Early vascular unclamping reduces warm ischaemia time in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of early vascular release in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RAPN) to reduce warm ischaemia time (WIT) and minimise renal dysfunction. RAPN is increasingly utilised in the management of small renal masses. To this end it is imperative that WIT is kept to a minimum to maintain renal function. METHODS:RAPN was performed via a four-arm robotic transperitoneal approach. The renal artery and vein were individually clamped with robotic vascular bulldog clamps to allow cold scissor excision of the tumour. The cut surface was then sutured with one or two running 3-0 V-Loc (TM) sutures, following which the vascular clamps were released. Specific bleeding vessels were then selectively oversewn and the collecting system repaired. Renorrhaphy was then completed using a running horizontal mattress 0-0 V-Loc (TM) suture. RESULTS:A total of 16 patients underwent RAPN with a median WIT of 15 minutes (range: 8-25), operative time 230 minutes (range: 180-280) and blood loss of 100 mL (range: 50-1000). There were no transfusions, secondary haemorrhages or urine leaks. There was one focal positive margin in a central 5.5 cm pT3a renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Long-term estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was not significantly different to pre-operative values. CONCLUSION:In this patient series, early vascular release effectively minimised WIT and maintained renal function without compromising perioperative safety.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a simplified zero ischemia technique using kidney donor computed tomographic (CT) angiography and conventional laparoscopic bulldog clamps.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We conducted a review of seven robot-assisted partial nephrectomies (RAPNs) performed by a single surgeon from January 2012 to May 2012. Using a simplified protocol of 3-dimentional reconstruction, tertiary arterial branches supplying the tumor were selectively clamped prior to resection. We used conventional laparoscopic bulldog clamps instead of microsurgical vessel clamps. The patients' demographic information, perioperative outcomes, pathologic outcomes and pre- and postoperative renal functions up to 3 months follow-up were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>RAPN were successfully performed for seven complex renal hilar tumors. There were no significant differences in the total operation time, estimated blood loss or postoperative outcomes compared with published literature on standard RAPN. Negative surgical margins were reported in all cases.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We presented a simplified-zero ischemia technique using kidney Donor CT angiography and conventional laparoscopic bulldog clamps. We have also demonstrated its safety and feasibility in patients with complex renal hilar tumors. This modified technique can be easily adopted by most surgeons who are currently performing RAPN.
Project description:Hemorrhage after robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is uncommon but can cause significant morbidity. We present a case of acute hemorrhage isolated to the collecting system that was managed with renal artery embolization (RAE). A 76-year-old male developed sudden onset transfusion-dependent hematuria and hypotension following uncomplicated RAPN. He had no signs of intra-abdominal bleeding and his hypotension was responsive to volume resuscitation. Renal angiography identified a segmental artery with extravasation into the collecting system. RAE eliminated the patient's hematuria, the need for further transfusion, and allowed preservation of renal function. RAE is a viable option for collecting system hemorrhage following RAPN.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The treatment of the pancreatic stump is a critical step of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) can facilitate minimally invasive challenging abdominal procedures, including pancreatojejunostomy. However, one of the major limitations of RAS stems from its lack of tactile feedback that can lead to pancreatic parenchyma laceration during knot tying or during traction on the suture. Moreover, a Wirsung-jejunostomy is not always easy to execute, especially in cases with small diameter duct. Herein, we describe and video-report the technical details of a robotic modified end-to-side invaginated robotic pancreatojejunostomy (RmPJ) with the use of barbed suture instead of the "classical" Wirsung-jejunostomy.<h4>Methods</h4>The RmPJ technique consists of a double layer of absorbable monofilament running barbed suture (3-0 V-Loc), the outer layer is used to invaginate the pancreatic stump. Thereafter, a small enterotomy is made in the jejunum exactly opposite to the location of the pancreatic duct for stent insertion (usually 5 Fr) inside the duct. The internal layer provides a second barbed running suture placed between the pancreatic capsule/parenchyma and the jejunal seromuscular layer.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 14 patients underwent robotic PD with RmPJ at our Institution. The mean console time was (281.36?±?31.50 min), while the mean operative time for fashioning the RmPJ was 37.31?±?7.80 min. Ten out of 14 patients were discharged within postoperative day 8. No clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas were encountered, while two patients developed biochemical leaks.<h4>Conclusions</h4>RmPJ is feasible and reproducible irrespective of pancreatic duct size and parenchyma, and can enhance the surgical workflow of this operation. Specifically, the use of barbed sutures allows the exploitation of the potential advantages of the RAS, while minimizing the negative effect caused by the main disadvantage of the robotic approach, its absence of tactile feedback, by ensuring uniform tension on the continuous suture lines used, especially during the reconstructive phase of the operation.
