CDK1 substitutes for mTOR kinase to activate mitotic cap-dependent protein translation.
ABSTRACT: Mitosis is commonly thought to be associated with reduced cap-dependent protein translation. Here we show an alternative control mechanism for maintaining cap-dependent translation during mitosis revealed by a viral oncoprotein, Merkel cell polyomavirus small T (MCV sT). We find MCV sT to be a promiscuous E3 ligase inhibitor targeting the anaphase-promoting complex, which increases cell mitogenesis. MCV sT binds through its Large T stabilization domain region to cell division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) and, possibly, cdc20 homolog 1 (Cdh1) E3 ligase adapters. This activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 (CDK1/CYCB1) to directly hyperphosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) at authentic sites, generating a mitosis-specific, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-resistant ? phospho-isoform not present in G1-arrested cells. Recombinant 4E-BP1 inhibits capped mRNA reticulocyte translation, which is partially reversed by CDK1/CYCB1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. eIF4G binding to the eIF4E-m(7)GTP cap complex is resistant to mTOR inhibition during mitosis but sensitive during interphase. Flow cytometry, with and without sT, reveals an orthogonal pH3(S10+) mitotic cell population having higher inactive p4E-BP1(T37/T46+) saturation levels than pH3(S10-) interphase cells. Using a Click-iT flow cytometric assay to directly measure mitotic protein synthesis, we find that most new protein synthesis during mitosis is cap-dependent, a result confirmed using the eIF4E/4G inhibitor drug 4E1RCat. For most cell lines tested, cap-dependent translation levels were generally similar between mitotic and interphase cells, and the majority of new mitotic protein synthesis was cap-dependent. These findings suggest that mitotic cap-dependent translation is generally sustained during mitosis by CDK1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 even under conditions of reduced mTOR signaling.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)–binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) inhibits cap-dependent translation in eukaryotes by competing with eIF4G for an interaction with eIF4E. Phos-phorylation at Ser-83 of 4E-BP1 occurs during mitosis through the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B rather than through canonical mTOR kinase activity. Here, we investi-gated the interaction of eIF4E with 4E-BP1 or eIF4G during interphase and mitosis. We observed that 4E-BP1 and eIF4G bind eIF4E at similar levels during interphase and mitosis. The most highly phosphorylated mitotic 4E-BP1 isoform (δ) did not interact with eIF4E, whereas a distinct 4E-BP1 phospho-isoform, EB-γ—phosphorylated at Thr-70, Ser-83, and Ser-101—bound to eIF4E during mitosis. Two-dimensional gel electropho-retic analysis corroborated the identity of the phosphorylation marks on the eIF4E-bound 4E-BP1 isoforms and uncovered a population of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 molecules lacking Thr-37/Thr-46–priming phosphorylation. Moreover, proximity ligation assays for phospho–4E-BP1 and eIF4E revealed different in situ interactions during interphase and mitosis. The eIF4E:eIF4G interaction was not inhibited, but rather increased in mitotic cells, consistent with active translation initiation during mitosis. Phospho-defective substitution of 4E-BP1 at Ser-83 did not change global translation or individual mRNA translation profiles as measured by single-cell nascent protein synthesis and eIF4G RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing. Mitotic 5’-terminal oligopyrimidine RNA translation was active and, unlike interphase translation, resistant to mTOR inhibition. Our findings reveal the phosphorylation profiles of 4E-BP1 isoforms and their interactions with eIF4E throughout the cell cycle and indicate that 4E-BP1 does not specifically inhibit translation initiation during mitosis. Overall design: 1) eIF4G RIP-seq in HeLa cells. 4 groups of samples (M_CtrL, M_PP242, PM_CtrL, PM_PP242) were included. Each group contains Input and IP. 2) eIF4G RIP-seq in mitosis-enriched 4E-BP1WT and 4E-BP1S83A cells. 2 groups of samples (WT, S83A) were included. Each group contains Input and IP. Three independent biological experiments were performed.
Project description:Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is the recently discovered cause of most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), an aggressive form of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Although MCV is known to integrate into the tumor cell genome and to undergo mutation, the molecular mechanisms used by this virus to cause cancer are unknown. Here, we show that MCV small T (sT) antigen is expressed in most MCC tumors, where it is required for tumor cell growth. Unlike the closely related SV40 sT, MCV sT transformed rodent fibroblasts to anchorage- and contact-independent growth and promoted serum-free proliferation of human cells. These effects did not involve protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition. MCV sT was found to act downstream in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway to preserve eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) hyperphosphorylation, resulting in dysregulated cap-dependent translation. MCV sT-associated 4E-BP1 serine 65 hyperphosphorylation was resistant to mTOR complex (mTORC1) and mTORC2 inhibitors. Steady-state phosphorylation of other downstream Akt-mTOR targets, including S6K and 4E-BP2, was also increased by MCV sT. Expression of a constitutively active 4E-BP1 that could not be phosphorylated antagonized the cell transformation activity of MCV sT. Taken together, these experiments showed that 4E-BP1 inhibition is required for MCV transformation. Thus, MCV sT is an oncoprotein, and its effects on dysregulated cap-dependent translation have clinical implications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of MCV-related cancers.
