Forced smoking abstinence: not enough for smoking cessation.
ABSTRACT: Millions of Americans are forced to quit smoking as they enter tobacco-free prisons and jails, but most return to smoking within days of release. Interventions are needed to sustain tobacco abstinence after release from incarceration.To evaluate the extent to which the WISE intervention (Working Inside for Smoking Elimination), based on motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), decreases relapse to smoking after release from a smoke-free prison.Participants were recruited approximately 8 weeks prior to their release from a smoke-free prison and randomized to 6 weekly sessions of either education videos (control) or the WISE intervention.A tobacco-free prison in the United States.A total of 262 inmates (35% female).Continued smoking abstinence was defined as 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine measurement.At the 3-week follow-up, 25% of participants in the WISE intervention (31 of 122) and 7% of the control participants (9 of 125) continued to be tobacco abstinent (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% CI, 2.0-9.7). In addition to the intervention, Hispanic ethnicity, a plan to remain abstinent, and being incarcerated for more than 6 months were all associated with increased likelihood of remaining abstinent. In the logistic regression analysis, participants randomized to the WISE intervention were 6.6 times more likely to remain tobacco abstinent at the 3-week follow up than those randomized to the control condition (95% CI, 2.5-17.0). Nonsmokers at the 3-week follow-up had an additional follow-up 3 months after release, and overall 12% of the participants in the WISE intervention (14 of 122) and 2% of the control participants (3 of 125) were tobacco free at 3 months, as confirmed by urine cotinine measurement (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-23.8).Forced tobacco abstinence alone during incarceration has little impact on postrelease smoking status. A behavioral intervention provided prior to release greatly improves cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the community.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01122589.
Project description:In the United States, tobacco use among prisoners is nearly three times that of the general population. While many American prisons and jails are now tobacco-free, nearly all inmates return to smoking as soon as they are released back into the community.To better understand the role that personal relationships may play in enabling return to smoking, we enrolled former-smokers who were inmates in a tobacco-free prison. Baseline assessments were conducted six weeks prior to inmates' scheduled release and included measures of smoking prior to incarceration, motivation, confidence and plans for remaining quit after release. We also assessed global social support (ISEL) and a measure of social support specific to quitting smoking (SSQ). Smoking status was assessed three weeks after prison release and included 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine, days to first cigarette and smoking rate.A diverse sample comprised of 35% women, 20% Hispanic, and 29% racial minorities (average age 35.5 years) provided baseline data (n = 247). Over 90% of participants provided follow up data at 3-weeks post-release. Prior to incarceration participants had smoked an average of 21.5 (SD = 11.7) cigarettes per day. Only 29.2% had definite plans to remain smoking-abstinent after release. Approximately half of all participants reported that "most" or "all" of their family (42.2%) and friends (68%) smoked, and 58.8% reported their spouse or romantic partner smoked.SSQ scores were not significantly predictive of smoking outcomes at three weeks, however, social support from family and friends were each significantly and positively correlated with motivation, confidence, and plans for remaining abstinent (all p values <0.05). These smoking-related attitudinal variables were significantly predictive of smoking outcomes (all p values <0.01). General social support (ISEL) was not associated with smoking-related attitudinal variables or smoking outcomes.Inmates of smoke-free prisons have a head-start on being smoke-free for life. They have been abstinent well past the duration of nicotine withdrawal and have great financial incentive not to begin smoking again. However, this advantage may be offset by a lack of non-smoking role models among their family and friends, and perceived lack of support for remaining smoke-free.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01684995.
