What Is the Origin of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398 Isolates from Humans without Livestock Contact? An Epidemiological and Genetic Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Fifteen percent of all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) human carriers detected in The Netherlands had not been in direct contact with pigs or veal calves. To ensure low MRSA prevalence, it is important to investigate the likely origin of this MRSA of unknown origin (MUO). Recently, it was shown that CC398 strains originating from humans and animals differ in the presence of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs). We hypothesized that determining these specific MGEs in MUO isolates and comparing them with a set of CC398 isolates of various known origin might provide clues to their origin. MUO CC398 isolates were compared to MRSA CC398 isolates obtained from humans with known risk factors, a MRSA CC398 outbreak isolate, livestock associated (LA) MRSA CC398 isolates from pigs, horses, chickens, and veal calves, and five methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) CC398 isolates of known human origin. All strains were spa typed, and the presence or absence of, scn, chp, ?3 int, ?6 int, ?7 int, rep7, rep27, and cadDX was determined by PCRs. The MRSA CC398 in humans, MUO, or MRSA of known origin (MKO) resembled MRSA CC398 as found in pigs and not MSSA CC398 as found in humans. The distinct human MSSA CC398 spa type, t571, was not present among our MRSA CC398 strains; MRSA CC398 was tetracycline resistant and carried no ?3 bacteriophage with scn and chp. We showed by simple PCR means that human MUO CC398 carriers carried MRSA from livestock origin, suggestive of indirect transmission. Although the exact transmission route remains unknown, direct human-to-human transmission remains a possibility as well.
Project description:Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA) clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA) is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarrays (Identibac S. aureus Genotyping ®, Alere), CC398-specific sequence PCR, ermT (encoding macrolides résistance) PCR. Fifty-three CC398 LA-MRSA collected from French pigs and veal were used as comparators, and phylogenetic relations between human CC398 MSSA and animal CC398 MRSA populations were explored on the basis of spa-typing and DNA microarrays. CC398 MSSA were able to induce a large spectrum of infections (especially skin, bloodstream, and pneumonias). The prevalence rate of this clone was high in MSSA population, i.e., 24.7% in a local prospective study on nasal colonization, and 7.5% in a national prospective study on infective endocarditis. CC398 MSSA isolates were frequently (89%) erythromycin resistant, due to the presence of the ermT gene, a gene not detected in erythromycin resistant CC398 LA-MRSA strains. Expression of staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein (chp), was also specific to this population. The CC398 MRSA signature included also a panel of antibiotic resistance genes, especially a type IV or V cassette mec and tetM. CC398 MSSA and CC398 LA-MRSA populations were closely related based on spa-typing and DNA microarrays, with the MRSA strains forming the most derived lineage in phylogenic trees. Both MSSA and MRSA populations may come from common ancestors, which would have evolved in the settings of different selective pressures, explaining the acquisition of ermT, chp and scn for MSSA, and antibiotic resistance genes for MRSA.
Project description:A large collection of Staphylococcus aureus including a. 745 clinically significant isolates that were consecutively recovered from human infections during 2012-2013, b. 19 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), randomly selected between 2006-2011 from our Staphylococcal Collection, c. 16 human colonizing isolates, and d. 10 strains from colonized animals was investigated for the presence and the molecular characteristics of CC398. The study was conducted in Thessaly, a rural region in Greece. The differentiation of livestock-associated clade from the human clade was based on canSNPs combined with the presence of the ?3 bacteriophage and the tetM, scn, sak, and chp genes. Among the 745 isolates, two MRSA (0.8% of total MRSA) and thirteen MSSA (2.65% of total MSSA) were found to belong to CC398, while, between MSSA of our Staphylococcal Collection, one CC398, isolated in 2010, was detected. One human individual, without prior contact with animals, was found to be colonized by a MSSA CC398. No CC398 was identified among the 10 S. aureus isolated from animals. Based on the molecular markers, the 17 CC398 strains were equally placed in the livestock-associated and in the human clades. This is the first report for the dissemination of S. aureus CC398 among humans in Greece.
