Hsp70 clears misfolded kinases that partitioned into distinct quality-control compartments.
ABSTRACT: Hsp70 aids in protein folding and directs misfolded proteins to the cellular degradation machinery. We describe discrete roles of Hsp70,SSA1 as an important quality-control machinery that switches functions to ameliorate the cellular environment. SSA1 facilitates folding/maturation of newly synthesized protein kinases by aiding their phosphorylation process and also stimulates ubiquitylation and degradation of kinases in regular protein turnover or during stress when kinases are denatured or improperly folded. Significantly, while kinases accumulate as insoluble inclusions upon SSA1 inhibition, they form soluble inclusions upon Hsp90 inhibition or stress foci during heat stress. This suggests formation of inclusion-specific quality-control compartments under various stress conditions. Up-regulation of SSA1 results in complete removal of these inclusions by the proteasome. Elevation of the cellular SSA1 level accelerates kinase turnover and protects cells from proteotoxic stress. Upon overexpression, SSA1 targets heat-denatured kinases toward degradation, which could enable them to recover their functional state under physiological conditions. Thus active participation of SSA1 in the degradation of misfolded proteins establishes an essential role of Hsp70 in deciding client fate during stress.
Project description:Ubiquitin accumulation in amyloid plaques is a pathological marker observed in the vast majority of neurodegenerative diseases, yet ubiquitin function in these inclusions is controversial. It has been suggested that ubiquitylated proteins are directed to inclusion bodies under stress conditions, when both chaperone-mediated refolding and proteasomal degradation are compromised or overwhelmed. Alternatively, ubiquitin and chaperones may be recruited to preformed inclusions to promote their elimination. We address this issue using a yeast model system, based on expression of several mildly misfolded degradation substrates in cells with altered chaperone content. We find that the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperone pair Ssa1/Ssa2 and the Hsp40 cochaperone Sis1 are essential for degradation. Substrate ubiquitylation is strictly dependent on Sis1, whereas Ssa1 and Ssa2 are dispensable. Remarkably, in Ssa1/Ssa2-depleted cells, ubiquitylated substrates are sequestered into detergent-insoluble, Hsp42-positive inclusion bodies. Unexpectedly, sequestration is abolished by preventing substrate ubiquitylation. We conclude that Hsp40 is required for the targeting of misfolded proteins to the ubiquitylation machinery, whereas the decision to degrade or sequester ubiquitylated proteins is mediated by the Hsp70s. Accordingly, diminished Hsp70 levels, as observed in aging or certain pathological conditions, might be sufficient to trigger ubiquitin-dependent sequestration of partially misfolded proteins into inclusion bodies.
Project description:Protein misfolding is a recurring phenomenon that cells must manage; otherwise misfolded proteins can aggregate and become toxic should they persist. To counter this burden, cells have evolved protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms that manage misfolded proteins. Two classes of systems that function in PQC are chaperones that aid in protein folding and ubiquitin-protein ligases that ubiquitinate misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. How folding and degradative PQC systems interact and coordinate their respective functions is not yet fully understood. Previous studies of PQC degradation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol have led to the prevailing idea that these pathways require the activity of Hsp70 chaperones. Here, we find that involvement of the budding yeast Hsp70 chaperones Ssa1 and Ssa2 in nuclear PQC degradation varies with the substrate. In particular, nuclear PQC degradation mediated by the yeast ubiquitin-protein ligase San1 often involves Ssa1/Ssa2, but San1 substrate recognition and ubiquitination can proceed without these Hsp70 chaperone functions in vivo and in vitro. Our studies provide new insights into the variability of Hsp70 chaperone involvement with a nuclear PQC degradation pathway.
Project description:Hsp70 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone critical for the folding of new and denatured proteins. While traditional models state that cells respond to stress by upregulating inducible HSPs, this response is relatively slow and is limited by transcriptional and translational machinery. Recent studies have identified a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on Hsp70 that act to fine-tune its function. We utilized mass spectrometry to determine whether yeast Hsp70 (Ssa1) is differentially modified upon heat shock. We uncovered four lysine residues on Ssa1, K86, K185, K354 and K562 that are deacetylated in response to heat shock. Mutation of these sites cause a substantial remodeling of the Hsp70 interaction network of co-chaperone partners and client proteins while preserving essential chaperone function. Acetylation/deacetylation at these residues alter expression of other heat-shock induced chaperones as well as directly influencing Hsf1 activity. Taken together our data suggest that cells may have the ability to respond to heat stress quickly though Hsp70 deacetylation, followed by a slower, more traditional transcriptional response.