Project description:Studies examining the efficacy of tobacco dependence treatment among recovering alcoholic smokers have produced mixed findings. We set out to investigate this issue further by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion sustained-release (SR) for smoking relapse prevention among abstinent alcoholic smokers.Participants (N = 195) met DSM-IV criteria for a history of alcohol abuse or dependence and had at least 1 year of continuous abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Open-label treatment with nicotine patch therapy was provided to all subjects for 8 weeks. The initial nicotine patch dose was determined by the subject's baseline serum cotinine concentration with an aim to achieve 100% cotinine replacement. All subjects who were confirmed abstinent from smoking throughout the final week of nicotine patch therapy (Week 8) were randomly assigned to receive bupropion SR 300 mg/day or placebo through Week 52.A total of 110 participants were randomized to the double-blind treatment. No significant difference was observed between the bupropion and placebo groups for rates of continuous smoking abstinence, 41.1% (95% CI = 28.1%-55.0%) versus 40.7% (95% CI = 27.6%-55.0%), respectively, p = 1.0, or point prevalence abstinence, 39.3% (95% CI = 26.5%-53.3%) versus 40.7% (95% CI = 27.6%-55.0%), respectively, p = 1.0, at the end of the treatment (Week 52). Relapse to alcohol occurred in 4% of subjects (n = 4) during the study.Treatment with bupropion SR among abstinent alcoholic smokers did not delay relapse or result in improved long-term smoking abstinence.
Project description:Contingency management (CM) is associated with decreases in off-target drug and alcohol use during primary target treatment. The primary hypothesis for this trial was that targeting alcohol use or tobacco smoking would yield increased abstinence in the opposite, nontargeted drug. We used a 2 [CM vs. noncontingent control (NC) for alcohol]×2 (CM vs. NC for smoking tobacco) factorial design, with alcohol intake (through urinary ethyl glucuronide) and tobacco smoking (through urinary cotinine) as the primary outcomes. Thirty-four heavy-drinking smokers were randomized into one of four groups, wherein they received CM, or equivalent NC reinforcement, for alcohol abstinence, smoking abstinence, both drugs, or neither drug. The CM for alcohol and tobacco group had only two participants and therefore was not included in analysis. Compared with the NC for alcohol and tobacco smoking group, both the CM for the tobacco smoking group [odds ratio (OR)=12.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50-96.31] and the CM for the alcohol group (OR=37.55; 95% CI: 4.86-290.17) submitted significantly more tobacco-abstinent urinalyses. Similarly, compared with the NC for the alcohol and tobacco group, both the CM for smoking (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.00-6.60) and the CM for alcohol groups (OR=3.96; 95% CI: 1.47-10.62) submitted significantly more alcohol-abstinent urinalyses. These data indicate cross-over effects of CM on indirect treatment targets. Although this is a pilot investigation, it could help to inform the design of novel treatments for alcohol and tobacco co-addiction.
Project description:Prior studies by our group demonstrated the efficacy of a brief but intensive behavioral intervention for producing initial smoking abstinence among opioid-dependent patients. In the present study, our aim was to promote longer-duration abstinence in this population. Following an initial 2-week incentive intervention for smoking abstinence, we examined whether a 10-week maintenance arm involving continuation of contingent reinforcement will produce greater smoking abstinence than a similar duration of noncontingent reinforcement.Randomized, 12-week, parallel-group study.Out-patient research clinic in Burlington, Vermont, USA.Opioid-maintained smokers (n = 88) who provided breath carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine specimens and received contingent reinforcement for smoking abstinence during weeks 1-2 (phase 1), with 63 randomized on day 14 to an extended contingent (EC; n = 31) or extended noncontingent (EN; n = 32) experimental condition for weeks 3-12 (phase 2).The EC condition consisted of voucher values that escalated across consecutive negative samples until they reached $30, after which they remained at $30 per negative sample. A positive or a missing sample resulted in no vouchers for that day and reset the value of the next negative same to $9. Two consecutive negatives returned the schedule to the pre-reset value. The EN control condition consisted of vouchers delivered for providing scheduled samples, but independent of smoking status.The primary outcome was percentage of biochemically abstinent samples during phase 2. Secondary measures included abstinence status at final study visit, complete abstinence, participants' longest duration of continuous abstinence, cotinine and carbon monoxide (CO) levels and self-reported cigarettes per day.EC participants achieved greater smoking abstinence during phase 2 than EN participants [46.7 versus 23.5% negative samples, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-7.65, ?(2) 1 (=) 5.0, P = 0.02]. When longest duration of continuous abstinence was compared between experimental groups, EC participants achieved twice the mean duration of continuous abstinence compared with EN participants (3.31 versus 1.68 weeks; t61 = 1.83, P = 0.07). An effect of experimental condition was also seen on mean cotinine levels (42.5 versus 210.6 ng/ml, respectively; F1,61 =5.9, P = 0.02).Among opioid-maintained smokers receiving an initial period of daily contingent incentives, a contingent reinforcement intervention appears to be more effective at extending smoking abstinence than noncontingent reinforcement over 10 weeks.
