Integrin ?3?1 regulates kidney collecting duct development via TRAF6-dependent K63-linked polyubiquitination of Akt.
ABSTRACT: The collecting system of the kidney develops from the ureteric bud (UB), which undergoes branching morphogenesis, a process regulated by multiple factors, including integrin-extracellular matrix interactions. The laminin (LM)-binding integrin ?3?1 is crucial for this developmental program; however, the LM types and LM/integrin ?3?1-dependent signaling pathways are poorly defined. We show that ?3 chain-containing LMs promote normal UB branching morphogenesis and that LM-332 is a better substrate than LM-511 for stimulating integrin ?3?1-dependent collecting duct cell functions. We demonstrate that integrin ?3?1-mediated cell adhesion to LM-332 modulates Akt activation in the developing collecting system and that Akt activation is PI3K independent but requires decreased PTEN activity and K63-linked polyubiquitination. We identified the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TRAF6 as an interactor with the integrin ?1 subunit and regulator of integrin ?3?1-dependent Akt activation. Finally, we established that the developmental defects of TRAF6- and integrin ?3-null mouse kidneys are similar. Thus K63-linked polyubiquitination plays a previously unrecognized role in integrin ?3?1-dependent cell signaling required for UB development and may represent a novel mechanism whereby integrins regulate signaling pathways.
Project description:Integrins, the major receptors for cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, regulate multiple cell biological processes including adhesion, migration, proliferation and growth factor-dependent signaling. The principal laminin (LM) binding integrins ?3?1, ?6?1 and ?6?4 are usually co-expressed in cells and bind to multiple laminins with different affinities making it difficult to define their specific function. In this study, we generated kidney epithelial collecting duct (CD) cells that lack both the ?3 and ?6 integrin subunits. This deletion impaired cell adhesion and migration to LM-332 and LM-511 more than deleting ?3 or ?6 alone. Cell adhesion mediated by both ?3?1 and ?6 integrins was PI3K independent, but required K63-linked polyubiquitination of Akt by the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TRAF6. Moreover, we provide evidence that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10)- mediated cell signaling, spreading and proliferation were severely compromised in double integrin ?3/?6- but not single ?3- or ?6-null CD cells. Interestingly, these growth factor-dependent cell functions required both PI3K- and TRAF6-dependent Akt activation. These data suggest that expression of the integrin ?3 or ?6 subunit is sufficient to mediate GDNF- and FGF10-dependent spreading, proliferation and signaling on LM-511. Thus, our study shows that ?3 and ?6 containing integrins promote distinct functions and signaling by CD cells on laminin substrata.
Project description:It is widely accepted that the essential role of TRAF6 in vivo is to generate the Lys63-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) chains needed to activate the "master" protein kinase TAK1. Here, we report that TRAF6 E3 ligase activity contributes to but is not essential for the IL-1-dependent formation of K63-Ub chains, TAK1 activation, or IL-8 production in human cells, because Pellino1 and Pellino2 generate the K63-Ub chains required for signaling in cells expressing E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6 mutants. The IL-1-induced formation of K63-Ub chains and ubiquitylation of IRAK1, IRAK4, and MyD88 was abolished in TRAF6/Pellino1/Pellino2 triple-knockout (KO) cells, but not in TRAF6 KO or Pellino1/2 double-KO cells. The reexpression of E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6 mutants partially restored IL-1 signaling in TRAF6 KO cells, but not in TRAF6/Pellino1/Pellino2 triple-KO cells. Pellino1-generated K63-Ub chains activated the TAK1 complex in vitro with similar efficiently to TRAF6-generated K63-Ub chains. The early phase of TLR signaling and the TLR-dependent secretion of IL-10 (controlled by IRAKs 1 and 2) was only reduced modestly in primary macrophages from knockin mice expressing the E3 ligase-inactive TRAF6[L74H] mutant, but the late-phase production of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF? (controlled only by the pseudokinase IRAK2) was abolished. RANKL-induced signaling in macrophages and the differentiation of bone marrow to osteoclasts was similar in TRAF6[L74H] and wild-type cells, explaining why the bone structure and teeth of the TRAF6[L74H] mice was normal, unlike TRAF6 KO mice. We identify two essential roles of TRAF6 that are independent of its E3 ligase activity.
Project description:The adaptor protein MyD88 is required for signal transmission by toll-like receptors and receptors of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. MyD88 signalling triggers the formation of Lys63-linked and Met1-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub, M1-Ub) chains within minutes. The K63-Ub chains, which are formed by the E3 ubiquitin ligases TRAF6, Pellino1 and Pellino2, activate TAK1, the master kinase that switches on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades and initiates activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex. The M1-Ub chains, which are formed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), bind to the NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) component of the IKK complex and are required for TAK1 to activate IKKs, but not MAP kinases. An essential E3 ligase-independent role of TRAF6 is to recruit LUBAC into the MyD88 signalling complex, where it recognises preformed K63-Ub chains attached to protein components of these complexes, such as IRAK1 (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase), producing ubiquitin chains containing both types of linkage, termed K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids, which is a feature of several innate immune signalling pathways, permits the co-recruitment of proteins that interact with either K63-Ub or M1-Ub chains. Two likely roles for K63/M1-Ub hybrids are to facilitate the TAK1-dependent activation of the IKK complex and to prevent the hyperactivation of these kinases by recruiting A20 and A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1). These proteins restrict activation of the TAK1 and IKK complexes, probably by competing with them for binding to K63/M1-Ub hybrids. The formation of K63/M1-Ub hybrids may also regulate the rate at which the ubiquitin linkages in these chains are hydrolysed. The IKK-catalysed phosphorylation of some of its substrates permits their recognition by the E3 ligase SCFβTRCP, leading to their Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Innate immune signalling is therefore controlled by the formation and destruction of three different types of ubiquitin linkage.
Project description:In order to understand the functions of laminins in the renal collecting system, the Lamc1 gene was inactivated in the developing mouse ureteric bud (UB). Embryos bearing null alleles exhibited laminin deficiency prior to mesenchymal tubular induction and either failed to develop a UB with involution of the mesenchyme, or developed small kidneys with decreased proliferation and branching, delayed renal vesicle formation and postnatal emergence of a water transport deficit. Embryonic day 12.5 kidneys revealed an almost complete absence of basement membrane proteins and reduced levels of ?6 integrin and FGF2. mRNA levels for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and mediators of the GDNF/RET and WNT11 signaling pathway were also decreased. Furthermore, collecting duct cells derived from laminin-deficient kidneys and grown in collagen gels were found to proliferate and branch slowly. The laminin-deficient cells exhibited decreased activation of growth factor- and integrin-dependent pathways, whereas heparin lyase-treated and ?1 integrin-null cells exhibited more selective decreases. Collectively, these data support a requirement of ?1 laminins for assembly of the collecting duct system basement membrane, in which immobilized ligands act as solid-phase agonists to promote branching morphogenesis, growth and water transport functions.
Project description:Macrophages play pivotal roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair and immunity. Macrophage proliferation is promoted by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced Akt signaling; yet, how this process is terminated remains unclear. Here, we identify casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) as a novel inhibitor of macrophage proliferation. In resting macrophages, CKIP-1 was phosphorylated at Serine 342 by constitutively active GSK3?, the downstream target of Akt. This phosphorylation triggers the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CKIP-1. Upon M-CSF stimulation, Akt is activated by CSF-1R-PI3K and then inactivates GSK3?, leading to the stabilization of CKIP-1 and ?-catenin proteins. ?-catenin promotes the expression of proliferation genes including cyclin D and c-Myc. CKIP-1 interacts with TRAF6, a ubiquitin ligase required for K63-linked ubiquitination and plasma membrane recruitment of Akt, and terminates TRAF6-mediated Akt activation. By this means, CKIP-1 inhibits macrophage proliferation specifically at the late stage after M-CSF stimulation. Furthermore, CKIP-1 deficiency results in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of macrophages in vitro and CKIP-1(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a macrophage-dominated splenomegaly and myeloproliferation. Together, these data demonstrate that CKIP-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of macrophage homeostasis by inhibiting TRAF6-mediated Akt activation.