Project description:The major cytoplasmic Hsp70 chaperones in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the Ssa proteins, and much of our understanding of Hsp70 biology has emerged from studying ssa mutant strains. For example, Ssa1 catalyzes multiple cellular functions, including protein transport and degradation, and to this end, the ssa1-45 mutant has proved invaluable. However, the biochemical defects associated with the corresponding Ssa1-45 protein (P417L) are unknown. Consequently, we characterized Ssa1 P417L, as well as a P417S variant, which corresponds to a mutation in the gene encoding the yeast mitochondrial Hsp70. We discovered that the P417L and P417S proteins exhibit accelerated ATPase activity that was similar to the Hsp40-stimulated rate of ATP hydrolysis of wild-type Ssa1. We also found that the mutant proteins were compromised for peptide binding. These data are consistent with defects in peptide-stimulated ATPase activity and with results from limited proteolysis experiments, which indicated that the mutants' substrate binding domains were highly vulnerable to digestion. Defects in the reactivation of heat-denatured luciferase were also evident. Correspondingly, yeast expressing P417L or P417S as the only copy of Ssa were temperature sensitive and exhibited defects in Ssa1-dependent protein translocation and misfolded protein degradation. Together, our studies suggest that the structure of the substrate binding domain is altered and that coupling between this domain and the nucleotide binding domain is disabled when the conserved P417 residue is mutated. Our data also provide new insights into the nature of the many cellular defects associated with the ssa1-45 allele.
Project description:Quality control systems facilitate polypeptide folding and degradation to maintain protein homeostasis. Molecular chaperones promote folding, whereas the ubiquitin/proteasome system mediates degradation. We show here that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ubr1 and Ubr2 ubiquitin ligases promote degradation of unfolded or misfolded cytosolic polypeptides. Ubr1 also catalyzes ubiquitinylation of denatured but not native luciferase in a purified system. This activity is based on the direct interaction of denatured luciferase with Ubr1, although Hsp70 stimulates polyubiquitinylation of the denatured substrate. We also report that loss of Ubr1 and Ubr2 function suppressed the growth arrest phenotype resulting from chaperone mutation. This correlates with increased protein kinase maturation and indicates partitioning of foldable conformers toward the proteasome. Our findings, based on the efficiency of this quality control system, suggest that the cell trades growth potential to avert the potential toxicity associated with accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins. Ubr1 and Ubr2 therefore represent E3 components of a novel quality control pathway for proteins synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes.
Project description:Protein misfolding is a common event in living cells. Molecular chaperones not only assist protein folding; they also facilitate the degradation of misfolded polypeptides. When the intracellular degradative capacity is exceeded, juxtanuclear aggresomes are formed to sequester misfolded proteins. Despite the well-established role of chaperones in both protein folding and degradation, how chaperones regulate the aggregation process remains controversial. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying aggresome formation in mammalian cells. Analysis of the chaperone requirements for the fate of misfolded proteins reveals an unexpected role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in promoting aggresome formation. This proaggregation function of Hsp70 relies on the interaction with the cochaperone ubiquitin ligase carboxyl terminal of Hsp70/Hsp90 interacting protein (CHIP). Disrupting Hsp70-CHIP interaction prevents the aggresome formation, whereas a dominant-negative CHIP mutant sensitizes the aggregation of misfolded protein. This accelerated aggresome formation also relies on the stress-induced cochaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3. Our results indicate that a hierarchy of cochaperone interaction controls different aspects of the intracellular protein triage decision, extending the function of Hsp70 from folding and degradation to aggregation.