Project description:Implementation of evidence-based interventions for smoking during pregnancy is challenging. We developed 2 highly replicable interventions for smoking during pregnancy: (a) a computer-delivered 5As-based brief intervention (CD-5As) and (b) a computer-assisted, simplified, and low-intensity contingency management (CM-Lite).A sample of 110 primarily Black pregnant women reporting smoking in the past week were recruited from prenatal care clinics and randomly assigned to CD-5As (n = 26), CM-Lite (n = 28), CD-5As plus CM-Lite (n = 30), or treatment as usual (n = 26). Self-report of smoking, urine cotinine, and breath CO were measured 10 weeks following randomization.Participants rated both interventions highly (e.g., 87.5% of CD-5As participants reported increases in likelihood of quitting), but most CM-Lite participants did not initiate reinforcement sessions and did not show increased abstinence. CD-5As led to increased abstinence as measured by cotinine (43.5% cotinine negative vs. 17.4%; odds ratio [OR] = 10.1, p = .02) but not for CO-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (30.4% abstinent vs. 8.7%; OR = 5.7, p = .06). Collapsing across CM-Lite status, participants receiving the CD-5As intervention were more likely to talk to a doctor or nurse about their smoking (60.5% vs. 30.8%; OR = 3.0, p = .02).Low-intensity participant-initiated CM did not affect smoking in this sample, but the CD-5As intervention was successful in increasing abstinence during pregnancy. Further research should seek to replicate these results in larger and more diverse samples. Should CD-5As continue to prove efficacious, it could greatly increase the proportion of pregnant smokers who receive an evidence-based brief intervention.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Compared with the general smoking population, low-income smokers face elevated challenges to success in evidence-based smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, their children bear increased disease burden. Understanding behavioral mechanisms related to successful reduction of child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) could inform future smoking interventions in vulnerable, underserved populations. METHODS:Smoking parents were recruited from pediatric clinics in low-income communities and randomized into a multilevel intervention including a pediatric clinic intervention framed in best clinical practice guidelines ("Ask, Advise, Refer" [AAR]) plus individualized telephone counseling (AAR + counseling), or AAR + control. Mediation analysis included treatment condition (independent variable), 12-month child cotinine (TSE biomarker, criterion), and four mediators: 3-month end-of-treatment self-efficacy to protect children from TSE and smoking urge coping skills, and 12-month perceived program (intra-treatment) support and bioverified smoking abstinence. Analyses controlled for baseline nicotine dependence, depressive symptoms, child age, and presence of other residential smokers. RESULTS:Participants (n = 327) included 83% women and 83% African Americans. Multilevel AAR + counseling was associated with significantly higher levels of all four mediators (ps < .05). Baseline nicotine dependence (p < .05), 3-month self-efficacy (p < .05) and 12-month bioverified smoking abstinence (p < .001) related significantly to 12-month child cotinine outcome. The indirect effects of AAR + counseling intervention on cotinine via self-efficacy for child TSE protection and smoking abstinence (ps < .05) suggested mediation through these pathways. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with AAR + control, multilevel AAR + counseling improved all putative mediators. Findings suggest that fostering TSE protection self-efficacy during intervention and encouraging parental smoking abstinence may be key to promoting long-term child TSE-reduction in populations of smokers with elevated challenges to quitting smoking. IMPLICATIONS:Pediatric harm reduction interventions to protect children of smokers from tobacco smoke have emerged to address tobacco-related health disparities in underserved populations. Low-income smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden and more difficulty with smoking behavior change in standard evidence-based interventions than the general population of smokers. Therefore, improving knowledge about putative behavioral mechanisms of smoking behavior change that results in lower child exposure risk could inform future intervention improvements.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of combining spinal manipulation (SM) with standard tobacco cessation counseling. METHODS:A randomized clinical trial was conducted. Participants in the intervention group received 2 months of counseling plus SM delivered by doctors of chiropractic, whereas control group participants received counseling alone. Primary outcome measures were smoking decreases and 7-day smoking abstinence as measured by a tobacco diary and urinary cotinine. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS:Recruitment proved to be difficult because of reluctance of participants to commit to a 2-month course of care. Ten participants completed this pilot study. Counseling plus SM group participants had greater improvement in the number of cigarettes smoked and urinary cotinine. Three participants achieved at least 7 days of tobacco abstinence, all in the counseling plus SM group. CONCLUSIONS:In this feasibility study, doctors of chiropractic appeared to be capable of conducting effective smoking cessation counseling. The preliminary information indicated that there may be some benefit for including chiropractic care in addition to counseling. Researchers conducting future studies that are adequately powered should consider using multiple locations and incentives adequate to recruit participants.