Project description:MRSA CC398 is an emerging MRSA strain found in livestock, mainly in pigs. Direct occupational livestock contact is the principal risk factor for human MRSA CC398 infection. Nonetheless, in recent years, an increasing number of MRSA CC398 cases has been observed in persons without known pig contact. Such cases, referred to as MRSA CC398 of unknown origin (MUO CC398), have, like livestock-onset (LO) MRSA CC398 cases, been found concentrated in rural, livestock-producing areas. The presence of MUO CC398 cases indicates alternative and unknown MRSA CC398 transmission pathways into the community. We performed a nationwide study in Denmark of the geographic distributions of MRSA cases in general and persons with MUO CC398 or LO MRSA CC398 infections (1 January 2006-11 February 2015), with the Danish population as background population. Place of living of study persons was mapped using the ArcGIS software, and information on pig farms was retrieved from the Central Husbandry Register. The incidence of MUO CC398 infections was clearly higher in rural than in urban areas, and such cases lived on average closer to pig farms than the general population. However, within three pig-farming-dense municipalities, patients with MUO CC398 infections did not live closer to pig farms than population controls. This shows that direct environmental spread from neighbouring pig farms of MRSA CC398 is unlikely. Instead, community spread through other means of transmission than direct spread from farms may more likely explain the clustering of MUO CC398 in livestock-dense areas.
Project description:Clonal complex (CC) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) are associated with carriage and infection among animals and humans but only a single case of CC398 MRSA has been reported in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). The present study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CC398 MRSA (n = 22) and MSSA (n = 10) from animals and humans in the ROI from 2010-2014. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarray profiling and PCR for CC398-associated resistance genes. All MRSA underwent SCCmec IV or V subtyping. Four distinct CC398-MRSA incidents were identified from (i) a man in a nursing home (spa type t011-SCCmec IVa, immune evasion complex (IEC) negative), (ii) a horse and veterinarian who had recently travelled to Belgium (t011-IVa, IEC positive), (iii) pigs (n = 9) and farm workers (n = 9) on two farms, one which had been restocked with German gilts and the other which was a finisher farm (t034-VT, IEC negative, 3/9 pigs; t011-VT, IEC negative, 6/9 pigs & 9/9 farm workers), and (iv) a child who had worked on a pig farm in the UK (t034-VT, IEC negative). Isolates also carried different combinations of multiple resistance genes including erm(A), erm(B), tet(K), tet(M) & tet(L), fexA, spc, dfrG, dfrK aacA-aphD and aadD further highlighting the presence of multiple CC398-MRSA strains. CC398 MSSA were recovered from pigs (n = 8) and humans (n = 2). CC398 MSSA transmission was identified among pigs but zoonotic transmission was not detected with animal and human isolates exhibiting clade-specific traits. This study highlights the importation and zoonotic spread of CC398 MRSA in the ROI and the spread of CC398 MSSA among pigs. Increased surveillance is warranted to prevent further CC398 MRSA importation and spread in a country that was considered CC398 MRSA free.
Project description:In this conceptual review, we thoroughly searched for appropriate English articles on nasal staphylococci carriage among healthy people with no reported risk of colonization (Group A), food handlers (Group B), veterinarians (Group C), and livestock farmers (Group D) published between 2000 and 2021. Random-effects analyses of proportions were performed to determine the pooled prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i>, MRSA, MRSA-CC398, and MSSA-CC398, as well as the prevalence of PVL-positive <i>S. aureus</i> from all eligible studies. A total of 166 eligible papers were evaluated for Groups A/B/C/D (n = 58/31/26/51). The pooled prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i> and MRSA in healthy humans of Groups A to D were 15.9, 7.8, 34.9, and 27.1%, and 0.8, 0.9, 8.6, and 13.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of MRSA-CC398 nasal carriage among healthy humans was as follows: Group A/B (<0.05%), Group C (1.4%), Group D (5.4%); and the following among Group D: pig farmers (8.4%) and dairy farmers (4.7%). The pooled prevalence of CC398 lineage among the MSSA and MRSA isolates from studies of the four groups were Group A (2.9 and 6.9%), B (1.5 and 0.0%), C (47.6% in MRSA), and D (11.5 and 58.8%). Moreover, MSSA-CC398 isolates of Groups A and B were mostly of <i>spa-</i>t571 (animal-independent clade), while those of Groups C and D were <i>spa</i>-t011 and t034. The MRSA-CC398 was predominately of t011 and t034 in all the groups (with few other <i>spa-</i>types, livestock-associated clades). The pooled prevalence of MSSA and MRSA isolates carrying the PVL encoding genes were 11.5 and 9.6% (ranges: 0.0-76.9 and 0.0-28.6%), respectively. Moreover, one PVL-positive MSSA-t011-CC398 isolate was detected in Group A. Contact with livestock and veterinary practice seems to increase the risk of carrying MRSA-CC398, but not in food handlers. Thus, this emphasizes the need for integrated molecular epidemiology of zoonotic staphylococci.
