A new GWAS and meta-analysis with 1000Genomes imputation identifies novel risk variants for colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified 23 susceptibility loci thus far. Analyses of previously conducted GWAS indicate additional risk loci are yet to be discovered. To identify novel CRC susceptibility loci, we conducted a new GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with five published GWAS (totalling 7,577 cases and 9,979 controls of European ancestry), imputing genotypes utilising the 1000 Genomes Project. The combined analysis identified new, significant associations with CRC at 1p36.2 marked by rs72647484 (minor allele frequency [MAF]?=?0.09) near CDC42 and WNT4 (P?=?1.21?×?10(-8), odds ratio [OR]?=?1.21 ) and at 16q24.1 marked by rs16941835 (MAF?=?0.21, P?=?5.06?×?10(-8); OR?=?1.15) within the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RP11-58A18.1 and ~500?kb from the nearest coding gene FOXL1. Additionally we identified a promising association at 10p13 with rs10904849 intronic to CUBN (MAF?=?0.32, P?=?7.01?×?10(-8); OR?=?1.14). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC. Additionally, our analysis further demonstrates that imputation can be used to exploit GWAS data to identify novel disease-causing variants.
Project description:Although more than 20 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported for type 2 diabetes (T2D), most reported variants have small to moderate effects and account for only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D, suggesting that the majority of inter-person genetic variation in this disease remains to be determined. We conducted a multistage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) within the Asian Consortium of Diabetes to search for T2D susceptibility markers. From 590,887 SNPs genotyped in 1,019 T2D cases and 1,710 controls selected from Chinese women in Shanghai, we selected the top 2,100 SNPs that were not in linkage disequilibrium (r(2)<0.2) with known T2D loci for in silico replication in three T2D GWAS conducted among European Americans, Koreans, and Singapore Chinese. The 5 most promising SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of 1,645 cases and 1,649 controls from Shanghai, and 4 of them were further genotyped in 1,487 cases and 3,316 controls from 2 additional Chinese studies. Consistent associations across all studies were found for rs1359790 (13q31.1), rs10906115 (10p13), and rs1436955 (15q22.2) with P-values (per allele OR, 95%CI) of 6.49 × 10(-9) (1.15, 1.10-1.20), 1.45 × 10(-8) (1.13, 1.08-1.18), and 7.14 × 10(-7) (1.13, 1.08-1.19), respectively, in combined analyses of 9,794 cases and 14,615 controls. Our study provides strong evidence for a novel T2D susceptibility locus at 13q31.1 and the presence of new independent risk variants near regions (10p13 and 15q22.2) reported by previous GWAS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. METHODS:We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.
Project description:Over 50 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying additional loci has the potential to help elucidate aspects of the underlying biological processes leading to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. We re-evaluated a GWAS by excluding controls that have family history of CRC or personal history of colorectal polyps, as we hypothesized that their inclusion reduces power to detect associations. This is supported empirically and through simulations. Two-phase GWAS analysis was performed in a total of 16,517 cases and 14,487 controls. We identified rs17094983, a SNP associated with risk of CRC [p = 2.5 × 10(-10); odds ratio estimated by re-including all controls (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.91; minor allele frequency (MAF) = 13%]. Results were replicated in samples of African descent (1894 cases and 4703 controls; p = 0.01; OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.97; MAF = 16 %). Gene expression data in 195 colon adenocarcinomas and 59 normal colon tissues from two different studies revealed that this locus has genotypes that are associated with RTN1 (Reticulon 1) expression (p = 0.001), a protein-coding gene involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells which is highly expressed in normal colon tissues but has significantly reduced expression in tumor cells (p = 1.3 × 10(-8)).
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful new approach to identify common, low-penetrance susceptibility loci without prior knowledge of biologic function. Results from three GWAS conducted in populations of European ancestry are available for colorectal cancer (CRC). These studies have identified 11 disease loci that, for the majority, were not previously suspected to be related to CRC. The proportions of the familial and population risks explained by these loci are small and they currently are not useful for risk prediction. However, the power of these studies was low, indicating that a number of other loci may be identified in new ongoing GWAS, and in pooled analyses. Thus, the risk prediction ability of susceptibility markers identified in GWAS for CRC may improve as more variants are discovered. This may, in turn, have important implications for targeting high-risk individuals for colonoscopy screening.
