SOS3, two homologs of SOS4, two homologs of SOS5 and two homologs of SOS6, respectively. The results of conserved motif analysis showed that these SOS homologs contained similar protein structures. By analyzing the cis-elements in the promoters of those BjSOS genes, several hormone- and stress-related cis-elements were found. The results of gene expression analysis showed that the homologous genes were induced by abiotic stress and pathogen. These findings indicate that BjSOS genes play crucial roles in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study provides valuable information for further investigations of BjSOS genes in tuber mustard.
Project description:To explore the effect of salt stress on photosynthetic traits and gene expression in Indian mustard, four genotypes CS 54 (national check for salinity), CS 52-SPS-1-2012 (salt tolerant mutant), CS 614-4-1-4-100-13 (salt sensitive mutant) and Pusa bold (high yielding variety) were evaluated under irrigation water salinity (ECiw 12, and 15 dS m-1). Results suggest genotype CS 52-SPS-1-2012 followed by CS 54 performed better under imposed salt stress due to differential regulation of Na+ accumulation in the roots and main stem, restriction of Na+ influx from root to shoot, maintaining higher net photosynthetic traits under saline stress compared to CS 614-4-1-4-100-13 and Pusa bold. Further, overexpression of antiporters (SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, ENH1 and NHX1) and antioxidant (APX1, APX4, DHAR1 and MDHAR) genes in salt tolerant genotypes CS 52-SPS-1-2012 and CS 54 demonstrated their significant role in imparting salt tolerance in Indian mustard.
Project description:Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species.
Project description:Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway is a well-known pathway in arabidopsis, essential for maintenance of ion homeostasis and thus conferring salt stress tolerance. In arabidopsis, the Ca2+ activated SOS3 interacts with SOS2 which further activates SOS1, a Na+/H+ antiporter, responsible for removing toxic sodium ions from the cells. In the present study, we have shown that these three components of SOS pathway, BjSOS1, BjSOS2 and BjSOS3 genes exhibit differential expression pattern in response to salinity and ABA stress in contrasting cultivars of Brassica. It is also noticed that constitutive expression of all the three SOS genes is higher in the tolerant cultivar B. juncea as compared to the sensitive B. nigra. In silico interaction of BjSOS2 and BjSOS3 has been reported recently and here we demonstrate in vivo interaction of these two proteins in onion epidermal peel cells. Further, overexpression of BjSOS3 in corresponding arabidopsis mutant ?Atsos3 was able to rescue the mutant phenotype and exhibit higher tolerance towards salinity stress at the seedling stage.Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the B. juncea SOS3 (BjSOS3) protein is a functional ortholog of its arabidopsis counterpart and thus show a strong functional conservation of SOS pathway responsible for salt stress signalling between arabidopsis and Brassica species.
Project description:In addition to drought and extreme temperatures, soil salinity represents a growing threat to crop productivity. Among the cereal crops, barley is considered as notably salt tolerant, and cultivars show considerable variation for tolerance towards salinity stress. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance and to utilize the natural genetic variation of barley accessions, a series of hydroponics-based salinity stress experiments was conducted using two genetic mapping parents, cvs Steptoe and Morex, which display contrasting levels of salinity tolerance. The proteome of roots from both genotypes was investigated as displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and comparisons were made between plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions. Multivariate analysis of the resulting protein patterns revealed cultivar-specific and salt stress-responsive protein expression. Mass spectrometry-based identification was successful for 26 out of 39 selected protein spots. Hierarchical clustering was applied to detect similar protein expression patterns. Among those, two proteins involved in the glutathione-based detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were more abundant in the tolerant genotype, while proteins involved in iron uptake were expressed at a higher level in the sensitive one. This study emphasizes the role of proteins involved in ROS detoxification during salinity stress, and identified potential candidates for increasing salt tolerance in barley.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a common denominator in a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. In recent years, haem oxygenase (HO; EC 184.108.40.206) has been described as an important component of the antioxidant defence system in both mammalian and plant systems. Moreover, a recent report on Arabidopsis demonstrated that HO overexpression resulted in an enhanced salinity tolerance in this species. However, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the observed salinity tolerance in these HO mutants remain elusive. To address this gap, ion transport characteristics (K(+) and H(+) fluxes and membrane potentials) and gene expression profiles in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana HO-overexpressing (35S:HY1-1/2/3/4) and loss-of-function (hy-100, ho2, ho3, and ho4) mutants were compared during salinity stress. Upon acute salt stress, HO-overexpressing mutants retained more K(+) (less efflux), and exhibited better membrane potential regulation (maintained more negative potential) and higher H(+) efflux activity in root epidermis, compared with loss-of-function mutants. Pharmacological experiments suggested that high activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in HO overexpressor mutants provided the proton-motive force required for membrane potential maintenance and, hence, better K(+) retention. The gene expression analysis after 12h and 24h of salt stress revealed high expression levels of H(+)-ATPases (AHA1/2/3) and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter [salt overly sensitive1 (SOS1)] transcripts in the plasma membrane of HO overexpressors. It is concluded that HO modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K(+) retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots.