Project description:Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge on the frequency and genetic diversity of S. aureus in horses, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Nasal swabs were collected from 401 horses originating from 74 farms, either at their farms or prior to admission to veterinary clinics. Following culture on selective media, species identification by MALDI-TOF MS and MRSA confirmation by standard PCR-based methods, S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 54 (13%) and 17 (4%) horses originating from 30 (40%) and 7 (9%) farms, respectively. Based on spa typing, MSSA differed genetically from MRSA isolates. The spa type prevalent among MSSA isolates was t127 (CC1), which was detected in 12 horses from 11 farms and represents the most common S. aureus clone isolated from human bacteremia cases in Denmark. Among the 17 MRSA carriers, 10 horses from three farms carried CC398 t011 harboring the immune evasion cluster (IEC), four horses from two farms carried IEC-negative CC398 t034, and three horses from two farms carried a mecC-positive MRSA lineage previously associated with wildlife and domestic ruminants (CC130 t528). Based on whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of the 14 MRSA CC398, t011 isolates belonged to the recently identified horse-adapted clone in Europe and were closely related to human t011 isolates from three Danish equine veterinarians, whereas t034 isolates belonged to pig-adapted clones. Our study confirms that horses carry an equine-specific clone of MRSA CC398 that can be transmitted to veterinary personnel, and reveals that these animals are exposed to MRSA and MSSA clones that are likely to originate from livestock and humans, respectively.
Project description:We recently reported a phenotypic association between reduced susceptibility to zinc and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates from Danish swine (F. M. Aarestrup, L. M. Cavaco, and H. Hasman, Vet. Microbiol. 142:455-457, 2009). The aim of this study was to identify the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene was identified in strain 171 and cloned in S. aureus RN4220. Furthermore, 81 MRSA and 48 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, isolated from pigs (31 and 28) and from humans (50 and 20) in Denmark, were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and for the presence of a putative resistance determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czrC is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus.
Project description:The possible spillover from pigs into other production animals incites concern for unresolved reservoirs of human exposure. The present investigation was therefore initiated, to elucidate if Danish veal and dairy farms constitute a reservoir of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) CC398 and to potentially identify the source of introduction. We collected nasal swab samples from 17 Danish veal farms, 2 slaughterhouses, and received bulk tank milk samples from 286 dairy farms. All samples were analyzed by culturing and screening on MRSA selective plates and presumed MRSA was verified by MALDI-TOF and PCR. MRSA isolates were subjected to spa typing and whole-genome sequencing. LA-MRSA was found on two veal farms in one and three calves, respectively, with subsequent follow-up samples found negative. Eight of 286 dairy farms (2.8%) were found LA-MRSA positive and follow-up samples, from five farms showed intermittent detection of LA-MRSA. The spa types, t034 and t011, were the most common while a single isolate from a dairy farm belonged to spa type t843 associated to mecC-MRSA CC130 and is the first report of mecC-MRSA in the Danish dairy production. A phylogenetic analysis showed that some of the isolates grouped within or close to the dominant Danish pig clusters, suggesting spillover into cattle farms. Other isolates clustered outside the dominant pig clusters suggesting that other routes of introduction cannot be excluded. Results of the investigation indicated a contamination of veal farms while some dairy farms seemed to be a permanent reservoir. Thus, Danish cattle represent a low prevalence reservoir of LA-MRSA CC398, which at present, is not of major human health concern.