Project description:We present a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with synchronous prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, treated with combined Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). The combined approach using RS-RARP and RAPN is technically feasible and safe surgical option for treatment of concomitant prostate cancer and suspicious renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. METHODS:Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. RESULTS:In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.
Project description:Recent studies have reported a significant decrease in wound problems and hospital stay in obese patients undergoing renal transplantation by robotic-assisted minimally invasive techniques with no difference in graft function.Due to the lack of cost-benefit studies on the use of robotic-assisted renal transplantation versus open surgical procedure, the primary aim of our study is to develop a Markov model to analyze the cost-benefit of robotic surgery versus open traditional surgery in obese patients in need of a renal transplant.Electronic searches will be conducted to identify studies comparing open renal transplantation versus robotic-assisted renal transplantation. Costs associated with the two surgical techniques will incorporate the expenses of the resources used for the operations. A decision analysis model will be developed to simulate a randomized controlled trial comparing three interventional arms: (1) continuation of renal replacement therapy for patients who are considered non-suitable candidates for renal transplantation due to obesity, (2) transplant recipients undergoing open transplant surgery, and (3) transplant patients undergoing robotic-assisted renal transplantation. TreeAge Pro 2017 R1 TreeAge Software, Williamstown, MA, USA) will be used to create a Markov model and microsimulation will be used to compare costs and benefits for the two competing surgical interventions.The model will simulate a randomized controlled trial of adult obese patients affected by end-stage renal disease undergoing renal transplantation. The absorbing state of the model will be patients' death from any cause. By choosing death as the absorbing state, we will be able simulate the population of renal transplant recipients from the day of their randomization to transplant surgery or continuation on renal replacement therapy to their death and perform sensitivity analysis around patients' age at the time of randomization to determine if age is a critical variable for cost-benefit analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis comparing renal replacement therapy, robotic-assisted surgery or open renal transplant surgery. After running the model, one of the three competing strategies will result as the most cost-beneficial or cost-effective under common circumstances. To assess the robustness of the results of the model, a multivariable probabilistic sensitivity analysis will be performed by modifying the mean values and confidence intervals of key parameters with the main intent of assessing if the winning strategy is sensitive to rigorous and plausible variations of those values.After running the model, one of the three competing strategies will result as the most cost-beneficial or cost-effective under common circumstances. To assess the robustness of the results of the model, a multivariable probabilistic sensitivity analysis will be performed by modifying the mean values and confidence intervals of key parameters with the main intent of assessing if the winning strategy is sensitive to rigorous and plausible variations of those values.
Project description:Background:Robotic assisted nephrectomy for living donation (RANLD) is a rapid emerging surgical technique competing for supremacy with totally laparoscopic and laparoscopic hand assisted techniques. Opinions about the safety of specific techniques of vascular closure in minimally invasive living kidney donation are heterogeneous and may be different for laparoscopic and robotic assisted surgical techniques. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed perioperative and short-term outcomes of our first (n=40) RANLD performed with the da Vinci Si surgical platform. Vascular closure of renal vessels was performed by either double clipping or a combination of clips and non-transfixing suture ligatures. Results:RANLD almost quintupled in our center for the observed time period. A total of n=21 (52.5%) left and n=19 (47.5%) right kidneys were procured. Renal vessel sealing with two locking clips was performed in 18 cases (45%) Both, clips and non-transfixing ligatures were used in 22 cases (55%). Mean donor age was 53.075±11.68 years (range, 28-70). The average total operative time was 150.75±27.30 min. Right donor nephrectomy (139±22 min) was performed significantly faster than left (160.95±27.93 min, P=0.01). Warm ischemia time was similar for both vascular sealing techniques and did not differ between left and right nephrectomies. No conversion was necessary. Clavien-Dindo Grade ?IIIb complications occurred in (n=5) 12.5%. Grade IV and V complications did not develop. In particular no hemorrhage occurred using multiple locking clips or suture ligatures for renal vascular closure. Mortality was 0%. Thirteen kidneys (32.5%) were transplanted across the AB0 barrier. Conclusions:RANLD is an emerging minimally invasive surgical technique which facilitates excellent perioperative and short-term outcomes also when using multiple locking clips or suture ligatures for renal vascular closure.