Project description:The essential function of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in translation initiation has been well established; however, the role of 4E-BP1 in normal cell cycle progression is coming to attention. Here, we revealed the role of 4E-BP1 on mitotic regulation and chromosomal DNA dynamics during mitosis. First, we have observed the co-localization of the phosphorylated 4E-BP1 at T37/46 with Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) at the centrosomes during. Depression of 4E-BP1 by small interfering RNA in HepG2 or HeLa cells resulted in an increased outcome of polyploidy and aberrant mitosis, including chromosomal DNA misaligned and multi-polar spindles or multiple centrosomes. We observed that 4E-BP1 interacted with PLK1 directly in vitro and in vivo in mitotic cells, and the C-terminal aa 77-118 of 4E-BP1 mediates its interaction with PLK1. PLK1 can phosphorylate 4E-BP1 in vitro. Furthermore, the depletion of 4E-BP1 sensitized HepG2 and HeLa cells to the microtubule disruption agent paclitaxel. These results demonstrate that 4E-BP1, beyond its role in translation regulation, can function as a regulator of mitosis via interacting with PLK1, and possibly plays a role in genomic stability maintaining.
Project description:Translational control of gene expression plays a key role in many biological processes. Consequently, the activity of the translation apparatus is under tight homeostatic control. eIF4E, the mRNA 5' cap-binding protein, facilitates cap-dependent translation and is a major target for translational control. eIF4E activity is controlled by a family of repressor proteins, termed 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Here, we describe the surprising finding that despite the importance of eIF4E for translation, a drastic knockdown of eIF4E caused only minor reduction in translation. This conundrum can be explained by the finding that 4E-BP1 is degraded in eIF4E-knockdown cells. Hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1, which binds to eIF4E, is degraded, whereas hyperphosphorylated 4E-BP1 is refractory to degradation. We identified the KLHL25-CUL3 complex as the E3 ubiquitin ligase, which targets hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1. Thus, the activity of eIF4E is under homeostatic control via the regulation of the levels of its repressor protein 4E-BP1 through ubiquitination.
Project description:4E-BP1 is a protein that, in its hypophosphorylated state, binds the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E and represses cap-dependent mRNA translation. By doing so, it plays a major role in the regulation of gene expression by controlling the overall rate of mRNA translation as well as the selection of mRNAs for translation. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 causes it to release eIF4E to function in mRNA translation. 4E-BP1 is also subject to covalent addition of N-acetylglucosamine to Ser or Thr residues (O-GlcNAcylation) as well as to truncation. In the truncated form, it is both resistant to phosphorylation and able to bind eIF4E with high affinity. In the present study, Ins2(Akita/+) diabetic mice were used to test the hypothesis that hyperglycemia and elevated flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway lead to increased O-GlcNAcylation and truncation of 4E-BP1 and consequently decreased eIF4E function in the liver. The amounts of both full-length and truncated 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E were significantly elevated in the liver of diabetic as compared with non-diabetic mice. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation of both the full-length and truncated proteins was elevated by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively. Phlorizin treatment of diabetic mice lowered blood glucose concentrations and reduced the expression and O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1. Additionally, when livers were perfused in the absence of insulin, 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in the livers of diabetic mice was normalized to the control value, yet O-GlcNAcylation and the association of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E remained elevated in the liver of diabetic mice. These findings provide insight into the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes.
Project description:The eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) interacts with the cap-binding protein eIF4E through a consensus binding motif, Y(X)4L? (where X is any amino acid and ? is a hydrophobic residue). 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs), which also contain a Y(X)4L? motif, regulate the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction. The non- or minimally-phosphorylated form of 4E-BP1 binds eIF4E, preventing eIF4E from interacting with eIF4G, thus inhibiting translation initiation. 4EGI-1, a small molecule inhibitor of the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction that is under investigation as a novel anti-cancer drug, has a dual activity; it disrupts the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and stabilizes the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E. Here, we report the complete backbone NMR resonance assignment of an unliganded 4E-BP1 fragment (4E-BP144-87). We also report the near complete backbone assignment of the same fragment in complex to eIF4E/m7GTP (excluding the assignment of the last C-terminus residue, D87). The chemical shift data constitute a prerequisite to understanding the mechanism of action of translation initiation inhibitors, including 4EGI-1, that modulate the eIF4E/4E-BP1 interaction.
