ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause several different leukemia-like proliferative diseases in the hemopoietic system of chickens. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles and miRNA expression profiles of ALV-J-infected and uninfected chicken spleens to identify the genes and miRNAs related to ALV-J invasion. In total, 252 genes and 167 miRNAs were differentially expressed in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to control uninfected spleens. miR-23b expression was up-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared with the control spleens, and transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was down-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF1 was a direct target of miR-23b. miR-23b overexpression significantly (P = 0.0022) decreased IRF1 mRNA levels and repressed IRF1-3'-UTR reporter activity. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-23b overexpression strengthened ALV-J replication, whereas miR-23b loss of function inhibited ALV-J replication. IRF1 overexpression inhibited ALV-J replication, and IRF1 knockdown enhanced ALV-J replication. Moreover, IRF1 overexpression significantly (P = 0.0014) increased IFN-β expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-23b may play an important role in ALV-J replication by targeting IRF1.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed genes between ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-)chickens spleens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: 140-day-old female chickens of White Recessive Rock (WRR) were confirmed as J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Total RNA from three ALV-J-infected spleens (designated: WRR1+, WRR2+, WRR3+) and three uninfected normal spleen samples (designated: WRR1-, WRR2-, WRR3-) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction (Invitrogen, CA, USA). RNA samples of three individuals within each group were pooled with equal amounts, and then were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Results: Through raw data processed, 49,979,648 and 43,704,401 clean reads with an average length of 101 bp, which represented total residues of 4,859,084,087 and 4,238,826,168 bp, were obtained for WRR- and WRR+ libraries, respectively. Subsequently, the clean reads in the two libraries were assembled. Altogether, 121,493 contigs were assembled with an average length of 927 bp (ranged from 300 bp to 23,402 bp), leading to generation of 82,829 unigenes. The length of unigenes varied from 351 bp to 28,928 bp, with an average length of 1,155 bp. Based on the FPKM value of each gene, 252 DEGs were identified by DEGseq package using Benjamini-q-value of 0.05 as a cut-off. In ALV-J infected spleens, 90 genes showed up-regulated and 162 showed down-regulated expression when compared to uninfected samples. Conclusions: Our study represents the first time to elucidate the ALV-J infected chickens’spleens at the transcription level by RNA-seq technology. A total of 252 genes were found to be differentially expressed in ALV-J infected spleens when compared to uninfected chickens. These genes can be considered as candidates for further study ALV-J invasion. Spleen mRNA profiles of 140-day-old ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-) female chickens of White Recessive Rock were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression in infected chickens. Macrophages play a central role in host defense against invading pathogens. In this study, we discovered an interesting phenomenon: ALV-J replication is weakened from 3 hours post-infection (hpi) to 36 hpi, which was verified using Western blotting and RT-PCR. To further investigate the interaction between ALV-J and macrophages, transcriptome analysis was performed to analyze the host genes' function in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Compared to the uninfected control, 624 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEG) and 341 down-regulated DEG at 3 hpi, and 174 up-regulated DEG and 87 down-regulated DEG at 36 hpi were identified in chicken MDM, respectively. ALV-J infection induced strong innate immune responses in chicken MDM at 3 hpi, instead of 36 hpi, according to the analysis results of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway. Importantly, the host factors, such as up-regulated MIP-3?, IL-1?, iNOS, K60, IRG1, CH25H, NFKBIZ, lysozyme and OASL were involved in the host defense response during the course of ALV-J infection. On the contrary, up-regulated EX-FABP, IL4I1, COX-2, NFKBIA, TNFAIP3 and the Jak STAT pathway inhibitors including CISH, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are beneficial to ALV-J survival in chicken macrophages. We speculated that ALV-J tropism for macrophages helps to establish a latent infection in chicken MDM from 6 to 36 hpi. The present study provides a comprehensive view of the interactions between macrophages and ALV-J. It suggests the mechanisms of defense of chicken macrophages against ALV-J invasion and how ALV-J escape the host innate immune responses.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is detrimental to poultry health and causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance. Because tumorigenesis is a complex mechanism, the regulatory architecture of the immune system is likely to include the added dimensions of modulation by miRNAs and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA). To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) layer chickens were infected with ALV-J or maintained as non-injected controls. Spleen samples were collected at 40 days post injection (dpi), and sequenced. There were 864 genes, 7 miRNAs and 17 lncRNAs differentially expressed between infected and non-infected birds. The combined analysis of the 4 RNA expression datasets revealed that ALV infection is detected by pattern-recognition receptors (TLR9 and TLR3) leading to a type-I IFN mediated innate immune response that is modulated by IRF7 and IRF1. Co-expression network analysis of mRNA with miRNA, lncRNA and virus genes identified key elements within the complex networks utilized during ALV response. The integration of information from the host transcriptomic, epigenetic and virus response also has the potential to provide deeper insights into other host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.
