The 4E-BP Caf20p Mediates Both eIF4E-Dependent and Independent Repression of Translation.
ABSTRACT: Translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates mRNA selection for protein synthesis via the mRNA 5'cap. A family of binding proteins, termed the 4E-BPs, interact with eIF4E to hinder ribosome recruitment. Mechanisms underlying mRNA specificity for 4E-BP control remain poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 4E-BPs, Caf20p and Eap1p, each regulate an overlapping set of mRNAs. We undertook global approaches to identify protein and RNA partners of both 4E-BPs by immunoprecipitation of tagged proteins combined with mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing. Unexpectedly, mass spectrometry indicated that the 4E-BPs associate with many ribosomal proteins. 80S ribosome and polysome association was independently confirmed and was not dependent upon interaction with eIF4E, as mutated forms of both Caf20p and Eap1p with disrupted eIF4E-binding motifs retain ribosome interaction. Whole-cell proteomics revealed Caf20p mutations cause both up and down-regulation of proteins and that many changes were independent of the 4E-binding motif. Investigations into Caf20p mRNA targets by immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed a strong association between Caf20p and mRNAs involved in transcription and cell cycle processes, consistent with observed cell cycle phenotypes of mutant strains. A core set of over 500 Caf20p-interacting mRNAs comprised of both eIF4E-dependent (75%) and eIF4E-independent targets (25%), which differ in sequence attributes. eIF4E-independent mRNAs share a 3' UTR motif. Caf20p binds all tested motif-containing 3' UTRs. Caf20p and the 3'UTR combine to influence ERS1 mRNA polysome association consistent with Caf20p contributing to translational control. Finally ERS1 3'UTR confers Caf20-dependent repression of expression to a heterologous reporter gene. Taken together, these data reveal conserved features of eIF4E-dependent Caf20p mRNA targets and uncover a novel eIF4E-independent mode of Caf20p binding to mRNAs that extends the regulatory role of Caf20p in the mRNA-specific repression of protein synthesis beyond its interaction with eIF4E.
Project description:Ribosome binding to eukaryotic mRNA is a multistep process which is mediated by the cap structure [m(7)G(5')ppp(5')N, where N is any nucleotide] present at the 5' termini of all cellular (with the exception of organellar) mRNAs. The heterotrimeric complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), interacts directly with the cap structure via the eIF4E subunit and functions to assemble a ribosomal initiation complex on the mRNA. In mammalian cells, eIF4E activity is regulated in part by three related translational repressors (4E-BPs), which bind to eIF4E directly and preclude the assembly of eIF4F. No structural counterpart to 4E-BPs exists in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, a functional homolog (named p20) has been described which blocks cap-dependent translation by a mechanism analogous to that of 4E-BPs. We report here on the characterization of a novel yeast eIF4E-associated protein (Eap1p) which can also regulate translation through binding to eIF4E. Eap1p shares limited homology to p20 in a region which contains the canonical eIF4E-binding motif. Deletion of this domain or point mutation abolishes the interaction of Eap1p with eIF4E. Eap1p competes with eIF4G (the large subunit of the cap-binding complex, eIF4F) and p20 for binding to eIF4E in vivo and inhibits cap-dependent translation in vitro. Targeted disruption of the EAP1 gene results in a temperature-sensitive phenotype and also confers partial resistance to growth inhibition by rapamycin. These data indicate that Eap1p plays a role in cell growth and implicates this protein in the TOR signaling cascade of S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Control of translation in eukaryotes is complex, depending on the binding of various factors to mRNAs. Available data for subsets of mRNAs that are translationally up- and down-regulated in yeast eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) deletion mutants are coupled with reported mRNA secondary structure measurements to investigate whether 5'-UTR secondary structure varies between the subsets. Genes with up-regulated translational efficiencies in the caf20? mutant have relatively high averaged 5'-UTR secondary structure. There is no apparent wide-scale correlation of RNA-binding protein preferences with the increased 5'-UTR secondary structure, leading us to speculate that the secondary structure itself may play a role in differential partitioning of mRNAs between eIF4E/4E-BP repression and eIF4E/eIF4G translation initiation. Both Caf20p and Eap1p contain stretches of positive charge in regions of predicted disorder. Such regions are also present in eIF4G and have been reported to associate with mRNA binding. The pattern of these segments, around the canonical eIF4E-binding motif, varies between each 4E-BP and eIF4G. Analysis of gene ontology shows that yeast proteins containing predicted disordered segments, with positive charge runs, are enriched for nucleic acid binding. We propose that the 4E-BPs act, in part, as differential, flexible, polyelectrostatic scaffolds for mRNAs.