Project description:UNLABELLED:A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone known as ST398 has emerged as a major cause of acute infections in individuals who have close contact with livestock. More recently, the emergence of an animal-independent ST398 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) clone has been documented in several countries. However, the limited surveillance of MSSA has precluded an accurate assessment of the global spread of ST398 and its clinical relevance. Here we provide evidence that ST398 is a frequent source of MSSA infections in northern Manhattan and is readily transmitted between individuals in households. This contrasts with the limited transmissibility of livestock-associated ST398 (LA-ST398) MRSA strains between humans. Our whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that the chromosome of the human-associated ST398 MSSA clone is smaller than that of the LA-ST398 MRSA reference strain S0385, due mainly to fewer mobile genetic elements (MGEs). In contrast, human ST398 MSSA isolates harbored the prophage ?3 and the human-specific immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes chp and scn. While most of the core genome was conserved between the human ST398 MSSA clone and S0385, these strains differed substantially in their repertoire and composition of intact adhesion genes. These genetic changes were associated with significantly enhanced adhesion of human ST398 MSSA isolates to human skin keratinocytes and keratin. We propose that the human ST398 MSSA clone can spread independent of animal contact using an optimized repertoire of MGEs and adhesion molecules adapted to transmission among humans. IMPORTANCE:Staphylococcus aureus strains have generally been considered to be species specific. However, cross-species transfers of S. aureus clones, such as ST398 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), from swine to humans have been reported. Recently, we observed the emergence of ST398 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as a colonizing strain of humans in northern Manhattan. Here we report that ST398 is a frequent cause of MSSA infections in this urban setting. The ST398 MSSA clone was readily transmitted within households, independent of animal contact. We discovered that human ST398 MSSA genomes were smaller than that of the LA-ST398 strain S0385 due to fewer mobile genetic elements. Human and LA-ST398 strains also differed in their composition of adhesion genes and their ability to bind to human skin keratinocytes, providing a potential mechanism of S. aureus host adaptation. Our findings illustrate the importance of implementing molecular surveillance of MSSA given the evidence for the rapid and clinically undetected spread of ST398 MSSA.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> (MRSA) is one of the important antibiotic resistant pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. The increasing observation of MRSA in wildlife species has raised the concern of its impact on animal health and the potential of zoonotic transmission. This study investigated the prevalence of <i>S. aureus</i> in fecal samples from non-human primates in a zoo located in Jiangsu, China, in which 6 out of 31 (19.4%) fecal samples, and 2 out of 14 (14.3%) indoor room floor swab samples were <i>S. aureus</i>-positive. The antibiotic susceptibility tests of the eight isolates showed that the two isolates were resistant to both penicillin and cefoxitin, the three isolates were resistant only to penicillin, while three isolates were susceptible to all detected antibiotics. The two isolates resistant to cefoxitin were further identified as MRSA by the presence of <i>mecA</i>. Five different <i>spa</i> types were identified including t034 of two MRSA isolates from <i>Trachypithecus francoisi</i>, t189 of two methicillin-susceptible <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) isolates from <i>Rhinopithecus roxellana</i>, t377 of two MSSA isolates from <i>Colobus guereza</i>, and two novel <i>spa</i> types t19488 and t19499 from <i>Papio anubis</i>. Whole genome sequencing analysis showed that MRSA t034 isolates belonged to ST398 clustered in clonal complex 398 (CC398) and carried the type B ΦSa3 prophage. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two MRSA t034/ST398 isolates were closely related to the human-associated MSSA in China. Moreover, two MRSA isolates contained the virulence genes relating to the cell adherence, biofilm formation, toxins, and the human-associated immune evasion cluster, which indicated the potential of bidirectional transfer of MRSA between monkeys and humans. This study is the first to report MRSA CC398 from monkey feces in China, indicating that MRSA CC398 could colonize in monkey and have the risk of transmission between humans and monkeys.