Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-?B, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoporosis affects millions of people worldwide by promoting bone resorption and impairing bone formation. Bisphosphonates, commonly used agents to treat osteoporosis, cannot reverse the substantial bone loss that has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Moreover, their undesirable side-effects, including osteonecrosis of the jaw, have been reported. Here, we demonstrated that a new bioactive core vitronectin-derived peptide (VnP-16) promoted bone formation by accelerating osteoblast differentiation and activity through direct interaction with ?1 integrin followed by FAK activation. Concomitantly, VnP-16 inhibited bone resorption by restraining JNK-c-Fos-NFATc1-induced osteoclast differentiation and ?v?3 integrin-c-Src-PYK2-mediated resorptive function. Moreover, VnP-16 decreased the bone resorbing activity of pre-existing mature osteoclasts without changing their survival rate. Furthermore, VnP-16 had a strong anabolic effect on bone regeneration by stimulating osteoblast differentiation and increasing osteoblast number, and significantly alleviated proinflammatory cytokine-induced bone resorption by restraining osteoclast differentiation and function in murine models. Moreover, VnP-16 could reverse ovariectomy-induced bone loss by both inhibiting bone resorption and promoting bone formation. Given its dual role in promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, our results suggest that VnP-16 could be an attractive therapeutic agent for treating osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoclasts are the exclusive cells of bone resorption. Abnormally activating osteoclasts can lead to low bone mineral density, which will cause osteopenia, osteoporosis, and other bone disorders. To date, the mechanism of how osteoclast precursors differentiate into mature osteoclasts remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel regulatory factors that play an important role in numerous cellular processes, including cell differentiation and apoptosis, by post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that miRNAs participate in bone homeostasis, including osteoclastic bone resorption, which sheds light on the mechanisms underlying osteoclast differentiation. In this review, we highlight the miRNAs involved in regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and their roles in osteoporosis.
Project description:Bone homeostasis requires continuous remodeling of bone matrix to maintain structural integrity. This involves extensive communication between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts to orchestrate balanced progenitor cell recruitment and activation. Only a few mediators controlling progenitor activation are known to date and have been targeted for intervention of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. To identify druggable pathways, we generated a medaka (Oryzias latipes) osteoporosis model, where inducible expression of receptor-activator of nuclear factor kappa-? ligand (Rankl) leads to ectopic formation of osteoclasts and excessive bone resorption, which can be assessed by live imaging. Here we show that upon Rankl induction, osteoblast progenitors up-regulate expression of the chemokine ligand Cxcl9l. Ectopic expression of Cxcl9l recruits mpeg1-positive macrophages to bone matrix and triggers their differentiation into osteoclasts. We also demonstrate that the chemokine receptor Cxcr3.2 is expressed in a distinct subset of macrophages in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). Live imaging revealed that upon Rankl induction, Cxcr3.2-positive macrophages get activated, migrate to bone matrix, and differentiate into osteoclasts. Importantly, mutations in cxcr3.2 prevent macrophage recruitment and osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, Cxcr3.2 inhibition by the chemical antagonists AMG487 and NBI-74330 also reduced osteoclast recruitment and protected bone integrity against osteoporotic insult. Our data identify a mechanism for progenitor recruitment to bone resorption sites and Cxcl9l and Cxcr3.2 as potential druggable regulators of bone homeostasis and osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoclasts are absorptive cells that play a critical role in homeostatic bone remodeling and pathological bone resorption. Emerging evidence suggests an important role of epigenetic regulation in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of DOT1L, which regulates gene expression epigenetically by histone H3K79 methylation (H3K79me), during osteoclast formation. Using RANKL-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells as an osteoclast differentiation model, we found that DOT1L and H3K79me2 levels were upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. Small molecule inhibitor- (EPZ5676 or EPZ004777) or short hairpin RNA-mediated reduction in DOT1L expression promoted osteoclast differentiation and resorption. In addition, DOT1L inhibition increased osteoclast surface area and accelerated bone-mass reduction in a mouse ovariectomy (OVX) model of osteoporosis without alter osteoblast differentiation. DOT1L inhibition increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and autophagy activity, and cell migration in pre-osteoclasts. Moreover, it strengthened expression of osteoclast fusion and resorption-related protein CD9 and MMP9 in osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7. Our findings support a new mechanism of DOT1L-regulated, H3K79me2-mediated, epigenetic regulation of osteoclast differentiation, implicating DOT1L as a new therapeutic target for osteoclast dysregulation-induced disease.