Project description:To investigate the feasibility of RAPN on T1b renal mass by assessment of Trifecta and Pentafecta rate between T1a and T1b renal mass.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 277 cases of RPN performed from 2006 to 2015. Sixty patients with clinically T1b renal masses (> 4 cm and ≤ 7 cm) were identified, and from 180 patients with clinically T1a renal mass, 60 patients were matched with T1b renal mass by propensity score. Tumor complexity was investigated according to R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score. "Pentafecta" was defined as achievement of Trifecta (negative surgical margin, no postoperative complications and warm ischemia time of ≤ 25 minutes) with addition of over 90% estimated GFR preservation and no chronic kidney disease stage upgrading at 1 year postoperative period. Propensity score matching was performed by OneToManyMTCH. Logistic regression models were used to identify the variables which predict the Trifecta, and Pentafecta ac.Preoperative variables (age, sex, body mass index, ASA score) were similar between T1a and T1b after propensity score matching. The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 8 vs 9 for T1a and T1b respectively (p<0.001). The median warm ischemia time was 20.1 min vs 26.2 min (p<0.001). Positive surgical margin rate was 5% vs 6.6% (p = 0.729) and overall complication rate of 13.3%. vs 15% (p = 0.793). The rate of achievement of Trifecta rate were 65.3% vs 43.3% (p = 0.017) and Pentafecta rate were 38.3% vs 26.7% (p = 0.172). For achievement of Pentafecta, R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score (HR 0.80; 95% CI (0.67-0.97); p = 0.031) was significant predictor of achieving Pentafecta. Subanalyis to assess the component of R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score, L component (location relative to the polar lines, HR 0.63; 95% CI (0.38-1.03); P = 0.064) was relatively important component for Pentafecta achievement.The rate of Pentafecta after RAPN was comparable between T1a and T1b renal masses. RAPN is a feasible modality with excellent long term outcome for patients with larger renal mass (cT1b).
Project description:Renal nutcracker syndrome is an anatomic anomaly characterized by the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta or between the aorta and the vertebral body. Diagnosis is often challenging. Common presenting symptoms include hematuria, abdominal pain, and pelvic congestion. Several open and endovascular techniques have been described to treat this syndrome. We report a novel surgical technique with robotic-assisted left renal vein transposition to treat a 19-year-old woman with renal nutcracker syndrome. Robotic vascular surgery can be a safe and effective therapy for this condition.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate application of diode laser in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), and to question this technique in terms of ease of tumor excision and reduction of warm ischemia time (WIT).<h4>Background data</h4>LPN is the standard operative method for small renal masses. The benefits of LPN are numerous, including preserving renal function and prolonging overall survival. However, reduction of WIT remains main challenge in this operation. In order to shorten WIT, many techniques have been developed, with variable results.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>We performed a prospective collection and analysis of health records for patients who were operated on between March 2011 and August 2012. Inclusion criteria were single tumor ? 4 cm, predominant exophytic growth and intraparenchymal depth ? 1.5 cm, with a minimum distance of 5 mm from the urinary collecting system.<h4>Results</h4>We operated on 17 patients. Median operative time was 170 min. In all but two patients, we had to perform hilar clamping. Median duration of WIT was 16 min. Pathohistological evaluation revealed clear cell renal cancer and confirmed margins negative for tumor in all cases. Median size of the tumor was 3 cm. Median postoperative hospitalization was 5 days. Average follow up was 11.5 months. There were no intraoperative complications. One postoperative complication was noted: perirenal hematoma.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Laser LPN is feasible, and offers the benefit of shorter WIT, with effective tissue coagulation and hemostasis. With operative experience and technical advances, WIT will be reduced or even eliminated, and a solution to some technical difficulties, such as significant smoke production, will be found.