Project description:Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several common susceptibility loci associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether these loci affect clinical outcomes of CRC is not clear. In this study, we genotyped 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 GWAS-identified CRC susceptibility regions and evaluated their associations with survival and recurrence in 285 stage II and III patients receiving fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Only one SNP, rs10318 (15q13.3), was significantly associated with recurrence for patients with stage II disease. Three SNPs: rs10749971 (11q23.1), rs961253 (20p12.3) and rs355527 (20p12.3) in two regions were significantly associated with recurrence for patients with stage III disease. Five SNPs: rs961253 (20p12.3), rs355527 (20p12.3), rs4464148 (18q21.1), rs6983267 (8q24.21) and rs10505477 (8q24.21) in three regions were significantly associated with survival for patients with stage III disease. Cumulative effects of multiple unfavorable genotypes were observed for recurrence and survival in patients with stage III CRC. Our results suggest that cancer susceptibility loci may also affect the prognosis of CRC patients receiving fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are the most commonly diagnosed cancers and cancer-related causes of death in Poland. To date, numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility to both cancer types have been identified, but their effect on disease risk may differ among populations. METHODS: To identify new SNPs associated with PCa and CRC in the Polish population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA sample pools on Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays. A total of 135 PCa patients and 270 healthy men (PCa sub-study) and 525 patients with adenoma (AD), 630 patients with CRC and 690 controls (AD/CRC sub-study) were included in the analysis. Allele frequency distributions were compared with t-tests and ?(2)-tests. Only those significantly associated SNPs with a proxy SNP (p<0.001; distance of 100 kb; r(2)>0.7) were selected. GWAS marker selection was conducted using PLINK. The study was replicated using extended cohorts of patients and controls. The association with previously reported PCa and CRC susceptibility variants was also examined. Individual patients were genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. RESULTS: The GWAS selected six and 24 new candidate SNPs associated with PCa and CRC susceptibility, respectively. In the replication study, 17 of these associations were confirmed as significant in additive model of inheritance. Seven of them remained significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Additionally, 17 previously reported risk variants have been identified, five of which remained significant after correction. CONCLUSION: Pooled-DNA GWAS enabled the identification of new susceptibility loci for CRC in the Polish population. Previously reported CRC and PCa predisposition variants were also identified, validating the global nature of their associations. Further independent replication studies are required to confirm significance of the newly uncovered candidate susceptibility loci.
Project description:To identify new risk loci for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with independent replication, totalling 13 656 CRC cases and 21 667 controls of European ancestry. The combined analysis identified a new risk association for CRC at 2q35 marked by rs992157 (P = 3.15 × 10-8, odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.13), which is intronic to PNKD (paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia) and TMBIM1 (transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1). Intriguingly this susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.90, D' = 0.96) with the previously discovered GWAS SNP rs2382817 for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Following on from this observation we examined for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, between CRC and the 200 established IBD risk loci, identifying an additional 11 significant associations (false discovery rate [FDR]) < 0.05). Our findings provide further insight into the biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC, and identify risk factors that may influence the development of both CRC and IBD.
Project description:Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ?185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) and 2.7 million low-frequency (0.005 < MAF < 0.05) variants. In addition to confirming most known CAD-associated loci, we identified ten new loci (eight additive and two recessive) that contain candidate causal genes newly implicating biological processes in vessel walls. We observed intralocus allelic heterogeneity but little evidence of low-frequency variants with larger effects and no evidence of synthetic association. Our analysis provides a comprehensive survey of the fine genetic architecture of CAD, showing that genetic susceptibility to this common disease is largely determined by common SNPs of small effect size.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of complex aetiology, with much of the expected inherited risk being due to several common low risk variants. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified 20 CRC risk variants. Nevertheless, these have only been able to explain part of the missing heritability. Moreover, these signals have only been inspected in populations of Northern European origin.Thus, we followed the same approach in a Spanish cohort of 881 cases and 667 controls. Sixty-four variants at 24 loci were found to be associated with CRC at p-values <10-5. We therefore evaluated the 24 loci in another Spanish replication cohort (1481 cases and 1850 controls). Two of these SNPs, rs12080929 at 1p33 (Preplication=0.042; Ppooled=5.523x10-03; OR (CI95%)=0.866(0.782-0.959)) and rs11987193 at 8p12 (Preplication=0.039; Ppooled=6.985x10-5; OR (CI95%)=0.786(0.705-0.878)) were replicated in the second Phase, although they did not reach genome-wide statistical significance.We have performed the first CRC GWAS in a Southern European population and by these means we were able to identify two new susceptibility variants at 1p33 and 8p12 loci. These two SNPs are located near the SLC5A9 and DUSP4 loci, respectively, which could be good functional candidates for the association signals. We therefore believe that these two markers constitute good candidates for CRC susceptibility loci and should be further evaluated in other larger datasets. Moreover, we highlight that were these two SNPs true susceptibility variants, they would constitute a decrease in the CRC missing heritability fraction.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported a number of loci harboring common variants that influence risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in European descent. But all the SNPs identified explained a small fraction of total heritability. To identify more genetic factors that modify the risk of CRC, especially Chinese Han specific, we conducted a three-stage GWAS including a screening stage (932 CRC cases and 966 controls) and two independent validations (Stage 2: 1,759 CRC cases and 1,875 controls; Stage 3: 943 CRC cases and 1,838 controls). In the combined analyses, we discovered two novel loci associated with CRC: rs12522693 at 5q23.3 (CDC42SE2-CHSY3, OR = 1.31, P = 2.08 × 10-8) and rs17836917 at 17q12 (ASIC2-CCL2, OR = 0.75, P = 4.55 × 10-8). Additionally, we confirmed two previously reported risk loci, rs6983267 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.17, P = 7.17 × 10-7) and rs10795668 at 10p14 (OR = 0.86, P = 2.96 × 10-6) in our cohorts. These results bring further insights into the CRC susceptibility and advance our understanding on etiology of CRC.