A putative cro-like repressor contributes to arylomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a significant public health concern and motivate efforts to develop new classes of antibiotics. One such class of antibiotics is the arylomycins, which target type I signal peptidase (SPase), the enzyme responsible for the release of secreted proteins from their N-terminal leader sequences. Despite the essentiality, conservation, and relative accessibility of SPase, the activity of the arylomycins is limited against some bacteria, including the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the origins of the limited activity against S. aureus, we characterized the susceptibility of a panel of strains to two arylomycin derivatives, arylomycin A-C16 and its more potent analog arylomycin M131. We observed a wide range of susceptibilities to the two arylomycins and found that resistant strains were sensitized by cotreatment with tunicamycin, which inhibits the first step of wall teichoic acid synthesis. To further understand how S. aureus responds to the arylomycins, we profiled the transcriptional response of S. aureus NCTC 8325 to growth-inhibitory concentrations of arylomycin M131 and found that it upregulates the cell wall stress stimulon (CWSS) and an operon consisting of a putative transcriptional regulator and three hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, we found that mutations in the putative transcriptional regulator are correlated with resistance, and selection for resistance ex vivo demonstrated that mutations in this gene are sufficient for resistance. The results begin to elucidate how S. aureus copes with secretion stress and how it evolves resistance to the inhibition of SPase.
Project description:Novel classes of broad-spectrum antibiotics are needed to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. The arylomycin class of natural products inhibits a promising antimicrobial target, type I signal peptidase (SPase), but upon initial characterization appeared to lack whole-cell activity against most pathogens. Here, we show that Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is sensitive to the arylomycins, evolves resistance via mutations in SPase and that analogous mutations are responsible for the natural resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identify diverse bacteria lacking these mutations and demonstrate that most are sensitive to the arylomycins. The results illustrate that the arylomycins have a broad-spectrum of activity and are viable candidates for development into therapeutics. The results also raise the possibility that naturally occurring resistance may have masked other natural product scaffolds that might be developed into therapeutics.
Project description:Clinically approved antibiotics inhibit only a small number of conserved pathways that are essential for bacterial viability, and the physiological effects of inhibiting these pathways have been studied in great detail. Likewise, characterizing the effects of candidate antibiotics that function via novel mechanisms of action is critical for their development, which is of increasing importance due to the ever-growing problem of resistance. The arylomycins are a novel class of natural-product antibiotics that act via the inhibition of type I signal peptidase (SPase), which is an essential enzyme that functions as part of the general secretory pathway and is not the target of any clinically deployed antibiotic. Correspondingly, little is known about the effects of SPase inhibition or how bacteria may respond to mitigate the associated secretion stress. Using genetically sensitized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms, we examine the activity of arylomycin as a function of its concentration, bacterial cell density, target expression levels, and bacterial growth phase. The results reveal that the activity of the arylomycins results from an insufficient flux of proteins through the secretion pathway and the resulting mislocalization of proteins. Interestingly, this has profoundly different effects on E. coli and S. aureus. Finally, we examine the activity of arylomycin in combination with distinct classes of antibiotics and demonstrate that SPase inhibition results in synergistic sensitivity when combined with an aminoglycoside.
Project description:At sufficient concentrations, antibiotics effectively eradicate many bacterial infections. However, during therapy, bacteria are unavoidably exposed to lower antibiotic concentrations, and sub-MIC exposure can result in a wide variety of other effects, including the induction of virulence, which can complicate therapy, or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which can accelerate the spread of resistance genes. Bacterial type I signal peptidase (SPase) is an essential protein that acts at the final step of the general secretory pathway. This pathway is required for the secretion of many proteins, including many required for virulence, and the arylomycins are a class of natural product antibiotics that target SPase. Here, we investigated the consequences of exposing Escherichia coli cultures to sub-MIC levels of an arylomycin. Using multidimensional protein identification technology mass spectrometry, we found that arylomycin treatment inhibits the proper extracytoplasmic localization of many proteins, both those that appear to be SPase substrates and several that do not. The identified proteins are involved in a broad range of extracytoplasmic processes and include a number of virulence factors. The effects of arylomycin on several processes required for virulence were then individually examined, and we found that, at even sub-MIC levels, the arylomycins potently inhibit flagellation, motility, biofilm formation, and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via HGT. Thus, we conclude that the arylomycins represent promising novel therapeutics with the potential to eradicate infections while simultaneously reducing virulence and the dissemination of resistance.
Project description:The arylomycins are a class of natural-product antibiotics that act via the inhibition of type I signal peptidase (SPase), and we have found in diverse bacteria that their activity is limited by the presence of a resistance-conferring Pro residue in SPase that reduces inhibitor binding. We have also demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis, which lacks this Pro residue, is extremely susceptible to the arylomycins. Here, to further explore the potential utility of the arylomycins, we report an analysis of the activity of a synthetic arylomycin derivative, arylomycin C??, against clinical isolates of S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from distinct geographical locations. Against many important species of CoNS, including S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, and S. hominis, we find that arylomycin C?? exhibits activity equal to or greater than that of vancomycin, the antibiotic most commonly used to treat CoNS infections. While the susceptibility was generally correlated with the absence of the previously identified Pro residue, several cases were identified where additional factors also appear to contribute.
