Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa.
ABSTRACT: Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42-4.56) and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41-7.22) increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9%) of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5%) was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them.
Project description:The life and health of street children is becoming a global concern. Street children are vulnerable to a variety of problems including physical, psychological and sexual exploitations as well as social isolation. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to point out the experience of sexual and physical exploitation and its determinant factors among street children in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia.A phenomenological qualitative method was conducted from March to June 2016 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected from street children by focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview. Open code was used to analyze data. The transcribed note was translated. Following this coding was done. Based on a coding book, major themes and main categories were developed and analyzed.The study has explored the life experience of street children in the city. Deaths of parents/unhealthy relationship of extended families forced them be on a street. Thus, flee to street to search for work was the main reason for joining to a street. Street children are vulnerable to sexual and physical exploitations on a daily basis. For street children, street is the world characterized by misery deprivation, physical, verbal and sexual abuse and become daily victims of violence. There is no safe place for the children of on-street. Most street children are involved in all types of sex; heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual and group sex are common among themselves and out siders. They are involved highly in transactional sex for survival. Drug use, stress and depression are common experiences. Thus, they were socially isolated. The main challenges of living on a street are lack of basic needs, social isolation, lack of safety and security and being out of school are the common problems these vulnerable groups are facing.Street children are at high risk of sexual and physical exploitation. Interventions targeting integration and reunion with families, reduction of physical and sexual exploitation, access to education, mental health promotion and reduction of drug use behavior should be taken in to considerations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Specialist sexual assault services, which collect forensic evidence and offer holistic healthcare to people following sexual assault, have been established internationally. In England, these services are called sexual assault referral centres (SARCs). Mental health and substance misuse problems are common among SARC attendees, but little is known about how SARCs should address these needs. This review aims to seek and synthesise evidence regarding approaches to identification and support for mental health and substance misuse problems in SARCs and corresponding services internationally; empirical evidence regarding effective service models; and stakeholders' views and policy recommendations about optimal SARC practice. METHODS:A systematic review was undertaken. PsycINFO, MEDLINE, IBSS and CINAHL were searched from 1975 to August 2018. A web-based search up to December 2018 was also conducted to identify government and expert guidelines on SARCs. Quality assessment and narrative synthesis were conducted. RESULTS:We included 107 papers. We found that identification based on clinical judgement, supportive counselling and referral to other services without active follow-up were the most common approaches. Evaluations of interventions for post-rape psychopathology in attendees of sexual assault services provided mixed evidence of moderate quality. Very little evidence was found regarding interventions or support for substance misuse. Stakeholders emphasised the importance of accessibility, flexibility, continuity of care, in-house psychological support, staff trained in mental health as well as specialist support for LGBT groups and people with learning difficulties. Guidelines suggested that SARCs should assess for mental health and substance misuse and provide in-house emotional support, but the extent and nature of support were not clarified. Both stakeholders and guidelines recommended close partnership between sexual assault services and local counselling services. CONCLUSIONS:This review suggests that there is big variation in the mental health and substance misuse provision both across and within different sexual assault service models. We found no robust evidence about how sexual assault services can achieve good mental health and substance misuse outcomes for service users. Clearer guidance for service planners and commissioners, informed by robust evidence about optimal service organisations and pathways, is required. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018119706.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Utilization of reproductive health services is an important component in preventing adolescents from different sexual and reproductive health problems. As a result, the extent of their service utilization should be determined before implementing any kind of interventions. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the level of reproductive health services utilization and its associated factors among adolescents who live in Debre Berhan town. METHODS:A community-based cross-sectional method was employed in this study from April 5-May 1, 2016. A multi-stage systematic sampling technique was applied to select a total of 648 adolescents living in 5 randomly selected kebeles of Debre Berhan town. Moreover, a logistic regression was done to identify independent predictors of reproductive health service utilization. RESULTS:Accordingly, the major findings of this study reveals that about one-third (33.8%) of adolescents utilized at least one of reproductive health services. Adolescents who had discussed sexual and reproductive health issues with their sexual partner and peers were two times more likely to use reproductive health services than their counter parts (AOR?=?2.368, 95% CI: 1.168-4.802 and AOR?=?2.360, 95% CI: 1.155-4.820 respectively). Adolescents who weren't co-resided with both their parents were also about two times more likely to utilize reproductive health service than those who were living together (AOR?=?2.570, 95% CI?=?1.155-4.820). Positive perception of oneself towards acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus urged the adolescents to use RH services twice than those who didn't perceive themselves as risky (AOR?