Biochemical, Kinetic, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Ruegeria pomeroyi DddW--A Mononuclear Iron-Dependent DMSP Lyase.
ABSTRACT: The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a key nutrient in marine environments and its catabolism by bacteria through enzymes known as DMSP lyases generates dimethylsulfide (DMS), a gas of importance in climate regulation, the sulfur cycle, and signaling to higher organisms. Despite the environmental significance of DMSP lyases, little is known about how they function at the mechanistic level. In this study we biochemically characterize DddW, a DMSP lyase from the model roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3. DddW is a 16.9 kDa enzyme that contains a C-terminal cupin domain and liberates acrylate, a proton, and DMS from the DMSP substrate. Our studies show that as-purified DddW is a metalloenzyme, like the DddQ and DddP DMSP lyases, but contains an iron cofactor. The metal cofactor is essential for DddW DMSP lyase activity since addition of the metal chelator EDTA abolishes its enzymatic activity, as do substitution mutations of key metal-binding residues in the cupin motif (His81, His83, Glu87, and His121). Measurements of metal binding affinity and catalytic activity indicate that Fe(II) is most likely the preferred catalytic metal ion with a nanomolar binding affinity. Stoichiometry studies suggest DddW requires one Fe(II) per monomer. Electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show an interaction between NO and Fe(II)-DddW, with NO binding to the EPR silent Fe(II) site giving rise to an EPR active species (g = 4.29, 3.95, 2.00). The change in the rhombicity of the EPR signal is observed in the presence of DMSP, indicating that substrate binds to the iron site without displacing bound NO. This work provides insight into the mechanism of DMSP cleavage catalyzed by DddW.
Project description:Marine microbes degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is produced in large quantities by marine algae and plants, with DMSP lyases into acrylate and the gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Approximately 10% of the DMS vents from the sea into the atmosphere and this emission returns sulfur, which arrives in the sea through rivers and runoff, back to terrestrial systems via clouds and rain. Despite their key role in this sulfur cycle DMSP lyases are poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of the putative DMSP lyase RdDddP from Roseobacter denitrificans, which belongs to the abundant DddP family. This structure, determined to 2.15 Å resolution, shows that RdDddP is a homodimeric metalloprotein with a binuclear center of two metal ions located 2.7 Å apart in the active site of the enzyme. Consistent with the crystallographic data, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF) revealed the bound metal species to be primarily iron. A 3D structure guided analysis of environmental DddP lyase sequences elucidated the critical residues for metal binding are invariant, suggesting all proteins in the DddP family are metalloenzymes.
Project description:The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in petagram quantities in marine environments and has important roles in global sulfur and carbon cycling. Many marine microorganisms catabolize DMSP via DMSP lyases, generating the climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS oxidation products participate in forming cloud condensation nuclei and, thus, may influence weather and climate. SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant marine heterotrophic bacteria; many of them contain the DMSP lyase DddK, and their dddK transcripts are relatively abundant in seawater. In a recently described catalytic mechanism for DddK, Tyr64 is predicted to act as the catalytic base initiating the ?-elimination reaction of DMSP. Tyr64 was proposed to be deprotonated by coordination to the metal cofactor or its neighboring His96. To further probe this mechanism, we purified and characterized the DddK protein from Pelagibacter ubique strain HTCC1062 and determined the crystal structures of wild-type DddK and its Y64A and Y122A mutants (bearing a change of Y to A at position 64 or 122, respectively), where the Y122A mutant is complexed with DMSP. The structural and mutational analyses largely support the catalytic role of Tyr64, but not the method of its deprotonation. Our data indicate that an active water molecule in the active site of DddK plays an important role in the deprotonation of Tyr64 and that this is far more likely than coordination to the metal or His96. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the proposed catalytic mechanism of DddK has universal significance. Our results provide new mechanistic insights into DddK and enrich our understanding of DMS generation by SAR11 bacteria.IMPORTANCE The climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) plays an important role in global sulfur cycling and atmospheric chemistry. DMS is mainly produced through the bacterial cleavage of marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). When released into the atmosphere from the oceans, DMS can be photochemically oxidized into DMSO or sulfate aerosols, which form cloud condensation nuclei that influence the reflectivity of clouds and, thereby, global temperature. SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant marine heterotrophic bacteria, and many of them contain DMSP lyase DddK to cleave DMSP, generating DMS. In this study, based on structural analyses and mutational assays, we revealed the catalytic mechanism of DddK, which has universal significance in SAR11 bacteria. This study provides new insights into the catalytic mechanism of DddK, leading to a better understanding of how SAR11 bacteria generate DMS.