Project description:Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence.This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine.Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group.NCT01122589.
Project description:The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of two evidence-based tobacco quitlines in adult survivors of childhood cancer who regularly smoke cigarettes.A total of 519 adult survivors of childhood cancer were randomized to either Proactive + 4 weeks of medication (Counselor-initiated intervention, n = 260) or a Reactive + 2 weeks of medication (Participant-initiated intervention, n = 259) condition. Both conditions received telephone counseling to quit smoking as well as nicotine replacement therapy. The primary outcome was biochemically verified (i.e. cotinine) point prevalence smoking cessation at 12 months follow-up.Participants randomized to the Proactive + 4 weeks of medication condition self-reported a higher rate of cessation than those survivors in the Reactive + 2 weeks of medication condition at 8 weeks (33.2% vs. 17.0%, p < .001), but cessation rates were not significantly different at 12 months (23.0% vs. 18.7%, p = .29). However, 80% of participants claiming abstinence failed biochemical verification, indicating marked falsification of self-reported smoking status. Adjusted cessation rates were less than 2% in both intervention conditions.Our results indicate that neither a Proactive + 4 weeks of medication or Reactive + 2 weeks of medication quitline significantly impacted long-term smoking cessation rates. Our results further indicate that self-reports of smoking status are unreliable in survivors of childhood cancer, a population in considerable need of tobacco abstinence. Rates of smoking cessation may be markedly overestimated in studies of childhood cancer survivors that rely on self-reports of tobacco abstinence, and future studies need to include biochemical verification of tobacco status in this population.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adherence to pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, such as varenicline, is necessary for effective treatment. The relationship between varenicline adherence, determined by commonly used indirect (i.e., self-reported pill counts) and infrequently used direct (i.e., varenicline levels) methods, and abstinence outcomes have not been previously examined, nor has their impact on the outcomes of a genetically randomized clinical trial been assessed. METHODS:At Week 1 following target quit date, self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline levels were obtained from participants (N?=?376) in a smoking cessation clinical trial (NCT01314001). Point-prevalence abstinence was biochemically-verified by salivary cotinine at Week 1 and by exhaled carbon monoxide at Week 1, end-of-treatment, 6 and 12 months following treatment. Blood nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was obtained at baseline. RESULTS:Adherent individuals based on varenicline levels were significantly more likely to be abstinent than non-adherent individuals at Week 1 (odds ratios [ORs] 1.92-3.16, p's?0.006), end-of-treatment (OR?=?2.53, p?=?.004), and six months following treatment (OR?=?2.30, p?=?.03). In contrast, pill counts did not consistently predict abstinence. Including direct measures of adherence enhanced the association between rate of nicotine metabolism (NMR) and end-of-treatment abstinence; normal metabolizers (NMR???0.31) were significantly more likely than slow metabolizers (NMR?<?0.31) to be abstinent at end-of-treatment (OR?=?2.00, p?=?.005). CONCLUSION:Adherence based on salivary varenicline, rather than on pill counts, is predictive of Week 1 abstinence, irrespective of the biomarker of abstinence assessed, and of long-term abstinence. Direct measures of adherence enhance the ability to assess the impact of a biomarker or genetic marker on abstinence outcomes.