Project description:Gross lesions characterized by swollen livers and spleens accompanied by diffuse white miliary spots, which resembled those of Marek's disease, were detected in two flocks of local meat-type chickens at a Japanese poultry processing plant in June and August 2010. The microscopic examinations revealed proliferative foci consisting of spindle or polymorphic cells in the interstitium of livers, splenic follicles and the interstitium of kidneys. These cells were positive immunohistochemically with Iba1 antibody, indicating they were histiocytic cells. Some of them contained antigens of avian leukosis virus (ALV) by immunohistochemistry,and the env gene of ALV subgroup J was detected from the spleens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product indicated that the env gene might be descended from the American ADOL-7501 strain of ALV-J. These results suggest that the swollen livers and spleens of the meat-type chickens may come from histiocytic proliferation caused by ALV-J infection.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs between ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM in chickens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: Total RNA from two ALV-J-infected MDM (designated: J3h_1, J3h_2, J36h_1 and J36h_2) and two uninfected MDM samples (designated: NC3h_1, NC3h_2, NC36h_1 and NC36h_2) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction at 3 h post infection (hpi) and 36 hpi. RNA samples were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Results:Compared to the uninfected control, a total of 1568 and 550 up-regulated genes were identified in chicken MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi respectively, and 1227 and 397 down-regulated genes were identified at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively.128 and 30 DE lncRNAs were identified in MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively. Conclusions: Strong immune response induced by ALV-J infection in MDM at 3 hpi. Many genes, lncRNAs involved in immune response such as PRRs signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway at 3 hpi. Specifically, 78 ISGs expression significantly increased in ALV-J-infected MDM at 3 hpi. We speculated that host innate immune response could inhibit ALV-J replication in chicken MDM. These results provide valuable insights into the game of host antiviral immune response and ALV-J infection. Overall design: Chicken mRNAs and lncRNAs profiles of ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Hiseq 2000.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1?, and interferon-? (IFN-?) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1?, and IFN-? protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.
Project description:The avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) belongs to the chicken retrovirus that causes enormous economic losses in the poultry industry. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are critical for controlling virus infections. Here, we identified 897 type I ISGs induced by interferon-? (IFN-?) in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) by RNA-Seq. In addition, we further identified 152 potential anti-ALV-J chicken type I ISGs. Among these potential anti-ALV-J ISGs, chicken cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (chCH25H) was selected for further antiviral mechanism studies in chicken embryo fibroblast cell lines (DF1). The gene chCH25H is located on chromosome 6 and clustered in a distinct group with mammals CH25H in the phylogenetic tree. The core promoter region of chCH25H was located within -75/-1 sequence. We found that chCH25H was induced by chicken IFN-? and ALV-J in DF1 cells. The overexpression of chCH25H significantly inhibited ALV-J replication in DF1 cells at 48 h post infection (hpi). In addition, ALV-J replication was significantly enhanced in the chCH25H- knockout DF1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chCH25H restricted ALV-J infection through the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), rather than type I and II interferon. Our results identified 152 potential anti-ALV-J chicken type I ISGs and revealed that 25HC, the product of chCH25H, could be used as a natural antiviral agent to control ALV-J infection.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that induces myeloid tumors and hemangiomas in chickens and causes severe economic losses with commercial layer chickens and meat-type chickens. High-throughput sequencing followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics analyses were performed to advance the understanding of regulatory networks associated with differentially expressed non-coding RNAs and mRNAs that facilitate ALV-J infection. We examined the expression of mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs in the spleens of 20-week-old chickens infected with ALV-J and uninfected chickens. We found that 1723 mRNAs, 7,883 lncRNAs and 13 miRNAs in the spleen were differentially expressed between the uninfected and infected groups (P < 0.05). Transcriptome analysis showed that, compared to mRNA, chicken lncRNAs shared relatively fewer exon numbers and shorter transcripts. Through competing endogenous RNA and co-expression network analyses, we identified several tumor-associated or immune-related genes and lncRNAs. Along transcripts whose expression levels significantly decreased in both ALV-J infected spleen and tumor tissues, BCL11B showed the greatest change. These results suggest that BCL11B may be mechanistically involved in tumorigenesis in chicken and neoplastic diseases, may be related to immune response, and potentially be novel biomarker for ALV-J infection. Our results provide new insight into the pathology of ALV-J infection and high-quality transcriptome resource for in-depth study of epigenetic influences on disease resistance and immune system.