Project description:PUF proteins are eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins that repress specific mRNAs. The mechanisms and corepressors involved in PUF repression remain to be fully identified. Here, we investigated the mode of repression by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Puf5p and Puf4p and found that Puf5p specifically requires Eap1p to repress mRNAs, whereas Puf4p does not. Surprisingly, we observed that Eap1p, which is a member of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP) class of translational inhibitors, does not inhibit the efficient polyribosome association of a Puf5p target mRNA. Rather, we found that Eap1p accelerates mRNA degradation by promoting decapping, and the ability of Eap1p to interact with eIF4E facilitates this activity. Deletion of EAP1 dramatically reduces decapping, resulting in accumulation of deadenylated, capped mRNA. In support of this phenotype, Eap1p associates both with Puf5p and the Dhh1p decapping factor. Furthermore, recruitment of Eap1p to downregulated mRNA is mediated by Puf5p. On the basis of these results, we propose that Puf5p promotes decapping by recruiting Eap1p and associated decapping factors to mRNAs. The implication of these findings is that a 4E-BP can repress protein expression by promoting specific mRNA degradation steps in addition to or in lieu of inhibiting translation initiation.
Project description:There are multiple translational control pathways. These include pathways involving eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs), which inhibit translation by binding and sequestering the 5’ cap binding protein eIF4E away from its partner eIF4G. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two 4E-BPs: Caf20p and Eap1p. Previous analyses had shown that each 4E-BP regulates different subsets of mRNAs. In order to assess whether binding different proteins caused their different regulatory role, we used tandem affinity purification followed by label-free mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes pulled-down with the TAP-tagged 4E-BPs, and the global proteome. These analyses point out that Caf20p and Eap1p share most interaction partners, including ribosomes, and that both bind several other RNA-binding proteins.
Project description:The interaction of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) with the cap-binding protein eIF4E initiates cap-dependent translation and is regulated by the 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs), which compete with eIF4G to repress translation. Metazoan eIF4G and 4E-BPs interact with eIF4E via canonical and non-canonical motifs that bind to the dorsal and lateral surface of eIF4E in a bipartite recognition mode. However, previous studies pointed to mechanistic differences in how fungi and metazoans regulate protein synthesis. We present crystal structures of the yeast eIF4E bound to two yeast 4E-BPs, p20 and Eap1p, as well as crystal structures of a fungal eIF4E-eIF4G complex. We demonstrate that the core principles of molecular recognition of eIF4E are in fact highly conserved among translational activators and repressors in eukaryotes. Finally, we reveal that highly specialized structural motifs do exist and serve to modulate the affinity of protein-protein interactions that regulate cap-dependent translation initiation in fungi.
Project description:Stem cell factor (SCF) delays differentiation and enhances the expansion of erythroid progenitors. Previously, we performed expression-profiling experiments to link signaling pathways to target genes using polysome-bound mRNA. SCF-induced phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) appeared to control polysome recruitment of specific mRNAs associated with neoplastic transformation. To evaluate the role of mRNA translation in the regulation of expansion versus differentiation of erythroid progenitors, we examined the function of the eukaryote initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in these cells. SCF induced a rapid and complete phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). Overexpression of eIF4E did not induce factor-independent growth but specifically impaired differentiation into mature erythrocytes. Overexpression of eIF4E rendered polysome recruitment of mRNAs with structured 5' untranslated regions largely independent of growth factor and resistant to the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In addition, overexpression of eIF4E rendered progenitors insensitive to the differentiation-inducing effect of LY294002, indicating that control of mRNA translation is a major pathway downstream of PI3K in the regulation of progenitor expansion.
Project description:There are multiple translational control pathways. These include pathways involving eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs), which inhibit translation by binding and sequestering the 5’ cap binding protein eIF4E away from its partner eIF4G. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two 4E-BPs: Caf20p and Eap1p; and, microarray analysis has shown that each regulates different subsets of mRNAs. To assess the effect of these different regulatory responses at the protein level, we used label-free mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of wild-type strain with those of caf20Δ and eap1Δ single mutant strains; caf20Δ and eap1Δ double mutant strain; and, caf20Δ mutant strain transformed with one plasmid containing a mutated version of caf20. These analyses indicate that Caf20p and Eap1p may compensate for each other loss, and also reveal that Caf20p participates in translational control pathways that are independent of eIF4E binding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)(+) (MCF-7L) and ER?(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells. RESULTS:AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ER?(+) and ER?(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ER?(+) and ER?(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ER? and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation. CONCLUSION:The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.
Project description:The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase nucleates a pathway that promotes cell growth and proliferation and is the target of rapamycin, a drug with many clinical uses. mTORC1 regulates messenger RNA translation, but the overall translational program is poorly defined and no unifying model exists to explain how mTORC1 differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs. Here we use high-resolution transcriptome-scale ribosome profiling to monitor translation in mouse cells acutely treated with the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, which, unlike rapamycin, fully inhibits mTORC1 (ref. 2). Our data reveal a surprisingly simple model of the mRNA features and mechanisms that confer mTORC1-dependent translation control. The subset of mRNAs that are specifically regulated by mTORC1 consists almost entirely of transcripts with established 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motifs, or, like Hsp90ab1 and Ybx1, with previously unrecognized TOP or related TOP-like motifs that we identified. We find no evidence to support proposals that mTORC1 preferentially regulates mRNAs with increased 5' untranslated region length or complexity. mTORC1 phosphorylates a myriad of translational regulators, but how it controls TOP mRNA translation is unknown. Remarkably, loss of just the 4E-BP family of translational repressors, arguably the best characterized mTORC1 substrates, is sufficient to render TOP and TOP-like mRNA translation resistant to Torin 1. The 4E-BPs inhibit translation initiation by interfering with the interaction between the cap-binding protein eIF4E and eIF4G1. Loss of this interaction diminishes the capacity of eIF4E to bind TOP and TOP-like mRNAs much more than other mRNAs, explaining why mTOR inhibition selectively suppresses their translation. Our results clarify the translational program controlled by mTORC1 and identify 4E-BPs and eIF4G1 as its master effectors.
Project description:Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that plays a central role in translational regulation of localized mRNAs during early Drosophila development. In particular, Cup is required for repressing translation of the maternally contributed oskar, nanos, and gurken mRNAs, all of which are essential for embryonic body axis determination. Here, we present the 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E-Cup assembly, consisting of the interacting regions of the two proteins. In the structure, two separate segments of Cup contact two orthogonal faces of eIF4E. The eIF4E-binding consensus motif of Cup (YXXXXLΦ) binds the convex side of eIF4E similarly to the consensus of other eIF4E-binding proteins, such as 4E-BPs and eIF4G. The second, noncanonical, eIF4E-binding site of Cup binds laterally and perpendicularly to the eIF4E β-sheet. Mutations of Cup at this binding site were shown to reduce binding to eIF4E and to promote the destabilization of the associated mRNA. Comparison with the binding mode of eIF4G to eIF4E suggests that Cup and eIF4G binding would be mutually exclusive at both binding sites. This shows how a common molecular surface of eIF4E might recognize different proteins acting at different times in the same pathway. The structure provides insight into the mechanism by which Cup disrupts eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and has broader implications for understanding the role of 4E-BPs in translational regulation.