Project description:The microbial cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) generates volatile DMS through the action of DMSP lyases and is important in the global sulfur and carbon cycles. When released into the atmosphere from the oceans, DMS is oxidized, forming cloud condensation nuclei that may influence weather and climate. Six different DMSP lyase genes are found in taxonomically diverse microorganisms, and dddQ is among the most abundant in marine metagenomes. Here, we examine the molecular mechanism of DMSP cleavage by the DMSP lyase, DddQ, from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI_1157. The structures of DddQ bound to an inhibitory molecule 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and of DddQ inactivated by a Tyr131Ala mutation and bound to DMSP were solved. DddQ adopts a ?-barrel fold structure and contains a Zn(2+) ion and six highly conserved hydrophilic residues (Tyr120, His123, His125, Glu129, Tyr131, and His163) in the active site. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate that these hydrophilic residues are essential to catalysis. In particular, Tyr131 undergoes a conformational change during catalysis, acting as a base to initiate the ?-elimination reaction in DMSP lysis. Moreover, structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that two loops over the substrate-binding pocket of DddQ can alternate between "open" and "closed" states, serving as a gate for DMSP entry. We also propose a molecular mechanism for DMS production through DMSP cleavage. Our study provides important insight into the mechanism involved in the conversion of DMSP into DMS, which should lead to a better understanding of this globally important biogeochemical reaction.
Project description:Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 is a model Roseobacter marine bacterium, particularly regarding its catabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an abundant anti-stress molecule made by marine phytoplankton. We found a novel gene, dddW, which encodes a DMSP lyase that cleaves DMSP into acrylate plus the environmentally important volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Mutations in dddW reduced, but did not abolish DMS production. Transcription of dddW was greatly enhanced by pre-growth of cells with DMSP, via a LysR-type regulator. Close DddW homologs occur in only one other Roseobacter species, and there are no close homologs and only a few related sequences in metagenomes of marine bacteria. In addition to DddW, R. pomeroyi DSS-3 had been shown to have two other, different, DMSP lyases, DddP and DddQ, plus an enzyme that demethylates DMSP, emphasizing the importance of this substrate for this model bacterium.
Project description:The abundant compatible solute dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is made by many marine algae. Different marine bacteria catabolise DMSP by various mechanisms, some of which liberate the environmentally important gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). We describe an enzyme, DddY, which cleaves DMSP into DMS plus acrylate and is located in the bacterial periplasm, unlike other DMSP lyases that catalyse this reaction. There are dddY-like genes in strains of Alcaligenes, Arcobacter and Shewanella, in the ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria, respectively. In Alcaligenes, dddY is in a cluster of ddd and acu genes that resemble, but also have significant differences to, those in other bacteria that catabolise both DMSP and acrylate. Although production of DMS and transcription of Alcaligenes dddY are both apparently inducible by pre-growth of cells with DMSP, this substrate must be catabolised to form acrylate, the bona fide coinducer.
Project description:The compatible solute dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), made by many marine organisms, is one of Earth's most abundant organosulfur molecules. Many marine bacteria import DMSP and can degrade it as a source of carbon and/or sulfur via DMSP cleavage or DMSP demethylation pathways, which can generate the climate active gases dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methanthiol (MeSH), respectively. Here we used culture-dependent and -independent methods to study bacteria catabolizing DMSP in the East China Sea (ECS). Of bacterial isolates, 42.11% showed DMSP-dependent DMS (Ddd+) activity, and 12.28% produced detectable levels of MeSH. Interestingly, although most Ddd+ isolates were Alphaproteobacteria (mainly Roseobacters), many gram-positive Actinobacteria were also shown to cleave DMSP producing DMS. The mechanism by which these Actinobacteria cleave DMSP is unknown, since no known functional ddd genes have been identified in genome sequences of Ddd+ Microbacterium and Agrococcus isolates or in any other sequenced Actinobacteria genomes. Gene probes to the DMSP demethylation gene dmdA and the DMSP lyase gene dddP demonstrated that these DMSP-degrading genes are abundant and widely distributed in ECS seawaters. dmdA was present in relatively high proportions in both surface (19.53% ± 6.70%) and bottom seawater bacteria (16.00% ± 8.73%). In contrast, dddP abundance positively correlated with chlorophyll a, and gradually decreased with the distance from land, which implies that the bacterial DMSP lyase gene dddP might be from bacterial groups that closely associate with phytoplankton. Bacterial community analysis showed positive correlations between Rhodobacteraceae abundance and concentrations of DMS and DMSP, further confirming the link between this abundant bacterial class and the environmental DMSP cycling.