Project description:Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of the plague. Reports of Y. pestis strains that are resistant to each of the currently approved first-line and prophylactic treatments point to the urgent need to develop novel antibiotics with activity against the pathogen. We previously reported that Y. pestis strain KIM6+, unlike most Enterobacteriaceae, is susceptible to the arylomycins, a novel class of natural-product lipopeptide antibiotics that inhibit signal peptidase I (SPase). In this study, we show that the arylomycin activity is conserved against a broad range of Y. pestis strains and confirm that it results from the inhibition of SPase. We next investigated the origins of this unique arylomycin sensitivity and found that it does not result from an increased affinity of the Y. pestis SPase for the antibiotic and that alterations to each component of the Y. pestis lipopolysaccharide-O antigen, core, and lipid A-make at most only a small contribution. Instead, the origins of the sensitivity can be traced to an increased dependence on SPase activity that results from high levels of protein secretion under physiological conditions. These results highlight the potential of targeting protein secretion in cases where there is a heavy reliance on this process and also have implications for the development of the arylomycins as an antibiotic with activity against Y. pestis and potentially other Gram-negative pathogens.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen whose virulence relies on the secretion of many different proteins. In general, the secretion of most proteins in S. aureus, as well as other bacteria, is dependent on the type I signal peptidase (SPase)-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein to the general secretory pathway. The arylomycins are a class of natural product antibiotics that inhibit SPase, suggesting that they may be useful chemical biology tools for characterizing the secretome. While wild-type S. aureus (NCTC 8325) is naturally resistant to the arylomycins, sensitivity is conferred via a point mutation in its SPase. Here, we use a synthetic arylomycin along with a sensitized strain of S. aureus and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) mass spectrometry to identify 46 proteins whose extracellular accumulation requires SPase activity. Forty-four possess identifiable Sec-type signal peptides and thus are likely canonically secreted proteins, while four also appear to possess cell wall retention signals. We also identified the soluble C-terminal domains of two transmembrane proteins, lipoteichoic acid synthase, LtaS, and O-acyteltransferase, OatA, both of which appear to have noncanonical, internal SPase cleavage sites. Lastly, we identified three proteins, HtrA, PrsA, and SAOUHSC_01761, whose secretion is induced by arylomycin treatment. In addition to elucidating fundamental aspects of the physiology and pathology of S. aureus, the data suggest that an arylomycin-based therapeutic would reduce virulence while simultaneously eradicating an infection.
Project description:New antibiotics are needed, and one source may be 'latent' antibiotics, natural products whose once broad-spectrum activity is currently limited by the evolution of resistance in nature. We have identified a potential class of latent antibiotics, the arylomycins, which are lipopeptides with a C-terminal macrocycle that target signal peptidase and whose spectrum is limited by a resistance-conferring mutation in many bacteria. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of several arylomycin derivatives, and demonstrate that both C-terminal homologation with a glycyl aldehyde and addition of a positive charge to the macrocycle increase the activity and spectrum of the arylomycin scaffold.
Project description:Type I signal peptidase (SPase) is essential for viability in wild-type bacteria because the terminal step of the bacterial general secretory pathway requires its proteolytic activity to release proteins from their membrane-bound N-terminal leader sequences after translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we identify the Staphylococcus aureus operon ayrRABC (SA0337 to SA0340) and show that once released from repression by AyrR, the protein products AyrABC together confer resistance to the SPase inhibitor arylomycin M131 by providing an alternate and novel method of releasing translocated proteins. Thus, the derepression of ayrRABC allows cells to bypass the essentiality of SPase. We demonstrate that AyrABC functionally complements SPase by mediating the processing of the normally secreted proteins, albeit in some cases with reduced efficiency and either without cleavage or via cleavage at a site N-terminal to the canonical SPase cleavage site. Thus, ayrRABC encodes a secretion stress-inducible alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway. IMPORTANCE?: Addressing proteins for proper localization within or outside a cell in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes is often accomplished with intrinsic signals which mediate membrane translocation and which ultimately must be removed. The canonical enzyme responsible for the removal of translocation signals is bacterial type I signal peptidase (SPase), which functions at the terminal step of the general secretory pathway and is thus essential in wild-type bacteria. Here, we identify a four-gene operon in S. aureus that encodes an alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway and thus makes SPase nonessential. The results have important implications for protein secretion in bacteria and potentially for protein trafficking in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in general.
Project description:Bacterial protein secretion is a highly orchestrated process that is essential for infection and virulence. Despite extensive efforts to predict or experimentally detect proteins that are secreted, the characterization of the bacterial secretome has remained challenging. A central event in protein secretion is the type I signal peptidase (SPase)-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein for secretion via the general secretory pathway, and the arylomycins are a class of natural products that inhibit SPase, suggesting that they may be useful chemical biology tools for characterizing the secretome. Here, using an arylomycin derivative, along with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identify 11 proteins whose secretion from stationary-phase Staphylococcus epidermidis is dependent on SPase activity, 9 of which are predicted to be translated with canonical N-terminal signal peptides. In addition, we find that the presence of extracellular domains of lipoteichoic acid synthase (LtaS) and the β-lactam response sensor BlaR1 in the medium is dependent on SPase activity, suggesting that they are cleaved at noncanonical sites within the protein. In all, the data define the proteins whose stationary-phase secretion depends on SPase and also suggest that the arylomycins should be valuable chemical biology tools for the study of protein secretion in a wide variety of different bacteria.
Project description:Here, we described the discovery of anti-infective agent arylomycin and its biosynthetic gene cluster in an industrial daptomycin producing strain Streptomyces roseosporus. This was accomplished via the use of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) along with peptidogenomic approach in which we have expanded to short sequence tagging (SST) described herein. Using IMS, we observed that prior to the production of daptomycin, a cluster of ions (1-3) was produced by S. roseosporus and correlated well with the decreased staphylococcal cell growth. With a further adopted SST peptidogenomics approach, which relies on the generation of sequence tags from tandem mass spectrometric data and query against genomes to identify the biosynthetic genes, we were able to identify these three molecules (1-3) to arylomycins, a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics that target type I signal peptidase. The gene cluster was then identified. This highlights the strength of IMS and MS guided genome mining approaches in effectively bridging the gap between phenotypes, chemotypes, and genotypes.