Project description:Bone resorption, which is regulated by osteoclasts, is excessively activated in bone destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, controlling osteoclasts would be an effective strategy to prevent pathological bone loss. Although several transcription factors that regulate osteoclast differentiation and function could serve as molecular targets to inhibit osteoclast formation, those factors have not yet been characterized using a loss of function approach in adults. Here we report such a study showing that inactivation of B-lymphocyte induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) in adult mice increases bone mass by suppressing osteoclast formation. Using an ex vivo assay, we show that osteoclast differentiation is significantly inhibited by Blimp1 inactivation at an early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Conditional inactivation of Blimp1 inhibited osteoclast formation and increased bone mass in both male and female adult mice. Bone resorption parameters were significantly reduced by Blimp1 inactivation in vivo. Blimp1 reportedly regulates immune cell differentiation and function, but we detected no immune cell failure following Blimp1 inactivation. These data suggest that Blimp1 is a potential target to promote increased bone mass and prevent osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:Rationale: Osteoporosis is a severe bone disorder that is a threat to our aging population. Excessive osteoclast formation and bone resorption lead to changes in trabecular bone volume and architecture, leaving the bones vulnerable to fracture. Therapeutic approaches of inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have been proven to be an efficient approach to prevent osteoporosis. In our study, we have demonstrated for the first time that Loureirin B (LrB) inhibits ovariectomized osteoporosis and explored its underlying mechanisms of action in vitro. Methods: We examined the effects of LrB on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and its impacts on RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation, calcium oscillations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoclasts in vitro. We assessed the in vivo efficacy of LrB using an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model, which was analyzed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone histomorphometry. Results: We found that LrB represses osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption, F-actin belts formation, osteoclast specific gene expressions, ROS activity and calcium oscillations through preventing NFATc1 translocation and expression as well as affecting MAPK-NFAT signaling pathways in vitro. Our in vivo study indicated that LrB prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis and preserves bone volume by repressing osteoclast activity and function. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that LrB can attenuate osteoclast formation and OVX-induced osteoporosis. This novel and exciting discovery could pave the way for the development of LrB as a potential therapeutic treatment for osteoporosis.
Project description:Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. GE significantly inhibited RANKL-activated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting protein expression of c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), vital factors in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. In addition, GE attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. In summary, GE can prevent osteoclastogenesis and hormone-related bone loss via blockage of c-fos-NFATc1 signaling. Our results suggest that GE may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease with dysregulated coupling between bone resorption and bone formation, which results in decreased bone mineral density. The MEF2C locus, which encodes the transcription factor MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C (MEF2C), is strongly associated with adult osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Although the role of MEF2C in bone and cartilage formation by osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes has been studied, the role of MEF2C in osteoclasts, which mediate bone resorption, remains unclear. In this study, we identified MEF2C as a positive regulator of human and mouse osteoclast differentiation. While decreased MEF2C expression resulted in diminished osteoclastogenesis, ectopic expression of MEF2C enhanced osteoclast generation. Using transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches, we found that MEF2C promotes the RANKL-mediated induction of the transcription factors c-FOS and NFATc1, which play a key role in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, MEF2C binds to FOS regulatory regions to induce c-FOS expression, leading to the activation of NFATC1 and downstream osteoclastogenesis. Inducible deletion of Mef2c in mice resulted in increased bone mass under physiological conditions and protected mice from bone erosion by diminishing osteoclast formation in K/BxN serum induced arthritis, a murine model of inflammatory arthritis. Our findings reveal direct regulation of osteoclasts by MEF2C, thus adding osteoclasts as a cell type in which altered MEF2C expression or function can contribute to pathological bone remodeling.
Project description:Bone mass is determined by the balance between bone formation, carried out by mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts, and bone resorption, carried out by monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Here we investigated the potential roles of p38 MAPKs, which are activated by growth factors and cytokines including RANKL and BMPs, in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by ablating p38? MAPK in LysM+monocytes. p38? deficiency promoted monocyte proliferation but regulated monocyte osteoclastic differentiation in a cell-density dependent manner, with proliferating p38?-/- cultures showing increased differentiation. While young mutant mice showed minor increase in bone mass, 6-month-old mutant mice developed osteoporosis, associated with an increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption and an increase in the pool of monocytes. Moreover, monocyte-specific p38? ablation resulted in a decrease in bone formation and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, likely due to decreased expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2. The expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2 was positively regulated by the p38 MAPK-Creb axis in osteoclasts, with the promoters of PDGF-AA and BMP2 having Creb binding sites. These findings uncovered the molecular mechanisms by which p38? MAPK regulates osteoclastogenesis and coordinates osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis.
Project description:During osteoporosis bone formation by osteoblasts is reduced and/or bone resorption by osteoclasts is enhanced. Currently, only a few factors have been identified in the regulation of bone integrity by osteoblast-derived osteocytes. In this study, we show that specific disruption of menin, encoded by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (Men1), in osteoblasts and osteocytes caused osteoporosis despite the preservation of osteoblast differentiation and the bone formation rate. Instead, an increase in osteoclast numbers and bone resorption was detected that persisted even when the deletion of Men1 was restricted to osteocytes. We demonstrate that isolated Men1-deficient osteocytes expressed numerous soluble mediators, such as C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), and that CXCL10-mediated osteoclastogenesis was reduced by CXCL10-neutralizing antibodies. Collectively, our data reveal a novel role for Men1 in osteocyte-osteoclast crosstalk by controlling osteoclastogenesis through the action of soluble factors. A role for Men1 in maintaining bone integrity and thereby preventing osteoporosis is proposed.