Project description:Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a climatically active gas released into the atmosphere from oceans. It is produced mainly by bacterial enzymatic cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and six DMSP lyases have been identified to date. To determine the biogeographical distribution of bacteria relevant to DMS production, we investigated the diversity of dddP—the most abundant DMS-producing gene—in the northwestern Pacific Ocean using newly developed primers and the pyrosequencing method. Consistent with previous studies, the major dddP-containing bacteria in coastal areas were those belonging to the Roseobacter clade. However, genotypes closely related to the SAR116 group were found to represent a large portion of dddP-containing bacteria in the surface waters of the oligotrophic ocean. The addition of DMSP to a culture of the SAR116 strain Candidatus Puniceispirillum marinum IMCC1322 resulted in the production of DMS and upregulated expression of the dddP gene. Considering the large area of oligotrophic water and the wide distribution of the SAR116 group in oceans worldwide, we propose that these bacteria may play an important role in oceanic DMS production and biogeochemical sulfur cycles, especially via bacteria-mediated DMSP degradation.
Project description:Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is mainly produced by marine phytoplankton but is released into the microbial food web and degraded by marine bacteria to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other products. To reveal the abundance and distribution of bacterial DMSP degradation genes and the corresponding bacterial communities in relation to DMS and DMSP concentrations in seawater, we collected surface seawater samples from DMS hot spot sites during a cruise across the Pacific Ocean. We analyzed the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA), which are responsible for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and DMSP assimilation, respectively. The averaged abundance (±standard deviation) of these DMSP degradation genes relative to that of the 16S rRNA genes was 33% ± 12%. The abundances of these genes showed large spatial variations. dddP genes showed more variation in abundances than dmdA genes. Multidimensional analysis based on the abundances of DMSP degradation genes and environmental factors revealed that the distribution pattern of these genes was influenced by chlorophyll a concentrations and temperatures. dddP genes, dmdA subclade C/2 genes, and dmdA subclade D genes exhibited significant correlations with the marine Roseobacter clade, SAR11 subgroup Ib, and SAR11 subgroup Ia, respectively. SAR11 subgroups Ia and Ib, which possessed dmdA genes, were suggested to be the main potential DMSP consumers. The Roseobacter clade members possessing dddP genes in oligotrophic subtropical regions were possible DMS producers. These results suggest that DMSP degradation genes are abundant and widely distributed in the surface seawater and that the marine bacteria possessing these genes influence the degradation of DMSP and regulate the emissions of DMS in subtropical gyres of the Pacific Ocean.
Project description:Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important component of the global sulfur cycle as it is the most abundant sulfur compound that is emitted via the ocean surface to the atmosphere. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of DMS, is mainly produced by phytoplankton and is degraded by marine bacteria. To reveal the role of bacteria in the regulation of DMSP degradation and DMS production, mesocosm and field studies were performed in the Sanriku Coast on the Pacific Ocean in northeast Japan. The responsible bacteria for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and the assimilation of DMSP were monitored, and the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddD and dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA) were analyzed. The mesocosm study showed that the dmdA subclade D was the dominant DMSP degradation gene in the free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) fractions. The dddD gene was found in higher abundance than the dddP gene in all the tested samples. Most importantly, DMS concentration was positively correlated with the abundance of the dddD gene. These results indicated that bacteria possessing dmdA and dddD genes were the major contributors to the DMSP degradation and DMS production, respectively. The genes dmdA subclade D and dddP were abundant in the Tsugaru Warm (TW) Current, while the dmdA subclade C/2 and dddD genes were dominant in the Oyashio (OY) Current. Functional gene network analysis also showed that the DMSP degradation genes were divided into OY and TW Current-related modules, and genes sharing similar functions were clustered in the same module. Our data suggest that environmental fluctuations resulted in habitat filtering and niche partitioning of bacteria possessing DMSP degradation genes. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the distribution and abundance of DMSP degradation genes in a coastal region with different water current systems.
Project description:Marine phytoplankton produce ~109 tons of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) per year, an estimated 10% of which is catabolized by bacteria through the DMSP cleavage pathway to the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria (order Pelagibacterales), the most abundant chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the oceans, have been shown to assimilate DMSP into biomass, thereby supplying this cell’s unusual requirement for reduced sulfur. Here we report that Pelagibacter HTCC1062 produces the gas methanethiol (MeSH) and that simultaneously a second DMSP catabolic pathway, mediated by a DMSP lyase, shunts as much as 59% of DMSP uptake to DMS production. We propose a model in which the allocation of DMSP between these pathways is kinetically controlled to release DMS when the supply of DMSP exceeds cellular sulfur demands for biosynthesis. These findings suggest that DMSP supply and demand relationships can significantly control rates of oceanic DMS production.