Project description:Ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13/Uev1, catalyzes processive assembly of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains for TAK1 activation in the IL-1R/TLR pathways. However, what domain and how it functions to enable TRAF6's processivity are largely uncharacterized. Here, we find TRAF6 coiled-coil (CC) domain is crucial to enable its processivity. The CC domain mediates TRAF6 oligomerization to ensure efficient long polyubiquitin chain assembly. Mutating or deleting the CC domain impairs TRAF6 oligomerization and processive polyubiquitin chain assembly. Fusion of the CC domain to the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/STUB1 renders the latter capable of NF-?B activation. Moreover, the CC domain, after oligomerization, interacts with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13, which further contributes to TRAF6 processivity. Point mutations within the CC domain that weaken TRAF6 interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 diminish TRAF6 processivity. Our results reveal that the CC oligomerization primes its interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 to confer processivity to TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase activity.Ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 catalyzes assembly of free polyubiquitin chains for TAK1 activation in the IL-1R/TLR pathways, but the mechanism underlying its processivity is unclear. Here, the authors show that TRAF6 coiled-coil oligomerization domain primes its interaction with Ubc13/Ub~Ubc13 to confer processivity.
Project description:TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6) is a RING (really interesting new gene) domain ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that mediates the activation of protein kinases, such as transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase (TAK1) and IkappaB kinase (IKK), by catalyzing the formation of a unique polyubiquitin chain linked through Lys-63 of Ub. Here, we present evidence that TIFA (TRAF-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain, also known as T2BP) activates IKK by promoting the oligomerization and Ub ligase activity of TRAF6. We show that recombinant TIFA protein, but not TRAF6-binding-defective mutant, can activate IKK in crude cytosolic extracts. Furthermore, TIFA activates IKK in an in vitro reconstitution system consisting of purified proteins, including TRAF6, the TAK1 kinase complex, and Ub-conjugating enzyme complex Ubc13-Uev1A. Interestingly, a fraction of recombinant TIFA protein exists as high-molecular-weight oligomers, and only these oligomeric forms of TIFA can activate IKK. Importantly, TIFA induces the oligomerization and polyubiquitination of TRAF6, which leads to the activation of TAK1 and IKK through a proteasome-independent mechanism.
Project description:The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate I?B kinases (IKKs) and NF-?B and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation.
Project description:Stimulation through the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and some Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces ubiquitination of TRAF6 and IRAK-1, signaling components required for NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Here we show that although TRAF6 and IRAK-1 acquired Lys63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitin chains upon IL-1 stimulation, only ubiquitinated IRAK-1 bound NEMO, the regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase (IKK). The sites of IRAK-1 ubiquitination were mapped to Lys134 and Lys180, and arginine substitution of these residues impaired IL-1R/TLR-mediated IRAK-1 ubiquitination, NEMO binding, and NF-kappaB activation. K63-linked ubiquitination of IRAK-1 required enzymatically active TRAF6, indicating that it is the physiologically relevant E3. Thus, K63-linked polyubiquitination of proximal signaling proteins is a common mechanism used by diverse innate immune receptors for recruiting IKK and activating NF-kappaB.
Project description:Post viral infection bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with both seasonal and pandemic influenza virus illness. Despite much efforts put into the discovery of mechanisms of post viral-bacterial infections and their complications in recent years, the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility to bacterial infection remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the pathways regulating immune responses in murine macrophages and modeled post viral-bacterial infections through pretreatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 ligand (R848) and subsequent challenge with TLR2/4 agonists to mimic bacterial infection. We found R848-primed BMDMs upon subsequent exposure to TLR2/4 ligands respond with enhanced inflammatory cytokine production, especially IL-6 and TNF-?. The enhanced cytokine production in R848-primed BMDMs in response to TLR2/4 was due to increased TGF-?-activated kinase (TAK) 1 phosphorylation with subsequent activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs. Furthermore, we identified that R848 priming leads to increased K63-linked polyubiquitination on TRAF6. K63-linked polyubiquitination on TRAF6 is a signal leading to enhanced activation of downstream pathways including TAK1. Importantly, R848-primed BMDMs infected with live bacteria exhibited decreased bacterial clearance. Small-molecule enhancer of rapamycin 3, an ubiquitin ligase inhibitor reversed the K63-linked polyubiquitination on TRAF6 in R848-primed BMDMs and subsequently decreased TAK1 and MAPK phosphorylation, and cytokine production as well as reversed the decreased bacterial clearance capacity of BMDMs. Our study may provide a novel molecular target to alleviate post viral-bacterial infections.