Project description:During aging, oxidized, misfolded, and aggregated proteins accumulate in cells, while the capacity to deal with protein damage declines severely. To cope with the toxicity of damaged proteins, cells rely on protein quality control networks, in particular proteins belonging to the family of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). As safeguards of the cellular proteome, HSPs assist in protein folding and prevent accumulation of damaged, misfolded proteins. Here, we compared the capacity of all Drosophila melanogaster small HSP family members for their ability to assist in refolding stress-denatured substrates and/or to prevent aggregation of disease-associated misfolded proteins. We identified CG14207 as a novel and potent small HSP member that exclusively assisted in HSP70-dependent refolding of stress-denatured proteins. Furthermore, we report that HSP67BC, which has no role in protein refolding, was the most effective small HSP preventing toxic protein aggregation in an HSP70-independent manner. Importantly, overexpression of both CG14207 and HSP67BC in Drosophila leads to a mild increase in lifespan, demonstrating that increased levels of functionally diverse small HSPs can promote longevity in vivo.
Project description:Quality control and degradation of misfolded proteins are essential processes of all cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the entry site of proteins into the secretory pathway in which protein folding occurs and terminally misfolded proteins are recognized and retrotranslocated across the ER membrane into the cytosol. Here, proteins undergo polyubiquitination by one of the membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligases, in yeast Hrd1/Der3 (HMG-CoA reductase degradation/degradation of the ER) and Doa10 (degradation of alpha), and are degraded by the proteasome. In this study, we identify cytosolic Ubr1 (E3 ubiquitin ligase, N-recognin) as an additional ubiquitin ligase that can participate in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. We show that two polytopic ERAD substrates, mutated transporter of the mating type a pheromone, Ste6* (sterile), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, undergo Ubr1-dependent degradation in the presence and absence of the canonical ER ubiquitin ligases. Whereas in the case of Ste6* Ubr1 is specifically required under stress conditions such as heat or ethanol or in the absence of the canonical ER ligases, efficient degradation of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator requires function of Ubr1 already in wild-type cells under standard growth conditions. Together with the Hsp70 (heat shock protein) chaperone Ssa1 (stress-seventy subfamily A) and the AAA-type ATPase Cdc48 (cell division cycle), Ubr1 directs the substrate to proteasomal degradation. These data unravel another layer of complexity in ERAD.
Project description:Protein quality control systems protect cells against the accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins by promoting their selective degradation. Malfunctions of quality control systems are linked to aging and neurodegenerative disease. Folding of polypeptides is facilitated by the association of 70 kDa Heat shock protein (Hsp70) molecular chaperones. If folding cannot be achieved, Hsp70 interacts with ubiquitylation enzymes that promote the proteasomal degradation of the misfolded protein. However, the factors that direct Hsp70 substrates toward the degradation machinery have remained unknown. Here, we identify Fes1, an Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor of hitherto unclear physiological function, as a cytosolic triaging factor that promotes proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins. Fes1 selectively interacts with misfolded proteins bound by Hsp70 and triggers their release from the chaperone. In the absence of Fes1, misfolded proteins fail to undergo polyubiquitylation, aggregate, and induce a strong heat shock response. Our findings reveal that Hsp70 direct proteins toward either folding or degradation by using distinct nucleotide exchange factors.
Project description:Heat shock protein (Hsp) 40 facilitates the critical role of Hsp70 in a number of cellular processes such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 and Hsp70 stay in close contact to achieve these diverse functions. The conserved C-terminal EEVD motif in Hsp70 has been shown to regulate Hsp40-Hsp70 interaction by an unknown mechanism. Here, we provide a structural basis for this regulation by determining the crystal structure of yeast Hsp40 Sis1 peptide-binding fragment complexed with the Hsp70 Ssa1 C-terminal. The Ssa1 extreme C-terminal eight residues, G634PTVEEVD641, form a beta-strand with the domain I of Sis1 peptide-binding fragment. Surprisingly, the Ssa1 C-terminal binds Sis1 at the site where Sis1 interacts with the non-native polypeptides. The negatively charged residues within the EEVD motif in Ssa1 C-terminal form extensive charge-charge interactions with the positively charged residues in Sis1. The structure-based mutagenesis data support the structural observations.