=?2.231, 95%CI: 1.001-4.975). CONCLUSION:Succinctly speaking, the analysis of the major finding suggests that the utilization of reproductive health services among adolescents in the study area was low. Discussion with sexual partner and peers, risk perception of oneself towards the acquisition of human immune-deficiency virus was among the predictors of reproductive health services usage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Risky sexual behaviors adversely affect the health of youth and young adults exposing them to sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy to females that in turn lead to deleterious health, social and economic consequences. Youth centers inform their clients on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, high risk abortion, and other reproductive health problems. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among youth center reproductive health clinic users and non-users in Addis Ababa. METHODS:A comparative cross-sectional study design was carried out among 524 youth in Addis Ababa from March to April, 2016. The data was entered in EPI-INFO 7 software; and cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. The prevalence was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression was done to determine the strength, direction and significance of association between youth center reproductive health clinic utilization and risky sexual behavior and to control confounder variables respectively. RESULTS:A total of 524 youth with the response rate of 92% participated in the study. The overall prevalence of risky sexual behavior was 226 (43.1%) (With statistically significant difference in prevalence among users 101 (38.5%) and non-users 125 (47.7%) of youth center clinics, (p-value = 0.04). The odds of reporting risky sexual behavior was 60% higher among volunteers who did not use the reproductive health clinic, relative to those who did (AOR = 1.60; 95%CI = 1.08, 2.37). Teenagers aged 15-19 years were (AOR = 0.08; 95%CI = 0.05, 0.15) 92% less likely to practice risky sexual behavior compared to those aged 25-29 years old. CONCLUSION:Risky sexual behavior was statistically significantly higher among non-users of the youth center reproductive health clinic compared with the users. In addition, a substantial proportion of the youth engaged in different risky sexual behaviors that are evidenced by the existence of multiple sexual partners, sexual practice without condom and early sexual debut that might predispose youth to STIs including HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. The ministry of health and its partners should strengthen youth center reproductive health clinics in urban, semi-urban and rural parts of Ethiopia.
Project description:Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unplanned pregnancy are high among youth. While the intersection between drug and alcohol use and unprotected sex is well recognized, few studies have examined the relationship between substance use patterns and unprotected sex among high risk-populations such as street-involved youth.Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth from Vancouver, Canada. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine substance use patterns that were independently associated with unprotected sex, defined as (vaginal or anal) sexual intercourse without consistent condom use.Between September 2005 and May 2013, 1,026 youth were recruited into the ARYS cohort and 75% (n = 766) reported engaging in recent unprotected sex at some point during the study period. In a multivariable analysis, female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.81), Caucasian ancestry (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.68), being in a stable relationship (AOR = 4.64, 95% CI: 3.82-5.65), having multiple sex partners (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.18-3.10) and the following substance use patterns were all independently associated with recent unprotected sex: injection or non-injection crystal methamphetamine use (AOR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.43), injection or non-injection cocaine use (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.41), marijuana use (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.49), ecstasy use (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48) and alcohol use (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11-1.55) (all p < 0.05).Unprotected sex was prevalent among street-involved youth in this setting, and independently associated with female gender and a wide range of substance use patterns. Evidence-based and gender-informed sexual health interventions are needed in addition to increased access to youth-centered addiction treatment services. STI testing and linkages to healthcare professionals remain important priorities for street-involved youth, and should be integrated across all health and social services.
Project description:Little is known about the reproductive health or family planning needs of street-connected children and youth in resource-constrained countries. The study objective was to describe how street-connected children and youth (SCCY) in Eldoret, Kenya, perceive pregnancy.This qualitative study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014. A total of 65 SCCY aged 11-24 years were purposively sampled from the three referral points: 1) A dedicated study clinic for vulnerable children and youth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH); 2) Primary locations in which street children reside known as "bases/barracks"; and 3) Street youth community-based organizations. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Content analysis was performed after thematic coding by 4 independent coders.The majority of SCCY interviewed were male (69%) and sexually active (81.5%). None had gone beyond primary level of education. The strong desire for SCCY to go through conventional life experiences including marriage and child bearing was evident. Sub-themes around desired pregnancies included: sense of identity with other SCCY, sense of hope, male ego, lineage, source of income, and avoiding stigmatization. The desire for children was highly gendered with male SCCY more focused on their social status in the street community, while for females it was primarily for survival on the street. Female SCCY generally lacked agency around reproductive health issues and faced gender-based violence. Abortions (either assisted or self-induced), infanticide, and child abandonment were reported. Respondents described a lucrative market for babies born to SCCY and alleged that healthcare workers were known to abduct these babies following hospital deliveries.Our findings indicate gender differences in the reasons why SCCY become pregnant and have children. We also noted gender inequalities in reproductive health decisions. SCCY friendly interventions that provide tailored reproductive health services are needed.