Project description:Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter in Arabidopsis, is a salt tolerance determinant crucial for the maintenance of ion homeostasis in saline stress conditions. SOS1 mRNA is unstable at normal growth conditions, but its stability is substantially increased under salt stress and other ionic and dehydration stresses. In addition, H2O2 treatment increases the stability of SOS1 mRNA. SOS1 mRNA is inherently unstable and rapidly degraded with a half-life of approximately 10 min. Rapid decay of SOS1 mRNA requires new protein synthesis. Stress-induced SOS1 mRNA stability is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidase is also involved in the upregulation of SOS1 mRNA stability, presumably through the control of extracellular ROS production. The cis-element required for SOS1 mRNA instability resides in the 500-bp region within the 2.2 kb at the 3' end of the SOS1 mRNA. Furthermore, mutations in the SOS1 gene render sos1 mutants more tolerant to paraquat, a non-selective herbicide causing oxidative stress, indicating that SOS1 plays negative roles in tolerance of oxidative stress. A hypothetical model for the signaling pathway involving SOS1-mediated pH changes, NADPH oxidase activation, apoplastic ROS production and downstream signaling transduction is proposed, and the biological significance of ROS-mediated induction of SOS1 mRNA stability is discussed.
Project description:Salt tolerance in plants is mediated by Na+ extrusion from the cytosol by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. This is activated in Arabidopsis root by the protein kinase complex SOS2-SOS3 and in Arabidopsis shoot by the protein kinase complex CBL10-SOS2, with SOS2 as a key node in the two pathways. The sos1 mutant is more sensitive than the sos2 mutant, suggesting that other partners may positively regulate SOS1 activity. Arabidopsis has 26 CIPK family proteins of which CIPK8 is the closest homolog to SOS2. It is hypothesized that CIPK8 can activate Na+ extrusion by SOS1 similarly to SOS2. The plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchange activity of transgenic yeast co-expressing CBL10, CIPK8, and SOS1 was higher than that of untransformed and SOS1 transgenic yeast, resulting in a lower Na+ accumulation and a better growth phenotype under salinity. However, CIPK8 could not interact with SOS3, and the co-expression of SOS3, CIPK8, and SOS1 in yeast did not confer a significant salt tolerance phenotype relative to SOS1 transgenic yeast. Interestingly, cipk8 displayed a slower Na+ efflux, a higher Na+ level, and a more sensitive phenotype than wild-type Arabidopsis, but grew better than sos2 under salinity stress. As expected, sos2cipk8 exhibited a more severe salt damage phenotype relative to cipk8 or sos2. Overexpression of CIPK8 in both cipk8 and sos2cipk8 attenuated the salt sensitivity phenotype. These results suggest that CIPK8-mediated activation of SOS1 is CBL10-dependent and SOS3-independent, indicating that CIPK8 and SOS2 activity in shoots is sufficient for regulating Arabidopsis salt tolerance.
Project description:Crop productivity is greatly affected by soil salinity; therefore, improvement in salinity tolerance of crops is a major goal in salt-tolerant breeding. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signal-transduction pathway plays a key role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Here, we report that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced salt tolerance in tall fescue. The transgenic plants displayed superior growth and accumulated less Na+ and more K+ in roots after 350 mM NaCl treatment. Moreover, Na+ enflux, K+ influx, and Ca2+ influx were higher in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type plants. The activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and proline content in the transgenic plants were significantly increased; however, the malondialdehyde content decreased in transgenic plants compared to the controls. These results suggested that co-expression of A. thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced the salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue.