Low level of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases adiposity and increases browning independent of inflammatory signaling in overweight Sv129 mice.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a low level of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases adiposity and increases browning in overweight mice, its dependence on inflammatory signaling and potential synergistic effects of daily exercise. Young, Sv129 male mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to make them fat and glucose intolerant and then switch them to a low-fat diet with or without 0.1% 10,12 CLA, sodium salicylate or exercise for another 7 weeks. 10,12 CLA decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue mass, and increased the messenger RNA and protein levels, and activities of enzymes associated with thermogenesis or fatty acid oxidation in WAT. Mice fed 10,12 CLA had lower body temperatures compared to controls during cold exposure, which coincided with decreased adiposity. Although sodium salicylate decreased 10,12 CLA-mediated increases in markers of inflammation in WAT, it did not affect other outcomes. Exercise had no further effect on the outcomes measured. Collectively, these data indicate that 10,12 CLA-mediated reduction of adiposity is independent of inflammatory signaling, and possibly due to up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and heat production in order to regulate body temperature. Although this low level of 10,12 CLA reduced adiposity in overweight mice, hepatomegaly and inflammation are major health concerns.
Project description:The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism by which conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat. Young male mice were fed three combinations of fatty acids at three doses (0.06%, 0.2%, and 0.6%, w/w) incorporated into AIN76 diets for 7 weeks. The types of fatty acids were linoleic acid (control), an equal mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA plus linoleic acid, and an equal isomer mixture of 10,12 plus cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA. Mice receiving the 0.2% and 0.6% dose of 10,12 CLA plus linoleic acid or the CLA isomer mixture had decreased white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and increased incorporation of CLA isomers in epididymal WAT and liver. Notably, in mice receiving 0.2% of both CLA treatments, the mRNA levels of genes associated with browning, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), UCP1 protein levels, and cytochrome c oxidase activity, were increased in epididymal WAT. CLA-induced browning in WAT was accompanied by increases in mRNA levels of markers of inflammation. Muscle cytochrome c oxidase activity and BAT UCP1 protein levels were not affected by CLA treatment. These data suggest a linkage between decreased adiposity, browning in WAT, and low-grade inflammation due to consumption of 10,12 CLA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE:We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. METHODS:Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. RESULTS:By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter promoting a healthier form of weight loss.
Project description:The trans 10, cis 12-conjugated linoleic acid (10,12-CLA) isomer reduces adiposity in several animal models. In the mouse, however, this effect is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, 10,12-CLA was recently shown to promote mammary ductal hyperplasia and ErbB2/Her2-driven mammary cancer in the mouse. Reasons for detrimental effects of 10,12-CLA on the mouse mammary gland could relate to its effect on the mammary fat pad (MFP), which is essential for normal development. Accordingly, we hypothesized that mammary effects of 10,12-CLA were mediated through the MFP in a dose-dependent manner. Female FVB mice were fed 10,12-CLA at doses of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% of the diet from day 24 of age, and effects on mammary development and metabolism were measured on day 49. The 0.5% dose reduced ductal elongation and caused premature alveolar budding. These effects were associated with increased expression of inflammatory markers and genes shown to alter epithelial growth (IGF binding protein-5) and alveolar budding (TNF-? and receptor of activated NF-?B ligand). The 0.5% dose also caused hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In contrast, the 0.1% 10,12-CLA dose had no adverse effects on mammary development, metabolic events, and inflammatory responses, but remained effective in decreasing adipose weights and lipogenic gene expression. These results show that a low dose of 10,12-CLA reduces adiposity in the mouse without negative effects on mammary development, inflammation, and metabolism, and suggest that previously reported detrimental effects relate to the use of excessive doses.
Project description:The dietary fatty acid 10,12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation, but its effects on atherosclerosis are less clear. We recently showed that weight loss induced by 10,12 CLA in an atherosclerosis-susceptible mouse model with characteristics similar to human metabolic syndrome is accompanied by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages within subcutaneous adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss was associated with an atheroprotective phenotype. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice were made obese with 12 weeks of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet feeding (HFHS: 36% fat, 36% sucrose, 0.15% added cholesterol), then either continued on the HFHS diet with or without caloric restriction (CR), or switched to a diet with 1% of the lard replaced by either 9,11 CLA or 10,12 CLA for 8 weeks. Atherosclerosis and lipid levels were quantified at sacrifice. Weight loss in mice following 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR as a weight-matched control group had improved cholesterol and triglyceride levels, yet only the 10,12 CLA-treated mice had improved en face and aortic sinus atherosclerosis. 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice had increased lesion macrophage content, with enrichment of surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) alternative macrophages, which may contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic effect of 10,12 CLA.
Project description:Behavioral therapies aimed at reducing excess body fat result in limited fat loss after dieting. To understand the causes for maintenance of adiposity, high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were switched to a low-fat chow diet, and the effects of chow on histological and molecular alterations of adipose tissue and metabolic parameters were examined. DIO mice reduced and stabilized their body weights after being switched to chow (HF-chow), but retained a greater amount of adiposity than chow-fed mice. Reduction in adipocyte volume, not number, caused a decrease in fat mass. HF-chow mice showed normalized circulating insulin and leptin levels, improved glucose tolerance, and reduced inflammatory status in white adipose tissue (WAT). Circulating leptin levels corrected for fat mass were lower in HF-chow mice. Leptin administration was used to test whether reduced leptin level of HF-chow mice inhibited further fat loss. Leptin treatment led to an additional reduction in adiposity. Finally, HF-HF mice had lower mRNA levels of beta(3) adrenergic receptor (beta(3)-AR) in epididymal WAT (EWAT) compared to chow-fed mice, and diet change led to an increase in the WAT beta(3)-AR mRNA levels that were similar to the levels of chow-fed mice, suggesting an elevation in sympathetic activation of WAT during diet switch relative to HF-HF mice leading to the reduced leptin level and proinflammatory cytokine content. In summary, HF-chow mice were resistant to further fat loss due to leptin insufficiency. Diet alteration from HF to low fat improved metabolic state of DIO mice, although their adiposity was defended at a higher level.
Project description:Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors known for their role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Though highly expressed in fat, the role of LXR in this tissue is not well characterized. We generated adipose tissue LXR? knockout (ATaKO) mice and showed that these mice gain more weight and fat mass on a high-fat diet compared with wild-type controls. White adipose tissue (WAT) accretion in ATaKO mice results from both a decrease in WAT lipolytic and oxidative capacities. This was demonstrated by decreased expression of the ?2- and ?3-adrenergic receptors, reduced level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase, and lower oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) in WAT of ATaKO mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in vivo and in vitro led to decreased adipocyte size in WAT and increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes, respectively, with a concomitant increase in OCR in both models. Our findings show that absence of LXR? in adipose tissue results in elevated adiposity through a decrease in WAT oxidation, secondary to attenuated FA availability.
Project description:To understand the contribution of adipose tissue fatty acid oxidation to whole-body metabolism, we generated mice with an adipose-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2(A-/-)), an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation. CPT2(A-/-) mice became hypothermic after an acute cold challenge, and CPT2(A-/-) brown adipose tissue (BAT) failed to upregulate thermogenic genes in response to agonist-induced stimulation. The adipose-specific loss of CPT2 resulted in diet-dependent changes in adiposity but did not result in changes in body weight on low- or high-fat diets. Additionally, CPT2(A-/-) mice had suppressed high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT); however, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was not improved. These data show that fatty acid oxidation is required for cold-induced thermogenesis in BAT and high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in WAT.
Project description:Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA isomers to modulate these pathways was explored in Wistar rats fed for 4 weeks with a lard-based high-fat diet (L) or with control diet (CD), and, within each dietary treatment, two subgroups were daily administered with 9,11-CLA or 10,12-CLA (30 mg/day). The 9,11-CLA, but not 10,12-CLA, supplementation to CD rats improves the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, mitochondrial functions, and Nrf2 activity. Histological examination reveals a reduction of steatosis in L-fed rats supplemented with both CLA isomers, but 9,11-CLA downregulated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory markers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress markers in liver more efficiently than in 10,12-CLA treatment. The present study demonstrates the higher protective effect of 9,11-CLA against diet-induced pro-oxidant and proinflammatory signs and suggests that these effects are determined, at least in part, by its ability to activate the Nrf2 pathway and to improve the mitochondrial functioning and biogenesis.
Project description:Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL) or normal litters of 7 pups (NL) and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD) from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression. On HFD, adult SL mice had greater inguinal fat mass compared to NL mice, however both groups showed similar increases in visceral fat depots and adipocyte hypertrophy. Despite the similar levels of visceral adiposity, SL-HFD mice displayed greater impairments in glucose homeostasis and more pronounced hepatic steatosis compared to NL-HFD mice. In addition, WAT from SL mice fed a HFD displayed greater crown-like structure formation, increased M1 macrophages, and higher cytokine gene expression. Together, these data suggest that early postnatal overnutrition may be a critical determinant of fatty liver and insulin resistance in obese adults by programming the inflammatory capacity of adipose tissue.
Project description:Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity; it also improves adipocyte metabolism and reduces adipose tissue inflammation through poorly defined mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein whose insulin-sensitizing properties are predominantly mediated via receptor signaling in adipose tissue (AT). Recently, FGF21 has also been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, an association between exercise and increased circulating FGF21 levels has been reported in some, but not all studies. Thus, the role that FGF21 plays in mediating the positive metabolic effects of exercise in AT are unclear. In this study, FGF21-knockout (KO) mice were used to directly assess the role of FGF21 in mediating the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise on white AT (WAT) and brown AT (BAT). Male FGF21KO and wild-type mice were provided running wheels or remained sedentary for 8 weeks (n?=?9-15/group) and compared for adiposity, insulin sensitivity (i.e., HOMA-IR, Adipo-IR) and AT inflammation and metabolic function (e.g., mitochondrial enzyme activity, subunit content). Adiposity and Adipo-IR were increased in FGF21KO mice and decreased by EX. The BAT of FGF21KO animals had reduced mitochondrial content and decreased relative mass, both normalized by EX. WAT and BAT inflammation was elevated in FGF21KO mice, reduced in both genotypes by EX. EX increased WAT Pgc1alpha gene expression, citrate synthase activity, COX I content and total AMPK content in WT but not FGF21KO mice. Collectively, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated anti-inflammatory role for FGF21 in WAT and BAT, but do not support that FGF21 is necessary for EX-mediated anti-inflammatory effects.