Project description:This study aimed at assessing clients' satisfaction and associated factors among adults. A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on 420 clients of Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College from 1 June 2016 to 1 July 2016. Data was entered, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Data was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model to find out the most significant predictors for clients satisfaction with outpatient services at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College.This study showed that the overall clients' satisfaction level towards out-patient health service at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College was 47% at 95% CI (42.5, 51.7%). The most frequently identified problems were: lack of clean toilet in nearby the waiting areas, lack of waiting area particularly at pharmacy, inadequate furniture like chair, lack of adequate drugs and supplies, lack of privacy at the examination room, lack of direction signs, and poor communication between clients and health service providers. In conclusion the overall satisfaction level of the patients is low, so this demands the Hospital to take further action on the identified problems to improve the services delivered to the patients.
Project description:Public health resources are often deployed in developing countries by foreign governments, national governments, civil society and the private health clinics, but seldom in ways that are coordinated within a particular community or population. The lack of coordination results in inefficiencies and suboptimal results. Organizational network analysis can reveal how organizations interact with each other and provide insights into means of realizing better public health results from the resources already deployed. Our objective in this study was to identify the missed opportunities for the integration of HIV care and family planning services and to inform future network strengthening.In two sub-cities of Addis Ababa, we identified each organization providing either HIV care or family planning services. We interviewed representatives of each of them about exchanges of clients with each of the others. With network analysis, we identified network characteristics in each sub-city network, such as referral density and centrality; and gaps in the referral patterns. The results were shared with representatives from the organizations.The two networks were of similar size (25 and 26 organizations) and had referral densities of 0.115 and 0.155 out of a possible range from 0 (none) to 1.0 (all possible connections). Two organizations in one sub-city did not refer HIV clients to a family planning organization. One organization in one sub-city and seven in the other offered few HIV services and did not refer clients to any other HIV service provider. Representatives from the networks confirmed the results reflected their experience and expressed an interest in establishing more links between organizations.Because of organizations not working together, women in the two sub-cities were at risk of not receiving needed family planning or HIV care services. Facilitating referrals among a few organizations that are most often working in isolation could remediate the problem, but the overall referral densities suggests that improved connections throughout might benefit conditions in addition to HIV and family planning that need service integration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2005, Ethiopia changed its abortion law to curb its high maternal mortality. This has led to a considerable reduction in deaths from unsafe abortions. Abortion is now legal if the woman's pregnancy is a result of rape or incest, if her health is endangered, if the fetus has a serious deformity, if she suffers from a physical or mental deficiency, or if she is under 18 years of age. The word of the woman, if in compliance with the law, is sufficient to qualify for an abortion. In this context, where the law makes the door slightly open, health workers become important in deciding who gets access to safe services and who doesn't, thus creating considerable ethical dilemmas. METHODS:The objective of this study was to explore abortion service providers' personal experiences and reflections, perceptions of the abortion law, and ethical and dilemmas that arise. Data collection took place from March to May 2016 in Addis Ababa, at different health clinics providing abortion services. Thirty in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with 41 abortion service providers at governmental and non-governmental clinics. Content analysis was drawn upon in the interpretation of the findings. RESULTS:When working in a context where the law has slightly opened the door for abortion seeking women, the health workers describe conflicting concerns, burdensome responsibilities, and ambiguity concerning how to interpret and implement the law. They describe efforts to balance their religious faith and values against their professional obligations and concern for women's health and well-being. This negotiation is particularly evident in the care of women who fall outside the law's indications. They usually handle ethical dilemmas and decision-making alone without guidance. Moreover, many health workers face a stigma from fellow colleagues not performing abortions and therefore keep their job a secret from family and friends. CONCLUSIONS:Health workers in Ethiopia experience ethical dilemmas trying to maneuver between the abortion law, their personal values, and their genuine concern for the health of women. More research is needed to further explore this.
Project description:Background Youth continue to fall victim to sexual and reproductive health problems. Despite, reproductive health needs of youth had been supported by different organizations, utilization of those services is low. All efforts have not been felt across the Ethiopian learning institutions as is evidenced by persistent reproductive health problems. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of youth friendly sexual and reproductive health service utilization and associated factors among high and preparatory school youths in Debre Tabor town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution based cross- sectional study was conducted from March 1 to 28, 2016. The data were collected using a pre-tested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling method was used to select the study participants. The data were entered into Epi-data version 184.108.40.206 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Binary logistics regression was used for analysis. Odds ratio along with 95%CI was estimated to measure the strength of the association. Level of statistical significance was declared at p value ?0.05. Results Overall utilization of reproductive health service was 28.8%. Being male (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.25), prior discussion on reproductive health issues (AOR = 6.33, 95% CI: 4.22, 9.51), and previous sexual intercourse within the past one year (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.44) were significantly associated with youth friendly health service utilization. Conclusions Youth friendly health service utilization among high school and preparatory students in Debre Tabor town was low. Ensuring gender empowerment and advocating sexual and reproductive service discussion among themselves and with others might be important in improving reproductive health utilization and health. Future researcher should address segment of population who does not enter school.