Project description:eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), is critical for cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. This study is the first to demonstrate that 4E-BP1 expression correlates with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Compared to its expression in normal colon epithelial cells, 4E-BP1 was upregulated in CRC cell lines and was detected in patient tumor tissues. Furthermore, high 4E-BP1 expression was statistically associated with poor prognosis. Hypoxia has been considered as an obstacle for cancer therapeutics. Our previous data showed that YXM110, a cryptopleurine derivative, exhibited anticancer activity via 4E-BP1 depletion. Here, we investigated whether YXM110 could inhibit protein synthesis under hypoxia. 4E-BP1 expression was notably decreased by YXM110 under hypoxic conditions, implying that cap-independent translation could be suppressed by YXM110. Moreover, YXM110 repressed hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression, which resulted in decreased downstream vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. These observations highlight 4E-BP1 as a useful biomarker and therapeutic target, indicating that YXM110 could be a potent CRC therapeutic drug.
Project description:A core component in the cellular response to radiation occurs at the level of translational control of gene expression. Because a critical element in translation control is the availability of the initiation factor eIF4E, which selectively enhances the cap-dependent translation of mRNAs, we investigated a regulatory role for eIF4E in cellular radiosensitivity. eIF4E silencing enhanced the radiosensitivity of tumor cell lines but not normal cells. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of eIF4E with ribavirin also enhanced tumor cell radiosensitivity. eIF4E attenuation did not affect cell-cycle phase distribution or radiation-induced apoptosis, but it delayed the dispersion of radiation-induced ?H2AX foci and increased the frequency of radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe. Radiation did not affect 4E-BP1 phosphorylation or cap-complex formation but it increased eIF4E binding to more than 1,000 unique transcripts including many implicated in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Taken together, our findings suggest that eIF4E represents a logical therapeutic target to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity.
Project description:Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) is a translational repressor that is characterized by its capacity to bind specifically to eIF4E and inhibit its interaction with eIF4G. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 regulates eIF4E availability, and therefore, cap-dependent translation, in cell stress. This study reports a physiological study of 4E-BP1 regulation by phosphorylation using control conditions and a stress-induced translational repression condition, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) stress, in brain tissue. In control conditions, 4E-BP1 was found in four phosphorylation states that were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, which corresponded to Thr(69)-phosphorylated alone, Thr(69)- and Thr(36)/Thr(45)-phosphorylated, all these plus Ser(64) phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of the sites analyzed. In control or IR conditions, no Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation alone was detected without Thr(69) phosphorylation, and neither was Ser(64) phosphorylation without Thr(36)/Thr(45)/Thr(69) phosphorylation detected. Ischemic stress induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation at Thr(69), Thr(36)/Thr(45), and Ser(64) residues, with 4E-BP1 remaining phosphorylated at Thr(69) alone or dephosphorylated. In the subsequent reperfusion, 4E-BP1 phosphorylation was induced at Thr(36)/Thr(45) and Ser(64), in addition to Thr(69). Changes in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation after IR were according to those found for Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinases. These results demonstrate a new hierarchical phosphorylation for 4E-BP1 regulation in which Thr(69) is phosphorylated first followed by Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation, and Ser(64) is phosphorylated last. Thr(69) phosphorylation alone allows binding to eIF4E, and subsequent Thr(36)/Thr(45) phosphorylation was sufficient to dissociate 4E-BP1 from eIF4E, which led to eIF4E-4G interaction. These data help to elucidate the physiological role of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in controlling protein synthesis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The translational repressor 4E-BP1 interacts with the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E and thereby promotes cap-independent translation of mRNAs encoding proteins that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Interaction of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E is enhanced in the retina of diabetic rodents, at least in part, as a result of elevated 4E-BP1 protein expression. In the present study, we examined the role of 4E-BP1 in diabetes-induced visual dysfunction, as well as the mechanism whereby hyperglycemia promotes 4E-BP1 expression.<h4>Methods</h4>Nondiabetic and diabetic wild-type and 4E-BP1/2 knockout mice were evaluated for visual function using a virtual optomotor test (Optomotry). Retinas were harvested from nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic mice and analyzed for protein abundance and posttranslational modifications. Similar analyses were performed on cells in culture exposed to hyperglycemic conditions or an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor (Thiamet G [TMG]).<h4>Results</h4>Diabetes-induced visual dysfunction was delayed in mice deficient of 4E-BP1/2 as compared to controls. 4E-BP1 protein expression was enhanced by hyperglycemia in the retina of diabetic rodents and by hyperglycemic conditions in retinal cells in culture. A similar elevation in 4E-BP1 expression was observed with TMG. The rate of 4E-BP1 degradation was significantly prolonged by either hyperglycemic conditions or TMG. A PEST motif in the C-terminus of 4E-BP1 regulated polyubiquitination, turnover, and binding of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing CUL3.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings support a model whereby elevated 4E-BP1 expression observed in the retina of diabetic rodents is the result of O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1 within its PEST motif.